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the steel, and cloudy, weather should be chosen for doing the work, as then few variations are likely to occur. Survivorship. It was formerly held that there was a presumption under the common law, that of two or more persons who lost their lives by the same disaster, the stronger survived the others by some period of time. . This was of great importance in determining the heirs of, or persons entitled to an estate, where two persons, one of whom would succeed the other if he survived him, perished in the same disaster, and there was no proof as to which expired first. The courts of most states have repudiated this doctrine, and now require proof if possible; otherwise the jury may find that they perished at the same moment. Surya, one of the two, names by which, in Hindu mythology, the sun is known. In the Rigveda he is generally represented as a car-drawn deit à wedded to Ushas, or the Dawn. He is also the source of life, and watches closely the actions of men. . There is a female Surya, sometimes spoken of as a feminine rsonification of the sun. The .# hymn is descriptive of her wedding with Soma, the moon. Surya siddhan ta, Sanskrit work on astronomy. An English translation by E. Burgess and W. D. Whitney was published in 1860 in the Journal of the American Oriental Society; another in 1861, at Calcutta, by Băpâ Deva, Sästrin. Biot held that the Hindus derived their system of astronom from the Chinese, while Prof. Weber was of , opinion that the Hindu system is much more ancient than that of China. Sus, or SUSA, seapt., Tunis, N. Africa, on Gulf of Hammamet, Mediterranean Sea, 32 m. by rail E.N.E. of Kairwan; produces grapes and olives. Pop. 12,000. Susa, or SHUshAN (of Daniel), chief city of prov. Susiana in ancient Persia; it stood on the E. bk. of the Choaspes (now Kherkha). Darius Hystaspes is said to have been its founder; it was a favorite residence of the ancient Persian kings. On the site (now called Sús), ruins and cuneiform inscriptions have been found. Susanna, History of, a short book of the *}. forming, with Bel and t ragon and the Song of the Three Holy Children, what are known as the apocryhal additions to Daniel in the ptuagint. It tells of one Susanna, the wife of Joakim, resident at Babylon during the exile, as o been solicited to unchastity by two elders, who, having been repelled, conspire to accuse her of the same sin, they hav

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Suspension Bridges. See BRIDGE. Susquehanna, bor., Susque

hanna co., Pa., 36 m. N. of Scranton, 20 m. s. E. of Binghamton, N. Y., on the Susquehanna R., and on the Erie R. Large shops of the railroad are situated here: Good water power is supplied to several manufactories which produce planing-mill products, machinery, and chemicals. The district contains coal mines and bluestone quarries.... The borough has a , public library, Laurel Hill Academy (parochial), and the Simon H. Barnes Memorial Hospital. At Susquehanna the famous railroad bridge known as the Starucca Viaduct spans the Susquehanna R. The first settlement here was made about 1850 and the borough was incorporated in 1851. Pop. (1910) 3,478. Susquehanna River rises in two main branches—the North Branch, which issues from Lakes Otsego and Schuyler, Otsego co., N. Y., and the West Branch, which has its source in N. W. Pennsylvania. After circuitous courses through the valleys of the Appalachians they unite at Sunbury, Pa., below which the river flows s., then s.12. by s., to its mouth at Havre de Grace, at the head of Chesapeake Bay. Its principal tributaries are the Chemung and Juniata Rs. The former joins the North Branch near the boundary between New York and Pennsylvania; the latter joins the main stream a few miles above Harrisburg. The middle and s. parts of its course are followed by a canal. The most imortant cities on its banks are Wiliamsport, Lockhaven, and Clearfield on the West Branch, and, on the North Branch, Binghamton, N. Y., Harrisburg and Wilkesbarre, Pa., and Port Deposit, Md. The iength, following the North Branch, is 422 m.; the entire drainage basin is 27,655 sq. m. The Susquehanna is o only as far as Port Deposit, Md., ...}is used mainly to float lumber. Sussex, maritime co., England, on #nglish Channel. The goast is generally low and uniform: Many watering-places are studded along the coast–Hastings, Eastbourne, Bexhill, Seaford, New


