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the steel, and cloudy weather should be chosen for doing the work, as then few variations are likely to occur.

Survivorship. It was formerly held that there was a presumption under the common law, that of two or more persons who lost their lives by the same disaster, the stronger survived the others by some period of time. This was of great importance in determining the heirs of, or persons entitled to an estate, where two persons, one of whom would succeed the other if he survived him, perished in the same disaster, and there was no proof as to which expired first. The courts of most states have repudiated this doctrine, and now require proof if possible; otherwise the jury may find that they perished at the same moment.

Surya, one of the two names by which, in Hindu mythology, the sun is known. In the Rigveda he is generally represented as a car-drawn deity and wedded to Ushas, or the Dawn. He is also the source of life, and watches closely the actions of men. There is a female Surya, sometimes spoken of as a feminine personification of the sun. The Surya hymn is descriptive of her wedding with Soma, the moon.

Suryaslddhanta, Sanskrit work on astronomy. An English translation by E. Burgess and W. P. Whitney was published in 1800 in the Journal of the American Oriental Socirtv; another in 1S01, at Calcutta, by Bipu Deva Sastrin. Biot held that the Hindus derived their system of astronomy from the Chinese, while Prof. Weber was of opinion that the Hindu system is much more ancient than that of China.

Sus, or Susa, seapt., Tunis, N. Africa, on Gulf of Hammamet, Mediterranean Sea, 32 m. by rail E.n.e. of Kairwan; produces grapes and olives. Pop. 12,000.

Susa, or Shushan (of Daniel), chief city of prov. Susiana in ancient Persia; it stood on the E. ok. of the Choaspes (now Kherkha). Darius Hystaspcs is said to have been its founder; it was a favorite residence 01 the ancient Persian kings. On the site (now called Sus) ruins and cuneiform inscriptions have been found.

Susanna, History Of, a short book of the Apocrypha, forming, with Bel and tnc Dragon and the

Son/- o] the Three Holv Children, what are known as the apocryphal additions to Daniel in the

Septuagint. It tells of one Susanna, the wife of Jloakim, resident at Babylon during the exile, as having been solicited to unchastity by two elders, who, having been repelled, conspire to accuse her of the same sin, they hav


ing been witnesses. Susanna is condemned to death, but is saved by Daniel, who, cross-questioning the elders separately, shows their evidence to be contradictory, whereupon they are put to death. The narrative may be a late elaboration of Jer. 29:22 /. It is unlikely that the original was in Hebrew, but scholars differ as to whether it was in Greek or in Aramaic. See commentaries cited under Apocrypha; best treatment in Hastings, Dictionary oj Bible, i. 630-63L'.

Suspension Bridges. See Bridge.

Susquchanna, bor., Susquehanna co., Pa., 36 m. N. of Scranton, 20 m. S.E. of Binghamton, N. Y., on the Susquehanna R., and on the Eric R. R. Large shops of the railroad are situated here. Good water power is supplied to several manufactories which produce planing-mill products, machinery, and chemicals. The district contains coal mines and bluestone quarries. The borough has a public library, Laurel Hill Academy (parochial), and the Simon H. Barnes Memorial Hospital. At Susquehanna the famous railroad bridge known as the Starucca Viaduct spans the Susquehanna R. The first settlement here was made about 1850, and the borough was incorporated in 1851. Pop. (1910) 3,478.

Susquehanna River rises in two main branches—the North Branch, which issues from Lakes Otscgo and Schuyler, Otsego co., N. Y., and the West Branch, which has its source in N. W. Pennsylvania. After circuitous courses through the valleys of the Appalachians they unite at. Sunbury, Pa., Ijelow which the river flows s., then S.I:, by s., to its mouth at Havre dc Grace, at the head of Chesapeake Hay. Its principal tributaries are the Chemung and Juniata Rs. The former joins the North Branch near the boundary between New York and Pennsylvania; the latter joins the main stream a few miles above Harrisburg. The middle and s. parts of its course are followed by a canal. The most important cities on its banks are Williamsport, Lockhaven, and Clearfield on the West Branch, and, on the North Branch, Binghamton, N. Y., Harrislmrg and Wilkesbarre. Pa., and Port Deposit, Md. The length, following the North Branch, is 422 m.; the entire drainage basin is 27,655 sq. m. The Su.squrhanna is navigable only as far as Port Deposit, Md., and is used mainly to float lumber.

