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land (1897), which may be sup- the aggressive, protecting the plemented by A. Lecointe's In- men of Appenzclf (1411) against vcntairc des 'Institutions F.cono- their lord, the abbot of St. Gall,

vcntairc des Institutions F.conoft Socialcs de la Suisse a la fin du 10"" fiifcle (1900). See also Die industrielle it. kommerziellc Schweiz bcim Eintritt ins xx. Jahrhundprt.

History. — It was only in 1815 that the country now known as Switzerland came into existence as a distinct 'land,' while the name 'Switzerland' was not officially given to the Swiss confederation till 1803. The thirteen cantons which formed this confederation up to 1798 were all German-speaking, for it was only between 1798 and 1815 that the French-speaking, Italian-speaking, and Romansch-spcaking cantons were raised to that status from that of subjects or allies. Anciently the house of Hapsburg had gradually obtained great possessions in Swabia, as well as the county of the Zurichgau, when in 127.1 its head, Rudolf, was elected to the empire, anil soon after (1282) secured the duchy of Austria. Rudolfs power rapidlv increased in Central Switzerland. and threatened to deprive of their freedom the small communities settled in the valleys round the Lake of Lucerne. In August, 1291, the three lands (forest cantons) of I'ri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden bound themselves together in a defensive alliance, which came to be known as the Everlasting League. This formed the nucleus of the Swiss confederation. Hut the Hapsburgs, even after losing the empire in 1292, and again in 1308, exercised great pressure on the members of the league. Hence in 131.1 appeal was made to arms, and Leopold of Austria led a great armv to crush Schwy/., the leader of the league; but he was defeated with great loss on Nov. !.">, 1315, at Morgartcn. Three weeks later the victors renewed in greater detail the league of 1291, and it was gradually joined by other districts — in 1332 by Lucerne, in 13.">l by the free imperial city of Zurich, and in 1352 by the Austrian districts of Zug (won definitely in 1364), and Glarus (won definitely at the battle of Nafels in 1388), and

and making alliances with (1412) the town of St. Gall and (1410) with the sister confederation in Valais, or the upper valley of the Rhone. In 1415. after the excommunication of Frederick of Austria by the Council of Constance, the league made its first conquests—viz. the Hapsburg dominions in the Aargau, henceforth ruled as subiects; while in 1403 Uri took the'lead in a first attempt (defeated in 1420) to wrest from the Milanese the Val Leventina and the Val d'Ossola, both s. of the Alps. Soon a civil war broke out (1430) among the members of the league with regard to the inheritance of the last count of Togenburg, Ziiricn allying itself with Austria and holding out against the rest, but being finally defeated in 1450, after the confederates had beaten at St. Jakob (1444), near Basel, a band of free-lances coming from France to aid the Austrians. In 1452 the league made its first treaty of alliance with France, while in 1400 Thurgau was taken from Sigismund of Austria.

Very soon another enemy appeareil on the scene—viz. Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Bern being in the forefront against him and his ally. Savoy. Several portions of Savoy were seized (1474-5) by Bern and her allies, who twice inflicted very severe defeats on Charles's army —at Grandson on March 2, 1470, and at Moral on June 22, 1470 —while they aided in his final defeat at Nancy in January, 1477. These battles established the military fame of the confederates, and caused their services to be sought for by France. Quarrels, however, arose as to the division of the Burgundian spoil, which were appeased by the mediation of the holy Niklaus von der Flue. Five other memlxTS were now added to the confederation—in 1481 Fribourg and Soleure (satellites of Bern), in 1501 the free imperial cities of Basel and Schaffhausen, and in 1513 Appen/ell, while various towns became allied with the league. In 1497-8 two of the three leagues of Rhaitia

