« السابقةمتابعة »
was the first sea-going man-ofwar in any navy to he so fitted. Modern vessels, and especially men-of-war, are frequently fitted with a pair of screws, the advantages being that the necessary propelling area may be got at a lower depth; while, by reversing one and letting the other go ahead, the vessel may be turned without a rudder and without steerage way. A further advantage is that twin screws work independently, with separate engines, so that the loss or damage of one does not entirely disable a ship. Three and four screws have also been used, and have given satisfactory results. In turbinc-engincd vessels the screws are made of small diameter on account of their rapid rotation. Screws are made of cast iron, cast steel, or bronze. Though not so strong as steel, bronze is the best material because it does not corrode rapidly. See Barnaby's Marine Propellers (1891), Froudc's Elementary Relation between Pitch, Slip, and Propulsive Efficient)' (1878), Bourne's Treatise on the Screw Propeller (18.r)(i) and Catechism of the Steam Engine (cd. 18li5), Seaton's Manualof Marine Engineering (1893), Tompkins's Text-book oj Marine Engineering (1898), Scnnitt and Gram's Marine Steam Engine (1898), Bennitt's Monitor and the Navy Under Steam (1900).
Serlbe, Augustine Eugene (1791-1861), French dramatist, was born and died in Paris. In spite of the comparative failure of a number of his earliest plays, he persevered until he compelled attention by the success of Une Nuit de la Garde Nationale, in 1815. This play was written, as were most of Scribe's, in collaboration; indeed, at the height of his success he is said to have employed a small army of collaborators, he himself being general editor and final polisher. His versatility was astonishing; comedy, vaudeville, opera libretto, emotional drama, farce—all seemed to flow equally easily from his pen. He was not a genius, but a craftsman of the highest rank: his great cleverness concealed the superficiality of his observation. A few of his more notable plays are Le Solliciteur, Man Oncle Cesar, Le Mlnagc tie Garcon, La Dame Blanche. L'Hfritiere, Frontin, Bertrand et Raton, Le Verre, d'Eau^ La Calomnie, Une Chaine, Adnenne Lecouvreur, Bataille de Dames, Les Doigts de Fie. His complete works appeared in 76 vols. (187485). See Life, in French, by Legouvc (1874).
Serlbes, the official copyists r.nd expounders of the Jewish law. The Hebrew name was applied to what might be termed a minister of state (2 Kings 19:2)—e.g. for
war (2 Kings 25:19), or for home affairs (Neh. 13:13)—also quite generally to an amanuensis, like Baruch (Jer. 36:26-32). With Ezra emerges the secondary significance as denoting an expert in the law (Neh. 8:1), and after his day the scribes were a recognized official order, the members of which were also called lawyers or teachers of the law, and belonged chiefly to the Pharisaic party. It was their function to expound both the written and the oral law. See Edersheim's Lile and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i. 93 ff. (1887), Schurer's Hist, of the Jewish People, vol. ii. (1891).
Scrlblerus Club, a club of authors in London founded by Swift (1714), its object being to satirize literary incompetence. Four of the principal contributions were Pope's Dunciad and Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus (1741), chiefly written by John Arbutnnot, and satirizing Martin's Travels; P. P. Clerk of this Parish, a satire on Burnet's History of his own Time: and The Travels of Lemuel Gulliver.
Scribner, Charles (1821-71), American publisher, was born in New York city, and graduated (1840) at Princeton. Failing health interrupted his preparation for the bar, and he passed some time in Europe. In 1846, with Isaac D. Baker, he organized the publishing firm of Baker & Scribner, and on the death of Mr. Baker in 1848, published over his own name, and as Charles Scribner & Co., until his death. Meanwhile he had developed his importation business, and m 1857 he organized, with Charles Weiford, a separate firm, Scribner & Welford, for the importation of foreign books. Among the authors who placed their works in Mr. Scribner's hands were J. T. Headlcy, W. G. T. Shedd, Noah Porter, D. G. Mitchell. N. P. Willis, and Dr. J. G. Holland. The firm had established a monthly periodical, Hours at Home, in 18fi5, and in 1870 this publication was merged in a new magazine, Scribner s Monthly, with Dr. Holland as editor. On the death of Mr. Scribner in the following year, he was succeeded by his eldest son, John Blair Scribner (1850-79), the firm being reorganized as Scribner, Armstrong & Co., with A. C. Armstrong and Edward Seymour as partners, and subsequently, in 1878, as Charles Scribner's Sons. Afnotable publication carried out by Mr. Scribner was Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures in twenty-six volumes.