Sussex, maritime CO., England, on English Channel. The coast is generally low and uniform. Many watering-places are studded along the coast—Hastings, Eastbourne, Bexhill, Scaford, New


haven, Shoreham, Brighton, Worthing, Bognor. The S. Downs traverse the southern part of the county, terminating in Beachy Head (Linchball, 818 ft.; Ditchling Beacon, 813 ft.). The centre is occupied by the Weald, a wide undulating tract formerly covered with forest. The principal rivers are Rother, Ouse, and Arun, with W. Rother, flowing to the English Channel. Chalk and clay are quarried, and natural gas is obtained at Heathfield. Nearly two-thirds of the cultivated area is under pasture. Large numbers of sheep arc grazed (the Southdown breed l>emg noted), and cattle are fattened. The area under woods and plantations is greater than in any other English county, except "Hants. The Romans had many stations in the district, which later formed the kingdom of the S. Saxons. Within its borders were fought the battles of Senlac (1060) and Lewes (1264). Antiquities include earthworks (Cissbury Ring, Chanctonbury), castles (Arundel, Lewes, Hurstmonccau.x), monastic buildings (Battle Abbey, Bayham). Area (anc. co.), 1,459 sq. m. Pop. (1911) 663,416.

Susten Pass, a Swiss Alpine pass (7,422 ft.), which leads from Mciringen in the Hasli or Upper Aar valley to Wassen, on the St. Gothard Ry.

Sutherland, George (1862), American legislator, born in Buckinghamshire, Eng. He received an academic education, studied law at the Univ. of Mich., and was admitted to the bar in 1883. He subsequently practised at Salt Lake City, was a member of the Senate in the fiist state legislature of Utah (1H90) and of Congress in 1901-3. He was elected U. S. Senator (Rep.) for the term of 1905-11.

Sutherland Falls, celebrated waterfall (1.904 ft.), near Milford Sound, N. "L.

Sutherlandshlre, maritime CO., north of Scotland, bounded on S.E. by Moray Firth and on N. and W. by the Atlantic. It is the wildest and least densely populated county in Scotland. Out of a total population of ZO.lau (1911) nearly 14.100 speak Gacl.c and English. The main part of the country consists of moorland, rough hill-grazing, and deer fc i ests, with lofty mountains and rugged valleys. Cape Wrath, in the N.w., reaches a height of 523 ft.; and there are numerous indentations (r.g. Kyle of Tongue and Loch Eriboll). Ben More Assynt and Ben Clibrigg reach elevations of 3,273 ft. and 3,154 ft. respectively. The salmon and herring fisheries arc important. Dornorh is the county town. Dunrohin Castle, on the coast near Golspie, is the seat of the ButleJ

Duke of Sutherland. Brochs and towers indicate Pictish occupation, but early in the llth century the county became Scandinavian, and remained Norse till its annexation to the Scottish kingdom. Prior to 1810 all the available cultivable land in the county was held by small crofters, who fed a most precarious existence; between 1810 and 1820 many of the crofts were converted into sheep-walks, and the crofters were removed to the coast or assisted to emigrate to Canada. Between 1873 and 1878 large tracts of land w> re cleared and reclaimed, especially at Lairg and Kildonan, at the expense of the Duke of Sutherland.

Suilrj, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, India, from which the province derives its name. It rises in Lakes Manasarowar and Rakastal in W. Tibet, 15,200 ft. above the sea, and enters the Punjab at its eastern extremity. Flo-ving almost due W., it receives the Beas and, farther on, the Chenab. After a course of about 900 m. it joins the Indus at Mithankot, s. of Multan. It is navigable for steamers as far as Firozpur.