haven. Shoreham, Brighton, Worthing, Bognor. The S. Downs traverse the southern

part of , the o terminating in Beachy. Head (Linchball, 818 ft.; Ditchling Beacon, 813 ft.). The centre is occupied by the Weald, a wide, undulating tract formerly covered with forest. The principal rivers are Rother, Ouse, and . Arun, , with W. Rother, flowing to the English Channel. Chalk and clay are quarried, and natural gas is obtained at Heathfield. early two-thirds of the cultivated area is under pasture. Large numbers of sheep are grazed (the Southdown breed be: # noted), and cattle are fattened. The area under woods and plantations is greater than in any other English county, except Hants. The Romanshââ many stations in the district, which later formed the kingdom of the S. Saxons. Within its borders were fought the battles of Senlac (1066) .#. (1264). Antiquities include earthworks (Cissbury Ring, Chanctonbury), castles (Arundel, Lewes, Houx monastic buildings (Battle bbey, Bayham). Area (anc. co.), 1,459 sq. m. Pop. (1911) 663,416. Susten Pass, a Swiss Alpine R. (7,422 ft.), which leads from ciringen in the Hasli or Upper Aar v }% to Wassen, on the St. Gothard Ry. Sutherland, GEORGE (1862), American legislator, born in Buckinghamshire, Eng. He received an academic, education, studied law at the Univ. of Mich., and was admitted to the bar in 1883. He subsequently practised at Salt Lake City, was a member of the Senate in the first state legislature of Utah (1896) and of Congress in 1901–3. He was elected U. S. Senator (Rep.) for the term of 1905–11. Sutherland Falls, celebrated waterfall (1,904 ft.), near Milford Sound. N. Z. Sutherlandshire, maritime co., north of Scotland, bounded on s.E. by . Moray, Firth and on N. and w by the Atlantic. It is the wildest and least densely populated county in Scotland. ut of a total population of 20,189 (1911) nearly 14,100 speak Gaelic and English. The main part of the country consists of moorland, rough hill-grazing, and deer for: ests, with lofty mountains and rugged valleys. o: Wrath, in the N.w.., reaches a height of 523 ft.; and there are numerous indentations (e.g. Kyle of Tongue and ioch Eribols). Ben More Assynt and Ben Clibrigg, reach elevations of 3,273 ft. and 3,154 ft. respectively. The salmon and herring fisheries are important. Dornoch is the county town. Dunrobin Castle, , on the coast near Golspie, is the seat of the Duke of Sutherland. Brochs and towers indicate . Pictish occupation, but early in the 11th century the county became Scandinavian, and remained Norse till its annexation to the Scottish kingdom. Prior, to 1810 all the available cultivable land in the county was held by small crofters, who led a most precarious existence; between 1810 and 1820 many of the crofts were converted into sheep-walks, and the crofters were removed to the coast or assisted to emigrate to Canada. Between 1873 and 1878 large tracts of land were cleared and reclaimed, especially, at Lairg and Kildonan, at the expense of the Duke of Sutherland. Sutlej, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, India, from which the province derives its name. It rises in Lakes Manasarowar and Rakastal in W. Tibet, 15,200 ft. above the sea, and enters the Punjab at its eastern extremity, Floying almost due w., it receives the Beas and, farther on, the Chenab. After a course of about 900 m. it joins the Indus at Mithankot, s. of Multan. It is navigable for steamers as far as Firozpur. Sutras, in Sanskrit, collections of rules which form the basis of teaching in religious ritual, grammar, and ceremonial customs; and also in the various systems of philosophy, each of which has its text-book written in Sutras. Sut ro, ADoLPH HEINRICH Joseph (1830–98), American min.# engineer, born in Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia. He graduated as a mining engineer at the Polytechnic in that city, and in 1852 went to California and engaged in gold mining. ...} after the ning of the Comstock mines in evada he went to Virginia City, and planned the long drainage to that bears his name. The tunnel is more than 20,000 feet long, and its construction occupied a large force of men for more than eight years. Sutro accumulated a great fortune in dealing in mining shares while managing the tunnel operations, and soon after its completion settled in San Francisco and became a large dealer in real estate. He was a generous bene: factor to the public charities of the city, and bequeathed large sums to the University of California, Vassar College, and other educational institutions for the founding of scholarships and the encouragement of scientific research. The Cliff House and Sutro Baths, two of the attractions of San Francisco which escaped destruction by the earthquake and fires in 1906, were established by him. Sutro also laid out in San Francisco the Sutro Heights Park (1880) and founded the Sutro Library. As

