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Swift was far more of a churchman than a politician, and the Whig attitude toward his favorite scheme for the remission of the Irish first-fruits, ultimately led to his transferring his allegiance to the Tory party, whose cause he pleaded in the Examiner, and in a series of powerful pamphlets. For this he was preferred to the deanery of St. Patrick's. In 1724 he wrote a series of anonymous pamphlets entitled Drapier's Letters, protesting furiously against what all Ireland considered the scandalous terms on which a o was granted to an English merchant named Wood, to institute a copper coinage in Ireland. This made him the idol of his countrymen. Gulliver's Travels was published in

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Swift's life. In early years he had a passing courtship with a Miss Waring (‘Varina"). The real affection of his life was for Esther Johnson—the “Stella’ of his verse—whom he first met at Sir William Temple's. For her he wrote the Journal to Stella, descriptive of his life in London, but never intended for publication; and there is a strong probability that, he was latterly privately married to her. A third woman, Esther Vanhomrigh (‘Vanessa”), loved Swift, and received from him in return an ardent friendship easily mistaken for love. But when jealously moved her to ask for an explanation of his relations with Stella, Swift was so enraged that he abruptly broke with her. Vanessa was so overcome that she died shortl after (1723). By her will she left directions for the publishing of Swift's metrical version of their romance, which appeared as Cadenus and Vanessa in 1726. Sir W. Scott's edition of 1814 is still the completest of Swift's Works; reissued by G. Saintsbury (1891). Selections have been edited b Traill (1884–5), Lewin (1886), #. Morley (1889 – 90), and Craik 1892). See Lives by Craik (1882), ir Leslie Stephen (1882), Moriarty (1893), and Churton Collins (1893). Swift, Joseph GARDNER (1783– 1865), American soldier, born on Nantucket Island. He was the first graduate of West Point (1802), and was assigned to the engineer corps of the army. He rose rapidly in rank, and on the outbreak of war with England was made chief engineer of the army, with the 1. of colonel. He had active service under Wilkinson in the latter’s abortive Northern campaign of 1813, and afterwards took part in fortifying New York. He resigned in is 18 and devoted himself to civil engineering, among other things building the New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain Railroad in 1830–31. Swift, LEwis (1820), American astronomer, born in Clarkson, N. Y., and educated in the Clarkson Academy. In 1862 he discovered an important comet, and demonstrated its influence on star showers which were witnessed at the time of its appearance. In 1882 the citizens of Rochester, N. Y., and H. H. Warner, built and equipped a large o for Dr. Swift, in which he discovered more than 1,000 new nebulae and many comets. Failing sight compelled him to discontinue his observations, and he disposed of all his astronomical instruments to the trustees of the Lowe Observatory in California. Swift, LINDSAY (1856), Ameri

can librarian and author, born in Boston. He graduated at Harvard in 1877, and soon after joined the staff of the Boston ublic Library, for which he compiled and edited many imrtant bibliographical works. e, contributed to many journals and edited several historical works. His Brook Farm in the “National Studies in American Letters Series’ (1900), is probably the most satisfactory account yet given of that famous community, and its connection with the “Transcendental” movement. Swilly, Lough, Ireland, a fine inlet, between Donegal and Londonderry. Length, about 30 m. It is well adapted for a harbor of refuge, and fortifications have been erected. The largest battleships can anchor in Buncrana ay. Swimming. The power of i."; or sustaining and propelling the body in water, is a natural faculty with quadrupeds, but has to be acquired by man. It is practised by all races of the globe, but brought to the greatest perfection by those in , tropical imates; thus the pearl - divers of the Persian Gulf, Ceylon, and the . Eastern Archipelago, the ‘diving boys’ of Aden and kindred seaports, the islanders of the Pacific, and the seafaring and #. population of tropical seaboards, *P*. to be almost amphibious. he specific gravity of the human body is slightly less than that of water, and provided the whole body is immersed and the chest inflated, a person will not sink. Every portion of the body obtruded above the water adds to the weight of the submerged part, and soon reverses the narrow margin of buoyancy. The arms and head are the portions which the struggling nonswimmer instinctly elevates, with the result that the trunk and legs, encumbered with the additional weight, drag him down. he best way to learn swimmin is under an instructor, who, wit the aid of a line, one end of which is attached to a pole or is carried over a trolley wheel, while the other is attached to a band round the learner's chest, keeps his pupil in the proper position, regulates to a nicety the exact amount of support requisite, and teaches the proper method of making the strokes. Such artificial aids as cork belts or bladders should never be used for learning; for although they prevent the body from sinking, they also prevent it from being properly submerged. }. are several methods or styles of swimming, the four commonest being the breast stroke, the side stroke, the overhand stroke, and swimming on the