Sutras, in Sanskrit, collections of rules which form the basis of teaching in religious ritual, grammar, and ceremonial customs; and also in the various systems of philosophy, each of which has its text-book written in Sutras.

sm rn. Adolph Heinrich Joseph (1830-98), American mining engineer, born in Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia. He graduated as a mining engineer at the Polytechnic m_ that city, and I'n 1852 went to California and engaged in gold mining. Shortly after the opening of the ComstocK mines in Nevada he went to Virginia City, and planned the long drainage tunnel that bears his name. The tunnel is more than 20,000 feet long, and its construction occupied a large force of men for more than eight years. Sutro accumulated a great fortune in dealing in mining shares while managing the tunnel operations, and soon after its completion settled in San Francisco and became a large dealer in real estate. He was a generous benefactor to the public charities of the city, and bequeathed large sums to the University of California, Vassar College, and other educational institutions for the founding of scholarships and the encouragement of scientific research. The Cliff House and Sutro Baths, two of the attractions of San Francisco which escaped destruction by the earthquake and fires in 1906, were established by him. Sutro also laid out in 'San Francisco the Sutro Heights Park (1880) and founded the Sutro Library. As


the Populist candidate, he was elected mayor of San Francisco in 1894.

Suttee. See Satt. Sutler, John Augustus (180380), American pioneer, born in Kadern, Baden. After graduating at the military college at Berne in 1823, he entered the French service, but in 1834 came to the U. S. In 1838 he visited Oregon, the Hawaiian Islands, and Alaska; and in 1839 established the first settlement at Sacramento. Cal. Here he built a fort namea Helvetia, and was for a time Mexican governor of the region. At the time of the conquest of California by the U. S. he was in prosperous circumstances, but gold was discovered upon land claimed by him, and as a result he _was deprived of his estate. Ultimately he received an annual pension of $3,000 from the California legislature. In 1873 he settled in Litiz, Pa., and died in Washington in 1880.

Sutton Coldfleld, munic. bor., Warwickshire, England, 7 m. N.n.e. of Birmingham. In the parish church is an effigy of Vesey (or Harman), bishop of Exeter (d. 1554), a native of this place, to which he was a munificent benefactor. There is a new town hall (1904). In the vicinity is a picturesque park (2,400 ac.). the gift of Henry vin., secured by Bishop Vesey, and much frequented by the people of Birmingham. Pop. (1911) 20.132. . Sutton-ln-Ashfleld, tn., Nottinghamshire, England, 3 m. w.s.w. of Mansfield! The church of St. Mary Magdalene dates from the 14th century, and includes part of a 12th-century building. There are a town hall (1890) and a free library (1898). Hosiery is manufactured, and there are colleries in the district. Pop. (1911) 21,707.

Sutures, in anatomy, are the scams between connected skull or face bones. They are of various kinds, and include harmonia or the apposition of one bone against another; schindylesis, the reception of one bone into a fissure of another; as well as squamous, or overlapped beveled edges; serrate, the interlocking of teeth-like edges, etc. Sutures. or stitches in surgery are used to close wounds and to unite divided tissues. Where there is much tension deep sutures may be necessary, and these may be of a special kind, such as Lister's 'button' suture. In some positions the material used must be capable of absorption after it has kept the parts in apposition sufficiently long to allow of union. Catgut and other animal textures fulfil this condition. In other cases the stitch may consist of silk, horsehair,


or wire- but these have to be removed subsequently. Materials which are more or less rigid— wire and horsehair, for example •—act to some extent as splints, and secure rest as well as union of the injured parts.