the Populist candidate, he was elected mayor of San Francisco in 1894. Suttee. See SATI. Sutter, John AUGUSTUs (1803– 80), American pioneer, born in Kadern, Baden. After graduating at the military college at Berne in 1823, he entered the French service, but in 1834 came to the U. S. In 1838 he visited Oregon, the Hawaiian Islands, and Alas: ka; and in 1839 established the first settlement at Sacramento Cal. Here he built a fort name Helvetia, and was for a time Mexican governor of the region. At the time of the conquest of California by the U. S. he was in prosperous circumstances, but gold was discovered upon land claimed by him, and as a result he was deprived of his estate. Ultimately he received an annual poon of $3,000 from the Cali. ornia legislature. In 1873 he settled in Litiz, Pa., and died in Washington in 1880. Sutton Coldfield, munic. bor., Warwickshire, England, 7 m. N.N.E. of Birmingham. In the arish church is an effigy of 'esey § Harman), bishop of Exeter (d. 1554), a native of this place, to which he was a munifitent benefactor. "There is a new town hall (1904). In the vicinit is a picturesque park (2,400 o

the gift of . Henry VIII., secure by Bishop Vesey, and much frequented by the people of Bir

mingham. Pop. (19 it ) 20,132. . Sutton-in-Ashfield, th:, Nottinghamshire, England, 3 m. w.s.w.. of Mansfield. The church of St. Mary Magdalene dates from the 14th century, and includes part of a 12th-century building. There are a town hasl #. and a free library (1898). osiery is manufactured, and there are colleries in the district. Pop. (1911) 21,707. Sutures, in anatomy, are the seams between connected skull or face bones. They are of various kinds, and include harmonia or the apposition of one bone against another; schindylesis, the reception of one bone into a fissure of another; as well as squamous, or overlapped beveled edges; , serrate, the interlocking of teeth-like edges, etc. Sutures or stitches in surgery, are used to close wounds and to unite divided tissues. Where there is much tension deep sutures may be necessary, and these may be of a special kind, such as Lister's “button’ suture. In some positions the material used must be capable of absorption after it has kept the parts in apposition sufficiently long to allow of union. Catgut and other animal textures fulfil this condition. In other cases the stitch may consist of silk, horsehair,

or wire; but these, have to be removed subsequently. Materials which are more or less rigid— wire and horsehair, for example -act to some extent as splints. and secure rest as well as union of the injured parts. Suvoroff, or SUVARoFF, ALExANDER WASILIEVITCH (1729–1800), Russian general, who rose from the ranks, and never was defeated, not even by Napoleon. He was born at oscow. Having distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War, he was assigned high command in the Polish campaign of 1768–71. He then defeated the Turks in the First Turkish War (1773); crushed the revolt (1775) of Pugatchev and of the Caucasian tribes (1780); drove the Turks back in the Second Turkish War (1789) from Fokshani, the river Rymnik, and the stronghold of Ismail; stormed Praga in the second Polish campaign, and induced the surrender of Warsaw (1794). He was then sent to o the Austrians against the Frenc in Italy, and gained a series of brilliant victories over Moreau, Joubert, and Macdonald. He then crossed the Alps, with terrible sacrifice of men, and met Masséna at Schwyz, but was too weak to accept battle, and retreated into Austria. See Life by Spalding (1890). Suwalks, or SUVALKY, thi, cap. of gov. of same name, Russian Poland, 75 m. N.W. of Grodno, a centre of timber and grain trade. The government covers an area of 4,846 sq. m., and has a population (1897) of 604,945, chiefly engaged in agriculture, timber-felling, and the weaving of linen and woollen cloth. Pop. (1897) 22,646. - Suwanee River, Fla., rises in Okefinokee Swamp, S. Georgia, and flows 240 m. in a general s. course to empty into the Gulf of Mexico, about 15 m. N.N.w.. of Cedar Keys. ... It is navigable as far as White Springs. . . Suzdal, thi, Vladimir ...gov., Central Russia, 22 m. N. of Vladimir. city. The Cathedral of the Nativity, founded by St. Vladimir in the 10th century, partly reconstructed in 1528, ..., ranks among the most famous Russian ... There are also an episcopal palace and kremlin; marketardening, tanneries, tallow founries, cloth, calico, and cotton manufactures. Pop. (1897) 8,000. Suzerain, a feudal overlord. The modern use of the word signifies the overlordship of one wer over another, as that of the Porte over its tributary states. S Vi Holy Vi S.V., Sancta Virgo, Holy Virin; also sub voce, “under the ji. Syastika, a symbol of unknown origin, and early introduced into


India, apparently in connection with sun-worship. It appears either as a cross in a circle—thus, (B–or as a cross with the arms

bent at right angles—thus, FE.

