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guilty of disrespect, and was suspended from rank and pay for nine months. History exonerates Scott; still, his remark was a violation of discipline. During his suspension Scott returned to Petersburg and resumed his studies, not neglecting military works.
In 1811 he rejoined the army at Baton Rouge, where as judge advocate he strengthened bis knowledge of military law, and spent his leisure preparing himself for the New Orleans bar; but as the likelihood of war increased, he, with Gen. Hampton, embarked on May 20, 1812, for Washington. Scott was soon after promoted to lieutenantcolonel, and he reported to Brig.Gen. Alexander Smyth at Buffalo oti Oct. 4,1812.
Lieut. Elliot had undertaken to capture two British war vessels near Fort Erie, and Scott, with rwo companies—his first experience under fire—materially aided him. One of the British vessels >'as captured, the other was burned. His first battle of importance was at Queenstown Heignts, which was occupied by British troops and Indians. The object of the Americans was to seize these heights and hold them as an entering wedge to Canada. Lieut.Col. Scott eagerlv marched his command to Lewiston, but was restrained from crossing. After severe American losses Scott crossed, and assumed command on reaching the heights. The British being reinforced, the Americans were finally beaten, and Scott was forced to surrender (Oct. 13, 1812). The next year, after exchange, Scott became an adjutant-general and chief of staff to Gen. Dearborn, with the rank of colonel. Dearborn having determined to take Fort George, Scott, accompanying the advance( crossed the Niagara River ana attacked the British on the morning of May 27, 1813. The action was decisive. Fort George being taken (though Scott was wounded by the explosion of a powder magazine). On March 9, 1814, Scott was promoted to be brigadier-general. He joined Gen. Brown, who put him in command near Buffalo. There he established a camp of instruction and did most effective work for the army. In June Gen. Brown returned and on Julv 3 advanced on Fort Erie. Scott's brigade took part in the engagement and the fort was captured. On July 4 Scott's brigade again advanced towards Chippcwa, near Niagara Falls. Gen. Brown gave Scott control, himself holding the reserves. The opposing forces met on July 5, the British being under Gen. Rial!. Scott broke Riall's front, put his command to night,
and won the battle of Chippewa. The American loss was 328; the British 507.
Twenty days afterwards was fought the fierce and indecisive battle of Lundy's Lane (q.v.). At the outset Scott led the American forces, Brown commanding in the latter part of the engagement. Scott was wounded through his side, and later severely in his left shoulder. The Americans lost 860, the British 878. Though so severely wounded, Scott travelled East, meeting with enthusiastic receptions. He declined the office of secretary of war, and President Madison next sent him abroad on an important diplomatic service. He received a medal of honor, a vote of thanks from Congress and another from the legislature of Virginia, accompanied by a sword, and a sword with a vote of thanks from New York. Scott had a controversy with Gen. Jackson which arose from Jackson's issuing an order in Nashville (April 22, 1817) prohibiting his officers from obeying any executive order from the War Department, unless coming through him. Gen. Scott at a New York dinner party, declared this order 'mutinous.' Soon after, an anonymous article in a newspaper gave the substance of his remarks. Jackson was greatly offended that Scott should criticise his order, but after years the matter was amicably adjusted, and Scott was justified.
Near the close of the Black Hawk War (1832) Scott was ordered to the scene of action, near Rock Island, 111. He embarked upon Lake Erie from Buffalo with a thousand troops, but nearly half the troops became il! of Asiatic cholera. Scott held conferences with the Sacs and Foxes and kindred clans. He uniformly won their confidence and made permanent treaties with them. He urged the whites to 'temper justice with mercy in dealing with their feebler brethren of the forest.' The outbreak of the Seminole War in Florida in 1835, the Dade Massacre and other severe battles soon caused the War Department to send Scott thither. He did not have his usual success, was blamed, and recalled, but a court of inquiry exonerated him. In 1837 troubles occurred on the Niagara frontier, the actors being 'Canada Patriots.' Bands rushed across the line and invaded British territory. The excitement extended from Buffalo to Maine. Scott was sent to secure peace along the border. By his judiciousness, his speeches and other expedients, he allayed excitement and restored order. Again, in 1839, during the dispute over the boundary between New Brunswick and Maine, Gen. Scott, through kindness and tact,
prevented an outbreak andpaved the way for the Ashburton Treaty. He was commended for his skill in iemoving the Cherokees from Georgia and neighboring states, beyond the Mississippi. Though averse to removal, the Indians trusted this great Chief, and he accomplished their transfer without suffering. Scott's name was proposed to the Whig convention of 1839 for the Presidency, but he withdrew in favor of Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison. In 1841 he was made commander of the U. S. army.