Suvoroff, or Suvahoff, AlexAnder Vasilievitch (1729-1800), Russian general, who rose from the ranks, and never was defeated, not even by Napoleon. He was born at Moscow. Having distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War, he was assigned high command in the Polish campaign of 1768-71. He then defeated the Turks in the First Turkish War (1773); crushed the revolt (1775) of Pugatchev and of the Caucasian tribes (1780); drove the Turks back in the Second Turkish War (1789) from Fokshani, the river Rymnik, and the stronghold of Ismail; stormed Praga in the second Polish campaign, and induced the surrender of Warsaw (1794). He was then sent to help the Austrians against the French in Italy, and gained a series of brilliant victories over Moreau, Joubert, and Macdonald. He then crossed the Alps, with terrible sacrifice of men, and met Masse"na at Schwyz, but was too weak to accept battle, and retreated into Austria. See Life by Spalding (1890).

Suwalkl, or Suvalky, tn., cap. of gov. of same name, Russian Poland, 75 m. N.w. of Grodno, a centre of timber and grain trade. The government covers an area of 4,846 sq. m., and has a population (1897) of 604,945, chiefly engaged in agriculture, timber-felling, and the weaving of linen and woollen cloth. Pop. (1897) 22,646.

Suwanee Kiver, Fla., rises in Okefinokee Swamp, S. Georgia, and flows 240 m. m a general s. course to empty into the Gulf of Mexico, about 15 m. N.n.w. of Cedar Keys. It is navigable as far as White Springs.

Suzdal, tn., Vladimir Rov., Central Russia, 22 m. N. of Vladimir city. The Cathedral of the Nativity, founded by St. Vladimir in the 10th century, partly reconstructed in 1528, ranks among the most famous Russian churches. There are also an episcopal palace and kremlin; marketgardening, tanneries, tallow foundries, cloth, calico, and cotton manufactures. Pop. (1897)8,000. Suzerain, a feudal overlord. The modern use of the word signifies the overlordship of one power over another, as that of the Porte over its tributary states.

S.V., Sancta Virgo, Holy Vir

S'n; also sub voce, *under the •ading."

Syastika, a symbol of unknown origin, and early introduced into Sveaborg

India, apparently in connection with sun-worship. It appears cither as a cross in a circle—thus, (S—or as a cross with the arms bent at right angles—thus, 'fl*. The latter symbol is found in heraldic and ecclesiastical work in Christian countries, as well as in the catacombs, and is known as the fylfot. Mediaeval mystic writers derived it from the Greek gamma, which they thought suggestive of Christ as the cornerstone; but it is seen on objects exhumed at Troy by Dr. Schliemann, and in early Indian and Chinese art; also in Mexico and Peru.

Sveaborg, tn., fortress, and scapt. of Nyland prov., Finland, 4 m. S.E. of Helsmgfors city, on islands in the Gull of Finland. Constructed in 1748-70 as a Swedish Gibraltar, it was taken by the Russians in 1808, and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet in 1855.

Svearlke, or Svealand, a division of Sweden, comprising the city of Stockholm and the counties of Stockholm, Upsala, Sbdermanland, Westmanland, Orebro, Vermland, and Kopparberg.

Svendborx. tn., Funen, Denmark, 29 m. by rail S.E. of Odense, on Svendborg Sound. Its two churches date from the 13th century. It is a shipbuilding centre. Pop. (1901) 11,543.

Svcnd-ipn, Johan Severdj (1840), Norwegian musical composer, was born at Christiania; became conductor of the musical association in Christiania, and since 1883 has been court conductor at Copenhagen. His compositions include a symphony and other orchestral works, chamber music, concertos for violin and for 'cello, and songs. One of his best-known works is his beautiful Romance for the violin. _Sverdrup, Johan (1816-92), Norwegian politician, was born at Jarlsberg; elected to the Storthing in 1851 as a Radical member, and eventually became (187172) leader of the peasant separatist party. As president of the Storthing he played a very prominent part in securing the presence of ministers in the Storthing, and in overriding the king's claim to an absolute veto upon its proceedings. In 1883 he became prime minister, but resigned in I88«.