The latter symbol is found in heraldic and ecclesiastical work in Christian countries, as well as in the catacombs, and is known as the fylfot. . . Mediaeval mystic writers derived it from the Greek gamma, which they thought suggestive of Christ as the cornerstone; but it is seen on objects exhumed at Troy by Dr. Schliemann, and in early Indian and Chinese art; also in Mexico and Peru. Sveaborg, th:, fortress, and seapt. of o land prov., Finland, 4 m. S.E. ...} Helsingfors city, on islands in the Gulf of Finland. Constructed in 1748–70 as a Swedish Gibraltar, it was taken by the Russians in 1808, and unsuccessfully , bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet in 1855. Svearike, or SveALAND, a division of Sweden, comprising the city of Stockholm and the counties of Stockholm, Upsala, Södermanland, Westmanland, Orebro, Vermland, and Kopparberg. of; tn., Funen, Denmark, 29 m. by rails.E. of Odense, on Svendborg, Sound. Its two churches date from the 13th century. . It is a shipbuilding centre. Pop. (1901) 11,543. Svendsen, Johan . SEVERIN (1840), Norwegian musical comser, was born at Christiania; came conductor of the musical association in Christiania, and since 1883 has been court conductor at Copenhagen. His compositions include a symphony and other orchestral works, chamber music, concertos for violin and for 'cello, and songs. One of his best-known works is his beautiful Romance for the violin. Sverdrup, Joh AN (1816–92), Norwegian politician, was born at Jarlsberg; elected to the Storthing in 1851 as a Radical member, and eventually became (1871– 72), leader of the peasant separatist party. . As president of the Storthing he played a very prominent part, in securing the presence of ministers in the Storthing, and in overriding the king's claim to an absolute veto upon its proceedings. In 1883 he became prime minister, but resigned in 1889. Sverdrup, OTTo (1855), Norwegian Arctic explorer, born at Haarstad in Helgoland; joined Nansen's expedition over the Greenland ice-fields in 1888, and was chosen by Nansen as captain of the Fram for his North Pole expedition. When Nansen, on March 14, 1895, quitted the Fram in order to make his wav to the Arctic circle by sledge, Sverdrup

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undertook the leadership of the expedition. In 1898–1901 he led a second expedition in the Fram, and discovered several islands §o. Axel Heiberg, Kin scar Land) between Greenlan and the Parry Isles and Melville I. The expedition is described in his New Land (Eng. trans. 1904). Sv etch in e, Swetch INE. Swabia, o, of Germany, existed from the beginning of the 10th to beyond the middle of the 13th century, and corresponded generally to Würtemberg, Baden, and S. W. Bavaria. Swaheli, a mixed Arab-Bantu people of Zanzibar and the opsite mainland between Momasa and the Rufiji R. All are Mohammedans, with a measure of culture due to Arab influences. The language, which, thanks to their enterprising spirit, as traders, caravan-leaders, and carriers, has become the chief medium of intercourse throughout E. Central Africa, is of Bantu structure, but is full of Arabic words and expressions. It is written both with the Arabic and the Roman alphabet, and has been carefully cultivated and largely used by £o. tant and Roman Catholic missionaries. See J. L. Krapf’s Elements of the Kisudheli Language ...}} and A Dictionary of the Suahili Language (1882); Bisho E. Steere's Swahili Exercises ässj. Swain, GEORGE FILLMoRE (1857), American civil engineer, born in San Francisco, and graduated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1877. He visited Europe in 1877–80, and studied at the Royal Engineering School at Berlin. In 1887 he became professor of civil engineering in the Massachusetts Institute of . Technology and engineer to the Massachusetts Railroad Commission. In 1894 he was elected a member of the Boston Transit Commission. He is author of Report on the Water Power of the Atlantic Watershed in vol. xvii. of Tenth U.S. Census. Swain, Joseph (1857), American educator, was born at Pendleton, Ind., and graduated (1883) at indiana University, where he was successively instructor, assistant professor, and professor of mathematics from 1886 to 1891. He held the same chair at Leland Stanford, Jr., University durin 1891–3, and in 1893 was electe president of his alma mater, which position he resigned in 1902 to become president of Swarthmore College. Swallow, or CHIMNEY SwALLow, a passerine bird, belongin to the family Hirundinidae, whic includes the swallows and martins, birds which are not related to the swifts, in spite of the superficial