Scribner, Charles (1854), American publisher, son of the foregoing, was born in New York city, and graduated (1876) at Princeton- He joined the pub
lishing house of Charles Scribner's Sons, of which his brother, J. Blair Scribner was the head, immediately on graduation, and on the death of the latter, in 1879, himself became head of the firm. In 1881 Scribner's Monthly was sold to another house organized to purchase it, and its name was changed to The Century Magazine. In 1887 Charles Scribner^s Sons established a new monthly periodical, Scribner's Magazine.
Scribner, Frank Lam Son (1851), American botanist, born in Cambridgeport, Mass. He graduated at the Maine State College of Agriculture in 1873. After teaching in the public schools in Maine he became secretary to the state board of agriculture. In 1886 he was appointed special agent in charge of the mycological division of the botanical section of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and in 1887 became chief of the section of vegetable pathology. In 1888-94 he was professor of botany and director of the Agricultural Experimental Station at the University of Tennessee. In 1894-1901 he was chief of the division of agrostology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and in 1901—4 was chief of the Insular Bureau of Agriculture in the Philippine Islands. His publications include: Weeds of Maine (1869); Ornamental and Useful Plants of Maine (1874); Fungus Diseases of the Grape and other Plants (1886); American Grasses; and Fruits, Vegetables and Fibre Plants of the Philippines in Census of the Philippine Islands, 1903 (vol. iv. 1905).
'Scribner's Magazine,' founded in 1887 by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Scribner's Monlhlyhad been founded in 1870 and 1881 became The Century Magazine.
Scrlbonla, a lady of ancient Rome, who was married in 40 B.c. to Octavian, afterwards the Emperor Augustus. It was a purely political marriage, Scribonia being the sister of Scribonius Libo, the father-in-law of Sextus Pompeius, whom Octavian wished to conciliate. But he divorced her in 39 B.c., on the very dav on which she bore him a daughter, Julia, in order to marry Livia.
Scripture, Edward Wheeler (1864), American psychologist, born in Mason, N. H. He graduated in the College of the City of New York in 1884, and also studied in the universities of Berlin, Zurich and Leipzig. In 1892-1904 he was director of the psychological laboratory in Yale, and discovered the law of 'mediate association of ideas,' and methods of measuring hallucinations, and imaginings, and a process of producing anaesthesia Scrivener
electrically. He invented an improved instrument for testing color-sight, and many appliances for experimenting in psychology, and demonstrating the principal psychological doctrines. His puDlioitions include: Thinking, Feeling, Doing (1895); The New Psychology (1897) ; and Elements of Experimental Phonetics (1901).
Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1813-91), English Biblical scholar, was born in London; was a schoolmaster at Sherborne and Falmouth, and in 1874 became prebendary of Exeter, and in 1876 vicar of "Hendon in Middlesex. He wrote A Supplement to the A uthorized English Version oj the New Testament (1845), Six Lectures on the Text oj the New Testament (1874), edited The Cambridge Paragraph Bible (3 vols. 1870-3), ana took an important part in the revision of the New Testament.
Scrofula, Struma, or King's Evil, a tubercular affection of the lymphatic glands. It is manifested chiefly in the glands of the neck, which become swollen and thick like that of a pig, and the bronchial and mesenteric glands may also be affected. Scrofula is congenital only in this sense, that the children of weakly parents are generally weaklings and have little resistive power. The disease is most common in childhood, but it may arise in adults and even in the aged. When the mesenteric glands are affected, the condition is known as tabes mesenterica, the 'abdominal scrofula' of older writers. Diarrhoea is a constant symptom of this affection, and while the abdomen becomes prominent and tympanitic, the patient is usually puny, wasted, and anjemic. In the treatment of scrofula good food, fresh air. sunlight, cod-liver oil, iron ana tonics should be employed to strengthen the tissues. Locally, iodine painted over the glands sometimes appears to be beneficial in the early stages, but of late this method of treatment has rather fallen into disrepute. Should the glands suppurate, an early incision should De made; and even in the absence of suppuration it is often advisable to extirpate the tubercular focus by excising caseous glands.
Scrojrgs, Sir William (j'162383), lord chief-justice of England, born at Deddington in Oxfordshire; has left an even more infamous reputation than Jeffreys. Though little of a lawyer, he was clever as well as brutal of speech. His most outrageous conduct on the bench was during the time of the Popish plot which Titus Gates invented. For this he was impeached by the Commons in J681 and removed from the bench.
See Foss's Judges of England (1864).
Scroll, a spiral ornament in architecture (Ionic, Corinthian) and joinery. It is also a heraldic term for a motto-bearing ribbon or inscription.