When tne Mexican War began (1846), Scott recommended Taylor for the command on the Texan frontier. He gave President Polk a plan of campaign, and asked for new regiments. The President at first disapproved everything Scott suggested, yet, after Taylor's success, he ordered Scott to proceed to Mexico. Scott left New York on Nov. 30, 1846, and reached the Rio Grande early in January. Soon he found that the Dill for new regiments was unaccountably delayed, and that he had hardly left Washington before another bill was introduced to establish the rank of lieutenantgeneral, and to place at once a political partisan at the head of the army. Scott left Taylor after that general's victory at Buena Vista, taking with him a column of 12,000 men, and entered upon a southern campaign for the capture of the City of Mexico. On March 9 he laid siege to Vera Cruz, which surrenderecTon March 26. Then followed his victory over Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo (April 18), the reduction of Puebla, the American successes at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming of Molino del Rey (Sept. 8) and Chapultepec (Sept. 13), and the entry into the City of Mexico (Sept. 14). See Mexican War.
In 1852 Scott was nominated by the Whigs for the Presidency, but was overwhelmingly defeated by Franklin Pierce. In 1855 Congress made him brevet lieutenant-general, and in 1859 he was despatched to the far Northwest to adjust serious boundary troubles. When the Civil War came he took his stand for the Union and did all that was in his power to secure the safety of thr capital. He resigned from active service Nov. 1, 1861.
Gen. Scott had an impressive personal appearance. He was six feet and five inches tall, and in his prime was possessed of great physical strength. He had a remarkably strong face, and was habitually dignified and reserved. He was quick to resent insult but as ready to forgive; and w as very properly denominated a Christian gentleman.
His publications include: Genera
also nephew); and there was the further division of Sii or Sioi, or descent from a common ancestor. In olden times the rule of the Scottish Celtic kings was little respected by the clans; and in the Highlands and western islands the government had little authority unless by their will. It was generally insisted on that the clan should nave a representative, possessed of property, at court, as a hostage or security for their good behavior. A clan with no security became a 'broken clan,' and its members were treated as thieves and cattle robbers, with every man's hand against them. The best instance of this is that of the MacGregors, originally of Glenorchy, from which they were dispossessed by the Campbells of Breadalbane. From the 17th century the clans were generally of royalist proclivities. The Highlanders generally declared for the Jacobites in 1715, and again (though not universally) in 1745, and during the secret wanderings of Prince Charles Edward after Culloden, Cluny and Lochicl, the chiefs of the Macphersons and the Camerons, and members of the clans Donald and Macleod showed extraordinary fidelity to him. After 1746, the power of the clans having been broken at the battle of CuBoden, the disarming of the Highlands and the abolition of heritable jurisdictions did much to break up the clan system. Of the Celtic Highland clans, besides those already mentioned, the best-known clans were perhaps the Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles; the Macleods, Mackenzies, Camerons, M'Leans, and M'Neills of the islands and the west; the Clan Chattan, which included the Macphersons and Mackintoshes; the Mackays and Sutherlands in Sutherland; the Frasers of Lovat; Gordons in Aberdeenshire; Robertsons and Stewarts in Perthshire; the Stewarts of Appin; the Macdougals of Lorn; the Chisholms, and many others. In the United States and Canada reunions of the descendants and adherents of Scottish clans are held. These, with the membership and gatherings of various Scottish societies, which are organized for purely social, literary, and benevolent purposes, aim to keep alive the historic memories of the old land, especially the deeds of clan chieftains; but they represent not only any survival of clan feeling which exists on the continent, but the wider interest in Scottish life and character. See Stewart's Sketches of the Higltlanders (1822); Gregory's History of the Western Highlands and Islts (1836); W. S. Skene's Antiquities (1837): Shaw's Mackintosh and Clan Chattan (1880); Mackenzie's Mackenzie* Scottish Philosophy
(1879), MacdonoJds (1881), Mathesons (1882), Camerons (1884), Madeods (1889), Chisholms (1891), Frasers (1896); Michie's Records o) Invercauld (New Spalding Club); Eraser's Sutherland Book, Coiquhouns oj Luss, and Chiefs of Grant.
Scottish Philosophy means the school of thought founded by Reid, and characterized by an express opposition to Hume's empiricism ana scepticism. The two main doctrines by which Reid combated Hume's sceptical analysis of knowledge were his doctrine of perception and of common sense. The latter was a reply to the empirical aspect of Hume's philosophy, and was directed to bring out, against Hume's reduction of all knowledge to associations of sense impressions and images, the necessity of recognizing certain ultimate rational principles as inherent in the human mind, and as essentially involved in the constitution of our experience. Reid's doctrines were elaborated and expounded with great literary skill by Dugalcl Stewart: but in the more original mind of Thomas Brown they underwent much modification, his analysis of perception in particular departing largely from that of Reid. In Sir William Hamilton, the last, and after Reid the most conspicuous, representative of the Scottish school proper, a defence of Reid's principles was somewhat inconsistently combined with an acceptance of Kant's phenomenalism and agnosticism. See Pringle-Pattison s Scottish Philosophy (1885).