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friend Theodore Watts-Dunton) he passed the rest of his life. r: Swinburne published his first book, comprising the two dramas The Queen Mother and Rosamund, in 1860. The first of the two is almost a prelude to the great dramatic cycle of Mary Stuart, to which Mr. Swinburne gave the best years of his early and middle manhood. In 1865 he became one of the foremost poets of his time, by the publication of , that superb , syrical drama in the Greek mould, Atalanta in Calydon. Chastelard, which, also belongs to this year, should be considered as the first section of a trilogy on Mary of Scotland, its companion dramas being Bothwell (1874) and Mary Stuart (1881). But in 1866 Poems and Ballads not only created an intense interest, but aroused much vehement opprobrium. The were jlisio in New Yor under the title Laus Veneris. Apart from their great and enduring beauty, they read now as the work of a young and unbalanced mind aflame by the delight of life and the magic of beauty, and intoxicated by the joy of revolt— by the sheer pleasure of throwing off all restraint. Songs before Sunrise (1871) and #.ciis. (1876) convinced even the most unsympathetic judges that Swinburne was the greatest master of metrical music since Shelley. With the exception of Tristram of Lyonesse (1882), it is doubtful whether his later works can be held to have the same poetic value as, the earlier, as they certainly have not a like poetic influence. In Swinburne we have a poetic dramatist of great power and beauty, and a rhapsodist cf emotional life of unequalled enthusiasm and intensity. He was *P. the laureate of the sea Of his work in prose the matter is generally admirable and always interesting, but in manner it is very often efflorescent and redundant. His other sks include, Songs of Two Nations (1875); Songs of the Springtides (1880); Studies in Son 1880); A Čentury of Roundrls 1882); A Midsummer Holiday 1884); Marino Faliero (1885); ocrine (1887); Poems and Ballads (3d series, 1889); The Sisters §). Astrophel (1894); The Tale of Balen (1896); Rosamund. Queen of the Lombards (1899); A Channel assage, and Other Poems (1904); Love's Cross Currents; a Year's I.etters (1905); a critical Essay with Prefatory Note (1906); Atalania in Calydon, and Selected Lyrical Poems, in the Tauchnitz edition, odited, with biography, by Wil: liam Sharp, (1963). A collected edition of his works was published in 1904–5. See Stedman's Victorian Poets (rev. ed.,

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Swindling

1887), , and Woodberry's Swinburne (1905). Swindling is cheating or defrauding by artifice for obtaining money, which may or may not punishable as a crime, but which in most cases amounts to legal fraud, and would avoid a contract obtained by its means. To render swindling, punishable it must come under either the head of larceny by a trick, or the obtaining of money or credit by false pretences—i.e. by a false representation as to an existing fact. This is not a technical legal term in all jurisdictions. See FRAUD; LARCENY. . Swindon,...munic. bor... and ry. junction, Wiltshire, England, 77 m. w. of London, and on Wilts and Berks canal. Public buildings include town hall, market, corn, exchange, , and Railway Mechanics' Institution. Limestone is quarried. Here are locomotive and carriage works of the

Great Western ailway, employing 12,000 persons. Pop. (1911) 50,771. Swine. See PIG. Swine Fever. See PIG-Diseases.