resemblance. Both swallows and martins are characterized by the short and , wide bill, which is deeply cleft, with a very wide gape, and a mouth which opens to about the line of eye, the narrow elongated wings, the small, weak feet, and the forked tail. They are cosmopolitan in distribution, and feed upon insects, which are taken on the wing. The family is represented in all the temperate parts, of the world, and one species, the bank swallow (Clivicola riparia), is nearly cosmopolitan, making its nest in companies in holes in sandy cliffs right around the world The North American swallows include besides the bank swallow, and its relative the .."...# the large purple martins whic nest so abundantly in bird-boxes; the white-bellied and violet-green swallows, less common; ...nd the two barn swallows. hese last are the familiar birds which cach summer take up their rosidence about our barns and outhorses, having totally abandoned in the eastern half of the country their wild methods of nidification. The barn-swallow proper is distinuished by its chestnut breast and o forked tail from the eave or cliff swallow, which has a short squarish tail. The former construct cup-like nests of mud straw and feathers jo. against the wall or laid on the upper surface of a beam inside the barn, as formerly it sought to do under the shelter of rocky ledges

and cave-roofs. The latter makes a globular nest of pellets of mud entered by a bottle-like neck, an places it always on the outside of the building close up under the eaves; originally its nests were built in closely packed communities against the face of some cliff, as still may be seen in the remote West. Several swallows of similar *...". and with the same habit of seeking association with civilized man, occur in S. America.

Swall ow; SILAs C. (1839), American politician, , born, at Plains, Pa. He was educated for the ministry of the Methodist Church, eventually settled at Harrisburg, Pa., and became editor of the Pennsylvania Methodist. He became prominent as an agitator for reform in Pa.. politics and in 1898 polled 125,000 votes as the Prohibitionists’ candidate for governor. He was again their candidate in 1902, but received a comparatively. light vote. He was the Prohibition candidate for President of the U. S. in 1904. Swallowing, or DEGLUTITION, is a complicated action whereby food or liquid is carried from the mouth to the stomach. Within the oesophagus the bolus is involuntarily carried downwards by peristăltic movements of the muscular fibres. Deglutition is voluntary only so long as the food is in the mouth. When the bolus has passed the palatine arch the act becomes reflex, and is controlled by a nerve centre in the medulla oblongata. , Swallowing can thus be performed durin unconsciousness. The stimulus for the reflex part of the act is the presence of food or liquid in the pharynx, or at the root of the tongue. Swallowwort, a name , given to plants of the genus Asclepias, more usually known as “milkweeds.” They bear umbels of flowers, and are for the most part plants with milky juice. Among the species are A. stipitacea and A. Cornuti (the common milkweed), the young shoots of which are sometimes eaten like asparagus. A. incarnata, A. tuberosa (the butterfly weed), and A. curassavica (the wild idecacuanha) are among the species valued for their medicinal properties. Swami, a title ..", used to indicate the Supreme Being; subsequently it was applied to idols, leaders of religious thought, priests or men of rank. It is now used, among Tamil and Telugu Hindus, as a respectful form of address, equivalent to “teacher’; sometimes it is part of a name— e.g. Rama Swami. Swammerdam, JAN (1637–80), Dutch naturalist and entomoloist, was born at Amsterdam. e devoted himself to natural history, especially to the dissection of insects. He was author of a General History of Insects (1792) and a History of the Day Fly (1681). He was a disciple in religion of the mystic Antoinette Bourignon, whom he followed to Holstein. Swampscott, th:, Essex co., Mass., adjoining Lynn on the E., 11 m. N.E. of Boston, on Massachusetts Bay, and on the Bost. and Me. R. It is a residential suburb of Lynn and a fashionable summer resort. Phillips School is situated here. A fishing, industry is carried on from this place. There is a public library in the town hall. The first settlement