Scot us. See Duns Scotus, Erigena, and Scholasticism.
Scouts and Scouting. Men pushed ahead or to the flanks of an army to reconnoitre the enemy and the country, generally singly or in couples, are called scouts. Soldiers are selected who are quick-witted, resourceful, willing, trustworthy, and have good eyesight. Whenever the country allows it, scouting is the special business of mounted troops. Men. such as hunters and backwoodsmen, the conditions of whose lives lead them daily to observe minute signs around them, and read and apply their meanings, often make excellent scouts in war. In this work, which is full of risks and surprises, great daring is at times needed, while great caution is as necessary at others: but a scout must know how to be bold without rashness, and discreet without timidity. Men are now specially trained for this work in all modern armies. Special battalions were organized for scouting in all the Russian-Siberian regiments in the Russo-Japanese War,
and each mounted regiment has a detachment of scouts. A scout must not disguise himself or fei^n to be a traitor in order to obtain information. See Baden-Powell's Reconnaissance and Scouting (1890), and Aids to Scouting (1899); Wagner's Security and Information (1902); Drill Regulations, and Field Service Regulations, U. S. Army (Washington, 1905).
Scranton, city, Pa., co. scat of Lackawanna co., 49 m. s. of Binghamton, N. Y., at the confluence of Roaring Brook and Lackawanna R., and on the Lackawanna, the Cent, of N. J., the Del. and Hud., the Erie, and the N. Y., Ont. and W. R. Rs., and the Laurel Electric Line. It has an attractive site, with an elevation of 700-800 ft., on an undulating plateau in the Lackawanna valley, 8 m. N. of the Susquehanna R. It is the fourth city of Pennsylvania in population, and the centre of the great anthracite coal-field of the U. S. It has wide, straight streets, several parks and squares, two fine bridges, a beautiful drive to Elmhurst, and monuments to Columbus, Washington, and to soldiers and sailors. Its most noteworthy buildings and institutions are the post office, court house, Albright Memorial Library and other libraries, an armory, the high school, six hospitals, three theatres, board of trade building, Historical Society, Society of Natural Science, ana a school for deaf mutes.
Besides its chief industry, anthracite coal mining, Scranton has rolling mills, steel works, foundries, extensive locomotive works, and manufactories of mining machinery, rails, car wheels, boilers, edge fools, nuts and bolts, carriages, leather, silk, woollen, and cotton fabrics, lace curtains, sashes and blinds, underwear, buttons, brick, tobacco and cigars. There are also breweries. The city has miles of mines beneath it. It is a distributing centre of mining supplies for the anthracite region. According to the U. S. census of 1905 it nad 258 manufacturing establishments, with an invested capital of 419,160,787, employing 10,912 wage-earners, and having a total output valued at 820,453,285. Scranton was founded in 1840, incorporated as a borough in 1854, and as a city in 1866. Pop. (1890) 75,215; (1910) 129.8fi7. (2.) Tn., Miss., co. seat of Jackson co., 40 m. s.w. of Mobile, Ala., J m. from the Gulf of Mexico, on the Pascagoula R., and on the Louisv. and Nashv. R. R. It is in a lumber region and has extensive fisheries and oyster interests. It has shipyards, large saw-mills, and oyster canneries, and ships large quantities of pine
lumber and oysters. It was annexed to Pascagoula Citv in 1904.
Scranton, G Eorg E Whitefield (1811-01), American manufacturer, born in Madison, Conn. In 1840, with his brothers, Selden and Joseph, he bought a large iron-smelting plant and an extensive tract of anthracite land at Slocum in the Lackawanna valley. In a few years a town grew up around the works which was named after the owners. When the iron works were established on a firm basis, Scranton turned his attention to the advancement of the town to which his name had been given and planned several railroad systems to radiate to important centres east and west. He was elected to the 36th and 37th Congresses as a Whig.
Screamers (Palamedeidae), a family of South American birds which are believed to be most nearly related to ducks and geese. In size they are comparable to turkeys. Two notable peculiarities are that the ribs are without uncinate processes, and that each wing bears two sharp spurs. The head is small, and is furnished with a short bill, the legs moderately long, and naked throughout much of their length, the wings long and powerful. The horned screamer (Palamedea cornuta) has a slender, hornlike process on the head; the crested screamer (Cliauna cristala) has a tuft of feathers forming a crest. The latter lives in swamps and lagoons in Argentina, and is in habit a wader; it also swims with much ease. The flight is slow. The alarm note is a very loud scream, and can, it is said, be heard at a distance of two miles. The name crested screamer is also given to the seriema, or cariama.