Swinemünde,tn;,Prussia, prov., Pomerania, on isl. of Usedom. 35 m. by rail N.N.w.. of Stettin; is strongly fortified, and , is a watering-place. Pop. (1900) 10,251.

S w in g , DAVID (1830–94), American clergyman, was born in Cincinnati, O., was brought u on a farm, and graduated (1852 at Miami University. . He was appointed professor of languages at his alma mater in 1853, and filled the position for twelve years. In 1866 he was called to the pastorate of the Fourth Presbyterian Church in Chicago, and gained reputation as a forcible yet spiritual preacher. He was charged with heresy by Dr. Francis L. Patton (1874), and, though acquitted by the Chicago Presbytery, he finally resigned his pastorate, holding exercises in a theatre until the Central Music Hall was built by some of the wealthy members among his adherents, in 1878, and here he preached until his death, to large congregations. He published: Sermons (1874 sq.), Truths for To-Day (2 vols. 1874–6), Motives of Life (1879), and Club Essays (1881). See Life and Sermons: A Memorial Volume (1894).

Swinton, tm., W. Riding; Yorkshire, 10 m. N.E. of Sheffield; has railway works, and manufactories

of bottles, glass, Fo and iron goods. op. (1911) 13,658. Swinton, suburban thship.,

Lancashire, England, 5 m. N.w. of Manchester. Pop. 1911) 30,759.

Swinton, WILLIAM (1833–92), American journalist and author,

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born at Salton, Scotland. His Foot. removed to Canada, when e was ten years...of age. He studied at Knox College, Toronto, and at Amherst College. In 1853 he preached for a short time, but in the same year he became professor of languages at Edgeworth Seminary, Greensborough, N. C. Subsequently , he taught in the Mount Washington College Institute, New York, and in 1858 joined the staff of the New York imes. He was war correspondent for that newspaper, and his frank criticism of military, movements brought upon him the displeasure of Gen. Burnside, and, afterwards, of Gen. Grant. After the close of the war he travelled in the South, studying conditions there, and in 1867 returned to the New York Times, as literary critic. From 1869 to 1874 he was rofessor of belles-lettres at the niversity of California. He wrote text-books of history, geogo and language, which were standard for many years. Among his other writings were: Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac (1866); Twelve Decisive Battles % the War (1867); Condensed istory of the United States (1870); Outlines of the World's History (1875). e edited Masterpieces of English Literature (1880) and A Treasury of Tales (1885). Gwiss Guards, bodies of mercenaries who have formed the É. bodyguard for nearly two undred years, and , who served in the French army from 1616 as “Les Gardes du Roi.” The latter distinguished themselves by their devotion to Louis xvi. at the time of the French revolution (1792). . Switch. (1.) A movable tapero Fo or tongue of rail by which a train is directed from one track to another. See RAILways. (2.) An instrument for opening or closing an electric circuit. See ELECTRIC LIGHTING. Switchback, a zigzag system of railway progression used for crossing mountains, in place of a tunnel. This method was employed in the Rocky Mts., but is expensive to maintain and is usually supplanted by a tunnel. The name is also given to a railway in , which the momentum secured by running swiftly down a declivity enables the cars to mount a steep ascent, sometimes, however, with the assistance of a stationary engine and cable rope. Other forms adopt the spiral system of ascent, where the principle of compensation ascents and descents enables the cars to overcome very steep gradients. The switchback system is applied to a popular method of amusement in which cars are made to descen steep inclines, and the momentum thus acquired enables them to ascend to a point equal in

Switzerland

height to the original startingpoint.