(Grisons) became allies, and in 1499 the confederates helped them to beat the Austrians in the battle in the Calven gorge, after which the confederation became practically free from the empire, though not legally till 1048. Early in the 10th century the attempt to secure lands in the Milanese was renewed—in 1500 Bellinzona was taken by the three forest cantons, and in 1512 most of the rest of Tcssin by the confederates, as well as Chiavcnna and the Valtcllina by the Rha-tian leagues. But Swiss rule at Milan itself (1512) was finally crushed at the battle of Marignano in 1515. In 1510 and 1521 close treaties of alliance were made with France, and a few years later the religious reformation secured a footing first in Zurich (1522-4) and then in Bern (1528). Hence the rising power of the confederation became paralyzed by internal dissensions as to tnese two matters. The peace of Kappcl (1531) after the death of Zwmgli at the battle there, the death in 1504 of Calvin (who had reformed and ruled rigorously the French-sneaking town of Geneva), and the formation by St. Charles Borromeo of the Golden League (1580), mark various phases in the religious conflict, the Reman Catholic memlicrs having a majority in the Diet or meeting of envoys from the thirteen full members. The French alliance meanwhile dragged the confederation into various conflicts, and drained it of its men, who became mercenaries in the French army. The one bright spot in Swiss history at this period is the legal acknowledgment by the emperor (1648) that the confederation was entirely independent of the empire, the position of which was practically taken by France. Two disastrous civil-religious wars in Ki50 and 1712, a great peasant revolt in 165fi, the harsh rule of the subject lands, and the more and more strictly aristocratic rule at home, are the chief events to be noted till signs of a revival of national life became visible in the foundation (1702) of the Helvetic Society. The old political and social state of things finally came to an end in 1798, when the French (as protectors of liberty) overturned the old confederation, and established the Helvetic republic, made up of twenty-three cantons. But in 1803 Na'poleon swept away this system, reviving the thirteen old cantons, and adding to them six others (St. Gall, Grisons, Aargau, Thurgau, Tcssin, and Vaud); while the old Diet was supplemented by a central government, held in turn for a vear by that of the six great cantons. But naturally with Nanoleon's fall the older state of things came back, the Congress of Vienna addSwitzerland

ing (1815) yet three more cantons (Valais. Neuchatcl, and Geneva), neutralizing Switzerland, but reviving the old Diet, and providing a central government (shifting every two years) only in the shape of that of Zurich, Bern, or Lucerne. Little by little (especially after 1830) more liberal ideas became prevalent in divers cantons, which revised their constitutions in that sense, and aimed at amending the federal pact of 1815. The crisis came on the occasion of the suppression (1840-3) of various monasteries in Aargau, which caused the seven Roman Catholic cantons to form in 1843 a Sonderbund. or separate league; and when at last, in May, 1847,


partial revision of the constitution was adopted. In 1857 the king of Prussia renounced his hereditary rights to the principality of Neuchatel. Since that date the history of Switzerland is but of local interest, the advance of Liberal ideas causing repeated revisions of the cantonal constitutions. The Radicals have since 1848 been in possession of power in federal matters, though not all-powerful. The state purchase (1898) of the five great railway lines, and gradually increasing federal expenses as against decreasing revenues, form perhaps the most salient features of recent Swiss history. Bibliography.—Of general his


W. Vischcr's Die Sage von der Befreiung der Waldstadte (1867). On constitutional matters consult J. M. Vincent's Government in Switzerland (2d ed. 1900), Blumer's Handbuch d. Sch-a-eit. Bundesstaatsrechtes (3 vols. 187791), which is better than Bluntschli's work (2 vols. 1875), while Dubs's Das ofienlliche Recht d. Schw. Edig. (2 vols. 1878) is very clear, and Orelli's Das Staatsrccht d. Schweiz. hideenosseruchajt (1885) is an admirable summary. Literature.—Swiss literature proper dates from the 16th century, and is written in many tongues. In that age its chief glories were Conrad Gesner, philologist and naturalist; ^Egidius


the Liberals got a maiority of cantonal votes in the Diet, civil war was inevitable. The Sonderbund war lasted but three weeks (November, 1847), and ended in the defeat of the Sonderbund. The result was the federal constitution of 1848, which set up a central federal government, a central federal legislature—no longer a Diet of envoys—and a central federal judicial tribunal. Various rights were secured to every citizen, and the Jesuits were excluded from the territory of the confederation, while Kern was rccoRni/.cd as the capital. This is the basis of the revised federal constitution of 1X74. whirh introduced the facultative referendum, while in 1891 the initiative for a