Screen, in old Gothic halls, a partition with a gallery for minstrels opposite to the dais; also an open colonnade enclosing a courtyard. Its most important use is in ecclesiastical architecture—viz. an erection of wood, metal, or stone, separating a chapel from the body of the church, or the chancel from the aisle or nave. The earliest form of church screen was the low marble podia fencing the chorus cantantium in Roman basilicas, and in England perforated cancelli. There are two main types —the open-work grille, and the solid stonework such as is found in Canterbury, York, and Gloucester cathedrals, and in the church of the Madeleine at Troyes. Other famous screens are those of Chartres, elaborately carved (1515); of Amiens; and of the cathedral of Albi, the most perfect Gothic screen in France. For haikal screen, see Butler's Coptic Churches (1884). The
SOME FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL SCREENS.
*- Lincoln Cathedral. 8. Westminster Abbey. 3. Indian scm-n In the Palace, Delhi. 1 Dartmouth Parish Church. 6. Aisle of Lincoln Cathedral. 6. Chortroa Cathedral. 7. Albl. 8. Hereford (metal screen).
iconostasis in Greek churches, between the sanctuary and the nave, is adorned with icons, and has three doorways closed to conceal from the laity the altar and mass. Screw, one of the simple machines or mechanical powers, which has many applications. The screw in itself is incomplete, being only one-half of the 'screwpair or elementary mechanism to which it belongs. If assumed frictionless, let the effort p act at radius R, let r be the radius of the screw, w the load, and p the pitch or distance between two consecutive coils of the thread. Then by the equation of work, PX2»R = w/>; also p = 2*r tan a, where a is the angle of the screw. If friction be not neglected, then, assuming that the coefficient of friction i> is known, it can be shown that
— = — tan (a T •), according as w
is about to prevail over p, or P over w; also it can be shown that the efficiency of the screw
tan u . • it
is E = -—; Tt, where 9 is the
tan (a + 9)'
angle of friction. In order that the screw may be reversible, « must be greater than 9.
Diagram illustrating the Principle of the Screw.
The U. S. standard thread is the Sellers, which is shaped like an equilateral triangle, with angle 60° between the sides, and with flat top and bottom. The British standard is the Whitworth, in which the angle is 55°, and the corners are rounded. The square thread is weaker, but is used where accuracy of motion is needed. The buttress thread is used for strength and accuracy when the important motion is in one direction only. It is shown in dynamics that the most general motion in space may be represented by a screw motion— i.e. the combination of a translation along a given straight line with a rotation about that line. If the pitch of the screw becomes zero, we have a simple turning pair; if it becomes infinite, a simple sliding pair. These are the limiting cases of screw motion.
Screw, or Wood Screw, as they are technically known, are nails
which are screwed into the material instead of hammered. Up to 1760 they were not in popular use, owing to the costliness of their production. In that year a machine for their manufacture was invented, and in 1817 an automatic screw-making machine was patented by a German clockmaker. It was not till 1854, however, that a practically serviceable machine, the result of American invention, gave the first impulse to an industry which now gives employment to many thousands of workers. Roughly described, the process of manufacture is as follows: A piece of wire (copper, brass, or iron) is fed into a heading machine through a die, to form the screw blank. The wire is then cut, and the head is formed by the stroke of a plunger striking the short piece which is held in the die. The head is nicked in the same machine. The screw blanks are thrown into a trough, and the thread and point are made in a worming machine by means of a cutter.
Screw Bean. See Mezquite.
Screw Pine, a name given to certain tropical trees ana shrubs belonging to the genus Pandanus. They bear spiry, linear, rigidly coriaceous leaves, arranged in a perfect spiral about the stem, and most species produce aerial roots, which heave the trunks out of the ground, on stilts, as it were, afterwards serving, however, to anchor the trees. Pandanus «.'///< is cultivated in the tropics for its leaves, which are split into narrow sections, and woven into coarse, strong sacks. In the South Sea Islands the leaves are also used for matting, basketry, cordage, and the like. The young screw-pines are popular house foliage-plants, requiring a high temperature, plenty of sun in winter and water in summer.
Screw-propeller, an instrument for the propulsion of a vessel, consisting of two or more oblique blades, set on a shaft or shafts lying nearly parallel with the keel, and revolving beneath ;he water at the stern. The Chinese used screw-propellers from a very early date for making vessels move. Various devices for applying the principle were put forward from time to time by Du Quet in 1731, Bouguer in 1746, Daniel Bernoulli in 1752, and Emerson in 1754. The Archimedean screw was tried by Pancton in 1768, and, as used by him, consisted of a revolving cylinder of some length, with the thread of a screw round it. In 1784 a more definite advance was made by Joseph Bramah, a London engineer, who invented a wheel furnished with inclined fans or wings. This was attached