Scrope, a north of England family. Geoffrey Le Scrope (d. 1340) was chief-justice under Edward n. and Edward in.— Henry Le Scrope (d. 1336), his brother, was chief-justice of the King's Bench and the Exchequer. —Richard Le Scrope (13271403), son of Henry, was at the siege of Calais and at Neville's Cross (1346), and was afterwards steward to Richard II., and became chancellor (1378).—RlCHArd Le Scrope (c. 1350-1405), archbishop of York, was beheaded for conspiracy against Henry iv.
Scrope, George Julius PouLETT (1797-1876), English geologist and political economist. He published Considerations on Volcanoes (1824) and Geology of the Extinct Volcanoes in Central France (1826). He entered Parliament in 1833, and became a supporter of free trade and social reforms, which he advocated in pamphlets so numerous that he became known as 'Pamphlet Scrope.' He sat in Parliament for Stroud till 1868, and was the author of a small book on Political Economy (1833) and of a Life of his brother, Lord Sydenham (1843).
Scrophularlaceie, a natural order of plants, mostly herbaceous, though some are shrubs and a few are small trees. They bear usually irregular flowers with four or five persistent sepals, a gamopetalous corolla, frequently bilabiate, generally four stamens, didynamous, and a twolobed stigma. Many herbs used in medicine are included in this order, the most important being the foxglove and digitalis. Among the genera are Pentstemon, Antirrhinum, Calceolaria, Mimulus, Linaria, and Vcrbascum.
Scrub, the generic name applied to the stunted tree or shrub growth which overruns many parts of Australia and elsewhere. The common scrub is known as the 'mallee' or *mulga.' It lends a dreary aspect to the features of the country. Other more pleasing varieties are the tea tree and the heath. The term is applied generically to any scanty, dwarfgrowing, stunted vegetation, and even to underwoods.
Scruple. See Weights And Measures.
Scud. See Cloud.
S c u d d e r , Henry Martyn (1822-1895), American Dutch Reformed missionary. He was born at Pandeteripo, Ceylon, the son of Rev. John Scudder, a missionary. In 1840 he graduated
at the New York University, and in 1843 at the Union Theological Seminary. He returned to India under the auspices of the American Board, and remained there as missionary and physician— he took a degree of M.d. in 1853—until ill-health compelled him in 1864 to return to the U. S. He was pastor in San Francisco in 1865-71; in Brooklyn in 1872-82, and in Chicago in 188287. In the last year he again took up missionary work, this time going to Japan, where he remained until 1889. He wrote several books in the Tamil dialect of India. Among them are: Liturgy of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church (1862); Suvet Savors of Divine Truth (1868); Spiritual Teaching (1870). He wrote also Reminiscences oj Rev. John Scudder (1870).
Scudder, Horace Elisha (1838-1902), American editor and author. He was born in Boston, and graduated at Williams College in 1858. He engaged in literary work in New York, and his first book, Seven Little People and Their Friends (1862), was so successful that he devoted himself for several years entirely to juvenile writing. In 1867-70 he edited the Riverside Magazine for Young People, in Boston. In the latter year he became connected with the publishing house of Houghton, Mifllin & Co., and remained in the book department until 1890, when he succeeded Thomas Bailey Aldrich as editor of the Atlantic Monthly, & position which he retained until nis death. His Life of James Russell Lowell (1901) was a notable contribution to American letters. His other books include: Dream Children (1863); Stories from my Attic (1869); The Bodley Books, 8 vols. (1875-87); The Dwellers in Five Sisters Court (1876); Stories and Romances (1880); The Children's Book (1881); Boston Town (1881); Noah Webster, in 'The American Men of Letters' series (1882); History of the United States (1887); Life of George Washington (1889); Childhood in Literature and Art (1894). He edited, with Justin Winsor, A Memorial History oj Boston (1880-81); Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor, with Mrs. Taylor, and The American Commonwealth series.
Scudder, Samuel Hubbard (1837), American entomologi -t, born in Boston, Mass. He graduated at Williams College in 1857, in 1862-64 was assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; in 1863-64 lecturer; and in 1879-82 assistant librarian in Harvard University. He was custodian (1804-70) and president (1880-87) of the Boston Natural History Society, la JCSG-92 he Scuddcr
was a palaeontologist to the U. S. Geological Survey. He was editor of Science in 1883-8.5. His publications include: A Century of Orthoptera (1879); The Winnipeg Country (1886); Butterflies oj the Eastern United States and Canada (1889); The Fossil Insects of North America (1890); Index to the Known Fossil Insects of the World (1891); The Life oj a Butterfly (1893); Catalogue of the Described Orthoptera of V. S. and Canada (1900); and Index to the North American Orthoptera (Boston Soc. of Nat. History's 18th and 19th Centuries, 1901).