tories, M'Crackan's Rise of the Swiss Republic (new ed. 1901) is the best in English, and J. Dierauer's Geschicntc d. Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschajt (2 vols. 1887 and 1892) the best in German—it stops at 1510. Complete and detailed are Dandlikcr's Gfschichte d. Schweiz (3 vols. ed. 1892-5) and Van Muyden's Histoire de la Nation Suisse (3 vols. 1896-1901). More popular in style (with many illustrations) is the large History by Lutz in German (1900) and Gobat in French (1904). For the origins of Swiss historv, sec CEchsli's splendid work Die Anfanpe d. Schu'eiz. Eidgenosscnscha/l (1891), A. Rilliet's Les Origines de la Confederation Suisse (1868), and

Tschudi, the founder of Swiss history and of the Tell legend; Josias Simler and Ulrich Campell, both historians and topographers; besides the chroniclers Stumpf, Valerius Anshelm, and Cvsat; while Nicholas Manuel and Johann V. Travcrs represented drama and poetry in an early form, as well as (in the Suisse Romande) Beza the theologian and Viret. In the 17th century the most prominent names are those of the historians and topographers, Stettler, Merian, Plantin; while the brothers Cysat represented the natural sciences, and Agrippa d'Aubigne and Diodati the department of belles-lettres. The great Swiss literary revival took place in the 18th century. Switzerland

Bourguct founded in 1732 the Journal Helvetique or Mercure Suisse, while Ruchat and Crousaz devoted themselves to different branches of literature; the 'Sociele Helvetique1 came into existence in 1760. At Zurich the chief figures were Bodmer and Breitinger, who sought to free German literature from its ancient shackles; Solomon Gessner, the pastoral poet; Lavater, now best remembered by his writings on physiognomy} and J. J. Scneuchzer, eminent in the physical sciences and a member of the English Royal Society. Bern boasted of Albert Haller, poet and much else besides, and Wyttenbach the naturalist; \vhile at Basel was the philosopher Isaac Iselin, as well as the mathematicians Euler and the Bernoullis. In the later 18th century the literary centre of Switzerland was Geneva, rendered illustrious by the Genevcse Rousseau and the stranger Voltaire, and boasting also of the Alpine naturalists and explorers, Saussure, Bourrit, and the De Lues, besides Necker and Mallet du Pan, both mainly publicists. Madame de Stael and Benjamin Constant were both of Swiss origin, but belong to European literature. In the early 19th centurv we have the philosophers P. A. "Stapfer, A. Vinet, and Ch. Secretan; Bridel, who popularized the works of others; Pestalozzi the educationalist' the historians J. von Miiller, Zschokke, Vulliemm, and Kopp; and F. Keller, the discoverer of the lake dwellings. In German-speaking Switzerland, Jeremias Gotthclf (Bitzius), the describer of peasant life, with the novelists and poets Gottfried Keller, and C. F. Meyer, are particularly prominent. Other well-known men were Amiel, the rnoralizer; J. R. von Wyss and Juste Olivier, poets. Topffer, Rambert, and Javelle; describers of the Alps; the scientists Agassiz and Desor; the novelists Cherbuliez, "T. Combe'; E. Rod; the literary critic J. V. Widmann; Scartazzini, the expounder of Dante; and many historians, such as G. von Wvss, Dandlikcr, CEchsli, Dieraucr, \leyer v. Knonau, Daguet, Vaucher, J. G remaud, and Motta. In Romansch literature we have Ballioppi the philologist, and the poets Cadcras and Flugi; but this revival is purely literarv. For a general view of past Swiss literature, sec the Histories of Dnndliker and Van Muyden, and for that of the 19th century, ch. iv. of vol. ii. of La Suisse an nmf Siecle. Details are given in Riirhtold's 6Vsrhirhte of German-Swiss literature (1892), in those of Godet (1895), and Rosscl (1889-91), relating to French Switzerland, and

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