Syprdrup, Otto (1855), Norwegian Arctic explorer, born at Haarstad in Helgoland; joined Nanscn's expedition over the Greenland ice-fields in 1888, and was chosen by Nansen as captain of the From for his North Pole expedition. When Nansen, on March 14, 1895, quitted the Pram in order to make his wav to the Arctic circle oy sledge, Sverdrup


undertook the leadership of the expedition. In 1898-1901 he led a second expedition in the From, and discovered several islands (Ringnes, Axel Heiberg, King Oscar Land) between Greenland and the Parry Isles and Melville I. The expedition is described in his New Land (Eng. trans. 1904). Svctchinc, Madame. See


Swabla, duchy of Germany, existed from the beginning of the 10th to beyond the middle of the 13th century, and corresponded generally to Wiirtemberg, Baden, and S. W. Bavaria.

Swahcll, a mixed Arab-Bantu people of Zanzibar and the opposite mainland between Mombasa and the Rufiji R. All are Mohammedans, with a measure of culture due to Arab influences. The language, which, thanks to their enterprising spirit as traders, caravan-leaders, and carriers, has become the chief medium of intercourse throughout E. Central Africa, is of Bantu structure, but is full of Arabic words and expressions. It is written both with the Arabic and the Roman alphabet, and has been carefully cultivated and largely used by Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries. See J. L. Krapf's Elements of the Kisudheli Language (1850), and A Dictionary of the Suahiii Language (1882): Bishop E. Steere's Swahili Exercises (1882).

Swain, George Filluohe (1857), American civil engineer, born in San Francisco, and graduated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1877. He visited Europe in 1877-80, and studied at the Royal Engineering School at Berlin. In 1887 he became professor of civil engineering in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and engineer to the Massachusetts Railroad Commission. In 1894 he was elected a member of the Boston Transit Commission. He is author of Report on the Water Power of the Atlantic Watershed in vol. xvii. of Tenth U.S. Census.

Swain, Joseph (1R57), American educator, was born at Pendleton. Ind., and graduated (1883) at Indiana University, where he was successively instructor, assistant professor, and professor of mathematics from 1886 to 1891. He held the same chair at Lcland Stanford, Jr., University during 1891-3, and m 1893 was elected president of his alma mater, which position he resigned in 1902 to become president of Swarthmore College.

Swallow, or Chimney SwalLow, a passerine bird, belonging to the family HirundinidsE, which includes the swallows and martins, birds which are not related to the swifts, in spite of the superficial


resemblance. Both swallows and martins are characterized by the short and wide bill, which is deeply deft, with a very wide gape, and a mouth which opens to about the line of eye. the narrow elongated wings, the small, weak feet, and the forked tail. They are cosmopolitan in distribution, and feed upon insects, which are taken on the wing. The family is represented in all the temperate parts of the world, and one species, the bank swallow (Clivicola riparia), is. nearly cosmopolitan, making its nest in companies in holes in sandy cliffs right around the world

The North American swallows include besides the bank swallow, and its relative the rough-wing, the large purple martins which nest so abundantly in bird-boxes; the white-bellied and violet-green swallows, less common; ..nd the two barn swallows. These last are the familiar birds which each summer take up their residence about our barns and outho\-scs, having totally abandoned in the eastern half of the country their wild methods of nidincation. The barn-swallow proper is distin

§uished !iy Its chestnut breast and eeply forked tail from the eave or cliff swallow, which has a short squarish tail. The former construct cup-like nests of mud. straw and feathers plast.red against the wall or laicf on the upper surf ace of a beam inside the barn, as formerly it sought to do under the shelter of rocky ledges



and cave-roofs. The latter makes a globular nest of pellets of mud. entered by a bottle-like neck, and places it always on the outside of the building dose up under the eaves; originally its nests were built in closely packed communities against the face of some cliff, as still may be seen in the remote West. Several swallows of similar appearance, and with the same habit of seeking assodation with dvilizcd man, occur in S. America. Swallow. Silas C. (1839), American politician, born at Plains, Pa. He was educated for the ministry of the Methodist Church, eventually settled at

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Harrisburg, Pa., and became editor of the Pennsylvania Methodist. He became prominent as an agitator for reform in Pa. politics and in 1898 polled 125,000 votes -.s the Prohibitionists' candidate for governor. He was again their candidate in 1902, but received a comparatively light vote. He was the Prohibition candidate for President of the U. S. in 1904.