Swithin, SAINT (d. o bishop of Winchester, was in high favor with Egbert, king of the West Saxons, whose son Ethelwulf made him bishop, in 852. He became one of the chief counsellors of Ethelwulf. He was active as the builder of bridges and churches. , His da is July 15, and an old # superstition declares that it will rain or be fair for the next forty days, according as St. Swithin's day is rainy or clear.

Switzerland. (Lat. Helvetia) has no natural frontiers, but is the creation of history. One canton (Schaffhausen) lies N. of the Rhine, though Constance and Mühlhausen were ultimately lost to the confederation; another canton (Ticino) lies wholly s. of , the Alps, though the similarly situated districts of Chiavenna and the Valtellina no . form part of the Swiss confederation; while Geneva and Porrentruy on the w- are naturally French, though politically #." on the ot }. o the ngadine (or upper Inn valley), on the E. is o Swiss, § at least the Lower Engadine is historically part of , the county of Tyrol. From a physical point of view, Switzerland forms part of the ‘highlands’ of Europe, for it includes part of the W. ?'. and practically the whole of the Central Alps. . The highest point wholly in Swiss territory is the summit of Monte Rosa (15,217 ft.), for Mount Blanc is non-Swiss, But apart from Mount Blanc and its immediate neighbors, all the loftiest summits of the Alps are Swiss. The lowest point (646 ft.) in Switzerland is on the Lago Maggiore. . Three of the greatest European rivers—the Rhône, flow§§ to the Mediterranean; the Rhine, flowing to the North Sea; and the Inn, which joins the Danube, and so drains into the Black Sea—rise in the Swiss laciers. With the exception of the Thur (which flows to the Rhine below so the Aar, also an affluent of the Rhine, is the single really, important Swiss river , of which the entire course is within Swiss borders. In fact, putting aside the Rhine canton (the Grisons), the Aar basin includes the whole of Switzerland N. of the Alps. The total area of Switzerland is 15,990 sq. m. Of this, 11,461 sq. m. (71.7 per cent.) was classed

as productive, 3,250 sq. m. being occupied by , forests, and 127 sq. m. vineyards. Of the

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seven Swiss universities (Basel, Zürich, Bern, Geneva, Lausanne, Fribourg, and Neuchâtel) are attended by nearly , 5,000 students, and the Federal polytechnic school at Zürich by near 1,200. For the mountain .# ways, see ALPs. . It may be added that the Simplon tunnel was opened in 1906. To a large extent Switzerland is a pastoral country. The chief manufactured articles exported are cheese, condensed milk, chocolate, and other food products; silk and cotton goods, including embroidery; and clocks and watches. The total exports in 1905 amounted to $188,687,831, and the imports to $264,586,738. There is a re

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markable disparity between the exports and imports in the trade of Switzerland with the United States, the exports to the latter country for 1905 amounting to 22,353,354 and the imports to $302,919. The chief exports were silk manufactures, $5,013,057, and cotton manufactures, $10,214,779. Politically Switzerland forms a confederation of twentytwo small states or cantons, the names of which, with the dates of their entry, are as follows:– Zürich (1351), Bern (1353), Lucerne (1332), Uri, (1291), Schwyz (1291), Unterwalden (1291), Glarus (1352), Zug (1352), Fribourg (1481), Soleure (1481), Basel (1501), Schaffhausen (1501), Appenzell (1513), St. Gall (1803), Grisons (isoo), Aargau (isoo), ‘thur

including the president and viceresident. German, French, or talian may be used in the federal legislature. Certain bills must obligato referendum), and others may (facultative referendum), if required by o cantons or 30,000 citizens, submitted to a popular vote. Proportional representation has been adopted in the cantons of Ticino, Neuchâtel, Geneva, Zug, Soleure, Fribourg, and Schwyz, and in the town of Bern. . By the laws. of the confederation no standing army may be maintained. Military training is, however, com; pussory on every citizen; and there are several forts and other military works along the frontiers. Children commence their military training at eight years

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