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tralia has a species which is black throughout. Swan, JoBN MACALIAN (1847), English sculptor and painter born at Old Brentford; studi painting under Gérôme in comÉ. with Bastien-Lepage and agnan-Bouveret, and sculpture under Frémiet. He began to exhibit in the Royal Academy in 1878; two years later his Prodial Son was bought for the hantrey collection (Tate Gallery, London). In 1894 he was elected A.R.A., and in 1899 member of the Royal Watercolor Society. A special exhibition of his studies was held at the Fine Art. Society's Gallery, in 1897. He is, the finest English sculptor of animals in his suggestion of their essential character, structure, and movement. His paintings are poetically treated, with a fine sense of color. See Baldry's Drawings of John M. Swan (1905). Swan, SIR. Joseph Wilson (1828), English inventor, was born at Sunderland; founded the firm of Mawson & Swan, and increased the rapidity of photographic , dry plates by heatin the emulsion. Later he o the carbon or autotype process of obtaining permanent photographic prints, and invented bromide paper and several photomechanical processes. Swan's name is, however, best known in connection with the invention of the incandescent, electric lamp, which he first exhibited in 1879. He was knighted in 1904. Swan, KNIGHT of THE. See LohengRIN. Swanetia, ancient division of Caucasus, named from the Svans, Strabo’s Suani. Swansea, seapt. th:, munic., co., and parl. bor., Glamorganshire, Wales, at the mouth of the Tawe, 60 m. w.N.w.. of Bristol; is the chief seat of the tinplate manufacture, and one : the o important Copper smelting an .#. ...”. the . and has extensive coal mines. Its docks cover 60 acres. On July 20, 1904, King Edward VII, laid the foundation stone of the ‘King's Dock,' which is to cover 66 acres, and is to be completed by 1910. . Its parks include Victoria Park. Pop. (1911) munic. and co. bor.,114,673. Swanton, th:, Franklin co, Vt., 9 m. N.N.w.. of St. Albans, on the Missisquoi R., about 2 m. from the N. end of Lake Chamlain, and on the Cent. Wt., the r. Trunk, and the Bost. and Me. R. Rs. It manufactures smokeless powder and explosives, shotgun ammunition, suspenders, lime, and finished marble. Limestone and variegated marble are found in the district. The town owns and operates the water-works and Swarth more College


electric-lighting plant. The place was incorporated in 1790. op. (1910) 3,628. Swarthmore, College. ... A coeducational college at Swarthmore, Pa., 12 m. w.s.w.. of Philadelphia, founded in 1869 as a school for the children of Friends and named from Swarthmore Hall, the home of George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends. The courses of study are partially elective and lead to the single degree of Bachelor of Arts, except in engineering in which the B.s. degree is conferred for, certain

courses. Irregular, special, and preparatory courses, are also offered. he master's degree is

conferred for resident graduate work, and the engineering degrees may be conferred on graduates of the college who have been successfully engaged in professional practice for not less than three years. The college offers two graduate fellowships and a number of undergraduate, scholarships. The nine college buildings occupy a site of 200 acres. The college property is valued at $712,000, the endowment is $885,361, and there is an income of about $115,000. In 1906 the students numbered 290, the instructors 27, and the library contained 25,000 volumes. Swastika. See SVASTIKA. Swatow, seapt. th:, . Kwangtung prov., China, on 1. bk. of Han, 5 m. from its mouth, and 180 m. N.E. of Hong-kong; has been open for foreign trade since 1869, though for long it had an unenviable reputation for antiforeign feeling. Sugar is largel exported, and considerable, trade is done in tea, o tobacco, beans, and bean-cake. In 1904 the exports were valued at over $12,500,000, and the imports at $25,000,000. Pop. 48,000. Swayne, CHARLEs (1842), American judge, born at Guyencourt, Del. He received an academic education, taught school for a few years, and in 1871 was admitted to the Philadelphia bar. He removed to Florida in 1885, and in 1889 was appointed U. S. district judge for the Northern District. #. was impeached by the House of Representatives Dec. 13, 1904, for misconduct in office, the charges relating to his alleged non-residence in the district, and to allegations of corruption and oppression. . He was acquitted by the Senate by a majority vote Feb. 27, 1905. Swaziland, a South African native state, E. of the Transvaal. Area, 8,000 sq. m.; pop. (1904) 85,484 natives and 898 Euroans. The Lebombo mountains ie on the E. Its independence was guaranteed in 1884. The Swazis are a warlike Kaffir tribe, and were the allies of Great Britain in the Sekukuni and Zulu