Swallow InK, or DEGLUTITION, is a complicated action whereby food or liquid is carried from the mouth to the stomach. Within the oesophagus the bolus is involuntarily carried downwards by peristaltic movements of the muscular fibres. Deglutition is voluntary only so long as the food is in the mouth. When the bolus has passed the palatine arch the act becomes reflex, and is controlled by a nerve centre in the medulla oblongata. Swallowing can thus be performed during unconsciousness. The stimulus for the reflex part of the act is the presence of food or liquid in the pharynx, or at the root of the tongue.

Swallowwort, a name given to plants of the genus Asclepias, more usually known as 'milkweeds.' They bear uml>els of flowers, and are for the most part plants with milky juice. Among the species are A. stipitacea and A. Cornuti (the common milkweed), the young shoots of which are sometimes eaten like asparagus. A. inairtiala, A. tuberosa (the butterfly weed), and A. cttrassavica (the wild ipecacuanha) are among the species valued for their medicinal properties.

Kwaml, a title originally used to indicate the Supreme Being; sul>sequently it was applied to idols, leaders of religious thought, priests or men of rank. It is now used, among Tamil and Telugu Hindus, as a respectful form of address, equivalent to 'teacher'; sometimes it is part of a name—• e.g. Rama Swami.

Swammerdam, Jan (1637-80), Dutch naturalist and entomologist, was born at Amsterdam. He devoted himself to natural history, especially to the dissection of insects. He was author of a General History of Insects (1792) and a History of the Day Fly (1C>81). He was a disciple in religion of the mystic Antoinette Bourignon, whom he followed to Holstein.

Swampscott, tn., Essex co., Mass., adjoining Lynn on the E., llm. N.E. of Boston, on Massachusetts Bay, and on the Bost. and Me. R. R. It is a residential suburb of Lynn and a fashionable summer resort. Phillips School is situated here. A fishing industry is carried on from this place. There is a public library in the town hall. The first settlement

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frequenting fresh water in summer, they are often found at the sea in winter. They seem to pair for life, and place their large, untidy nests upon the ground near water. The food consists largely of water plants, but also of insects and molluscs. The note is loud and trumpet-like, the windpipe in many species being curiously folded. Even the so-called mute swan trumpets in the wild state. North America possesses two species, both uncommon except in the northwestern interior, of which the trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator} is best known, and in autumn is frequently shot along the Great Lakes and westward! It is a near relative of the whooper or whistling swan of the Arctic regions of the Old World. Aus

tralia has a species which is black throughout.

Swan, John Macallan (1S47), English sculptor and painter born at Old Brentford; studied painting under Gerome in company with Bastien - Lepage and Dagnan-Bouveret, and sculpture under Premier. He began to eihibit in the Royal Academy in 1878; two years later his Prodigal Son was bought for the Chantrey collection (Tale Gallery, London). In 1894 he was elected A.r.a., and in 1899 member of the Royal \\atercolor Society. A special exhibition of his studies was held at the Fine Art Society's Gallery in 1897. He is the finest English sculptor of animals in his suggestion of their essential character, structure, and movement. His paintings are poetically treated, with a fine sense of color. See Baldry's Drawings of John J/. Swan (1905).

Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson (1828), English inventor, was born at Sunderland; founded the firm of Mawson & Swan, and increased the rapidity of photographic dry plates by heating the emulsion. Later he patented the carbon or autotype process of obtaining permanent photographic prints, and invented bromide paper and several photomechanical processes. Swan's name is, however, best known in connection with the invention of the incandescent electric lamp, which he first exhibited in 1879. He was knighted in 1904.

Swan, Knight Of The. Sec Lohengrin.

Swanrtla, ancient division of Caucasus, named from the Svans, Strabo's Suani.

Swansea, seapt. In., munic., CO., and parl. bor., Glamorganshire, Wales, at the mouth of the Tawc, 00 m. W.N.W. of Bristol; is the chief seat of the tinplate manufacture, and one of the most important copper smelting and refining towns in the world, and has extensive coal mines. Its docks cover 60 acres. On July 20, 1904, King Edward TO. laid the foundation stone of the 'King's Dock,' which is to cover 66 acres, and is to be completed by 1910. Its parks include Victoria Park. Pop. (1911) munic. and co. bor.,114,673.

Swanton, tn., Franklin co., Vt., 9 m. N.N.w. of St. Alhans, on the Missisquoi R.. about 2 m. from the N. end of Lake Cham

S'ain. and on the Cent. Vt., the r. Trunk, and the Bost. and Me. R. Rs. It manufactures smokeless powder and explosives, shotgun ammunition, suspenders, lime, and finished marble. Limestone and variegated marble are found in the district. The town owns and operates the water-works and Swarthmore College

electric-lighting plant. The place was incorporated in 1790. Pop. (1910) 3,628.

Swarthmore College. A coeducational college at Swarthmore, Pa., 12 m. w.s.w. of Philadelphia, founded in 1809 as a school for the children of Friends and named from Swarthmore Hall, the home of George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends. The courses of study'are partially elective and lead to the single degree of Bachelor of Arts, except in engineering in which the B.s. degree is conferred for certain courses. Irregular, special, and preparatory courses are also offered. The master's degree is conferred for resident graduate work, and the engineering degrees may be conferred on graduates of the college who have been successfully engaged in professional practice for not less than three years. The college offers two graduate fellowships and a number of undergraduate scholarships. The nine college buildings occupy a site of 200 acres. The college property is valued at $712,000, the endowment is 8885,301, and there is an income of about $115,000. In 1906 the students numbered 290, the instructors 27, and the library contained 25,000 volumes.

Swastika. See Svastika.

Swatow, scapt. tn., Kwangtung prov., China, on 1. bk. of Han, 5 m. from its mouth, and 180 m. N.e. of Hong-kong; has been open for foreign trade since 1869, though for long it had an unenviable reputation for antiforeign feeling. Sugar is largely exported, and considerable trade is done in tea, paper, tobacco, beans, and bean-cake. In 1904 the exports were valued at over $12,500,000, and the imports at $25,000,000. Pop. 48,000.

Swayne, Charles (1842), American judge, born at Guyencourt, Del. He received an academic education, taught school for a few years, and in 1871 was admitted to the Philadelphia bar. He removed to Florida in 1885, and in 1889 was appointed U. S. district judge for the Northern District. He was impeached by the House of Representatives Dec. 13, 1904, for misconduct in office, \ne charges relating to his alleged non-residence in the district, and to allegations of corruption and oppression. He was acquitted by the Senate by a majontv vote Feb. 27, 1905.

Swaziland, a South African native state, E. of the Transvaal. Area, 8,000 sq. m.; pop. (1904) 85,484 natives and 898 Europeans. The Lebombo mountains lie on the E. Its independence was guaranteed in 1884. The Swazis are a warlike Kaffir tribe, and were the allies of Great Britain io the Sckukuni and Zulu


campaigns. Much of the land is excellent for grazing, and workable gold mines exist.

Swearing is the making affirmation of a statement or fact by an appeal to a supernatural power. Profane swearing, which is here specially under consideration, consists (1) in the hasty, irreverent, and thoughtless use of a solemn asseveration or of an ejaculatory prayer, or (2) in giving vent to aTleartfelt and deliberate malediction. The ideal wicked man of the Psalmist is described as one who 'clothed himself with cursing as with his garment," and delighted not in blessing. The essence of profanity is desecration. It is pointed out by Mr. A. B. Cook (Folklore, xvi. 201) that when the Romans swore by the sky-god Jupiter they were required to do so with no covering above them but the sky; otherwise the oath was profane. Similarly, the words 'Mon Dieu' 'Mcin Gott,' 'My God," which are pious apostrophes when used in prayer, become profane when used needlessly in conversation; although custom has almost deprived the expression of all meaning in France and Germany. The blood and wounds of Christ gave rise to the British adjectives 'bloody' and 'woundy,' the latter now obsolete, although the former is in daily use, but no longer in polite society. The desire to distinguish between a solemn oath and a mere ejaculation, or an emphatic expression (perhaps also a feeling of shame) has led to the refining away of the original word, as in several of the above instances. For this reason the name of God appears under such disguises as Gaut 'Od, Dod, Gosh, Govey, Gol, Golly, and Goles; while Lord has changed into Lor', Law, Lud, Lo'd, Losh, Lawks, and Land (as in 'Landsakes!'). 'By God!' has assumed the forms 'By Gad' 'Begad,' 'Egad,' and (in'Ireland) 'Bedad' and 'Bcgorra.' The interjectional appeal to the Virgin Mary, which is spelled 'Mane!' by Chaucer, has long been written 'Marry!' It still survives in some parts of England. Formerly, profane swearing was a custom of lords and ladies, as indicated by Shakespeare, when he makes Hotspur call upon Lady Percy to 'Swear me, Kate, like a ladv, as thou art, a good mouth-filling oath,' and to leave to citizens and their wives such milk-and-water protestations as, 'In good sooth,1 As true as I live," and 'As sure as a day.'

Sweat. See Perspiration, Skin.

Sweating Slekness, or Mll.Iary Fkver, is a disease characterized by pyrexia, profuse sweats, and an eruption of mil

Sweating System

lary vesicles or sudamina. At one time it was epidemic over a large part of Europe, and was very fatal in Britain in the 15th and Kith centuries, being known as 'the English sweat." It appeared in 1528, and afterward in Holland, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Poland, and other countries. From time to time slight epidemics still occur in Picardy and in the north of Italy. It has never been seen in the United States. More rarely sweating sickness is of a malignant type, and is accompanied by high temperature, with delirium, extreme prostration, and haemorrhage. In such cases death may occur almost at the onset of the fever. The epidemics of the middle ages seem to have assumed this malignant character.

Sweating System. A term of uncertain origin, employed to characterize the manufacture of goods for the market in tenements and dwelling-houses in the cities. Under this system the 'manufacturer' provides the materials of industry, and lets the working up of such materials to a contractor for a specified price. The contractor may, in turn, let the work, at a lower price, to a sub-contractor, who finds workers to take the material to their homes and there perform the labor contracted for. The manufacturer mav, however, deal directly with the laborer, eliminating contractor and subcontractor. The essential feature in the system is the performance of work on materials tx'longing to the employer on the premises of the worker. This system of industry was practically universal before the introduction of the factory system. In its general form it is known as the domestic system.'

The sweating system to-day is characterized by minute subdivision of labor, irregular employment, and extremely low wages and evil sanitary conditions. Modern appliances and power machinery cannot be installed in the worker's tenement; accordingly, in order to compete with the better equipped factories, wages are necessarily low. Classes of Ialx>r which arc not fitted for factory employment—newly arrived immigrants, women with small children, aged workmen, and invalids—are the reliance of the system. Since such workers are without other resources for their living, a reduction in the rate of pay for sweated work merely results in forcing them to work longer hours and to crowd together in greater number in cheaper quarters. The development of large retail establishments, actively competing in offerings of lowpriced clothing and other manufactured goods, has in recent years

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