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campaigns. Much of the land is excellent for grazing, and workable gold mines exist. Swearing is the making affir* of ol Statement or o y an appeal to a supernatura power. #.m. so. which is here specially under consideration, consists (1), in the hasty, irreverent, and thoughtless use of a solemn asseveration or of an ejaculatory prayer, or (2) in §. vent to a heartfelt and deiberate malediction. The ideal wicked man of the Psalmist is described as one who ‘clothed himself with cursing, as with his £o and delighted not in lessing. The essence, of profanity is desecration. It is pointed out by Mr. A. B. Cook (Folklore, xvi. 261) that when the Romans swore by the sky-god Jupiter, they were required to do so with no covering above them but the sky; otherwise the oath was profane. Similarly, the words “Mon Dieu,” *šići, Šot. "My God, which are pious apostrophes when used in prayer, become profane when used heedlessly in conversation; although custom has almost deprived the expression of all meaning in France and Germany. The blood and wounds of Christ gave rise to the British adjectives ‘bloody’ and woundy,' the latter now obsolete, although the former is in daily use, but no longer in polite society. he desire to distinguish between a solemn oath and a mere ejaculation, or an emphatic expression o also a feeling o o has led to the refining away o the original word, as in several of the above instances. For this reason the name of God appears nder such do. as Gad, 'Qd, od, Gosh, Govey, Gol, Golly, and Goles; while Lord has changed into Lor’, Law, Lud, Lo'd, Losh, Lawks, and Land (as in “Landsakes!”). “By God!’ has assumed the forms. ‘By Gad,' § ‘Egad,” and (in Ireland) ‘Bedad’, and ‘Begorra.' ...The interjectional appeal to the Virgin §§ which is spelled “Marie!’ b aucer, has long been written o st still survives in some arts of England. Formerly, pro: ane swearing was a custom of lords and ladies, as indicated by Shakespeare, when he makes Hotspur call upon Lady Percy to “Swear me, Kate, like a lady, as thou art, a good o oath,” and to leave to citizens an their wives such milk-and-water

protestation; as, “In sooth,” As true as I live,’ and ‘Assure as a day.”


Sweating Sickness, or MILIARY FEver, is a disease characterized by pyrexia, profuse sweats, and an eruption of mil

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slight, epidemics still occur in Picardy and in the north of Italy. It has never been seen in the United States. , More rarely sweating sickness is of a malignant type, and is accompanied by high temperature, with delirium, extreme prostration, and haemorrhage. In such cases death may occur almost at the onset of the fever. The epidemics of the middle ages seem to have assumed this malignant character. Sweating System. A term of uncertain origin, employed to characterize the manufacture of goods for the market in tenements and dwelling-houses, in the cities. Under this system the ‘manufacturer’ provides the materials of industry, and lets the working up of such materials to a contractor for a specified price. The contractor may, in turn, let the work, at a lower price, to a sub-contractor, who finds workers to take the material to their homes and there rform the labor contracted for. he manufacturer may, however, deal, directly with the laborer, eliminating contractor and subcontractor. The essential feature in the system is the i. of work on materials belonging to the employer on the premises of the worker. This system of induswas practically universal before the introduction of the fa秧 system. In its goneral form it is known as the “domestic system

The song system to-day is characterized by minute subdivision of labor, irregular employment, and extremely low wages and evil sanitary conditions. Modern appliances and wer machinery cannot be installed in the worker's tenement; accordingly, in order to compete with the better equipped factories, wages are necessarily low. Classes of labor which are not fitted for factory, employment—newly arrived immigrants, women with small children, *. workmen and invalids are the reliance of the system. Since such workers are without other resources for their living, a reduction in the rate of pay for sweated work merel results, in forcing them to wor longer hours and to crowd together in greater number in cheaper quarters. ... The development of large retail establishments, actively competing in offerings of lowso clothing and other manuactured goods, has in recent years

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