Scuddcr, Vida Button (1861), American educator and writer, born at Madura, India, the daughter of Rev. Henry M. Scudder. She graduated at Smith College in 18H4, and studied at Oxford and in Paris. In 1887 she became instructor in literature in Wellcsley College, and subsequently associate professor in the same chair. She was active in the establishment of college settlements in large cities. She wrote: How the Rain Sprites were Freed (1883): Life of the Spirit in the Modern English Poets (1895); Social Ideals in English Letters (1898): An Introduction to the Study o[ English Literature (1901); A Listener in Babel (1903): and edited Selected Poems of George MacDonald (1887) and Selected Letters of St. Catharine of Sienna. (1905).
Scudery, Madeleine De (16071701), French writer of romances, born at Havre, who wrote among other works Ibrahim <~u I'llluslre Bassa (1641); Anamene, ou le Grand Cyrus (1649-53); C/elie. Hisloire Komaine (1656-60): and Almahide, ou V F.sclave Reine (1660-3), which were greeted with universal admiration. The first three were published under her brother's name. Although they were long-winded and indifferent novels, they reflected the spirit of the time, reproducing faithfully, in some respects, the fashionable society of France. Mile, de Scudery had a famous salon in Paris. See Rathery's Mile, de Scudery, sa Vie et sa Correspondance (1873), and Mason's The Women of the French Salons (1891). Her brother Georges (1601-67), acquired some distinction as a dramatist, winning the favor of Richelieu, and becoming a member of the Academy (1650).
Scudo. (1.) An old Italian silver coin, varying locally in value from 5 to 8 francs, and subdivided into 10 paoli and 100 bajocchi. (2.) A gold coin struck at Rome by the French = 17.25 francs. (3 ) At present a silver coin equivalent to the U. S. dollar, Spanish piastre, English crown = 5 francs.
Sculling, the impelling of a
l»at by means of two sculls or small oars, each rowed with one hand. The term is also applied to the propulsion of a boat by means of a long oar from its stern, where it is worked from side to side with a twist which produces the effect of a screwpropeller. See Rowing.
Sculpln, a name first given to the fishes belonging to the genus Callionymus, especially C. lyra, the gowdie of Scotland and gemmeous dragonet of England. In North America the name is applied to similar rough and despised cattaid fishes known more usually as sea-robins.
Sculptor, a small constellation between Cctus and Phoenix, formed by Lacaillc in 1752. The brightest star is of 4.2 magnitude.
Sculpture is the art of carvin ^ any substance into a designed form. The material may be stone, clay, wood, ivory, or metal, hand wrought or cast in moulds. Sculpture may be in the round or detached form— such as statues of gods, men, animals—or may be figures or designs in low or high relief for decorative purposes and architectural ornamentation. Sculpture, as an art, in its widest sense, can be traced through all the known civilizations—in Mexico, Babylon, in the rock-hewn temples of India, the bronze gods and demons of China, in the colossal figures and decorations of temples in Egypt, and its admirable wrought statues in carved wood. As a concrete art it reached its culmination at the hands of the Greeks—such as Myr^n, Phidias, Praxiteles—who developed it from the limitations imposed by Egyptian convention to the fullest expression of beauty of the human form. The Romans were the inheritors and imitators of the Greek tradition, but, adding nothing to it, brought about its decadence. The decay of Grxco-Roman art was coincident with the waning of paganism. The Byzantine empire introduced a new element of Oriental design, which, blended with the widespread Celtic influence, especially among the Scandinavian branches, produced an elaborate form of sculptural decoration from Sicilv and Ravenna to Norway and Ireland. This reached its highest expression, after the general spread of Christianity, in sculptural ornamentation of tombs and crosses. Out of it grew in the north the form of architectural sculpture devoted in France and England mainly to the beautifying of stone cathedrals. Natural instinct was strong and faith fervent, and with the development of Gothic architecture, facades, capitals, altars, demanded carved detail
and ornamentation of figure reliefs and statues. With the rise of Norman power Norman-Gothic art spread in France and England, to Italy and to Sicily, where it was blended with fingering Byzantine and Saracenic influences. In Sicily, Greek and Saracen workmen wrought out Norman ideas. During the 13th century Italian workmen were imported as skilled carvers into England, and there stone carving excelled till the middle of the 14th century, and wood carving during the Perpendicular of the 15th century; but with the 16th century Gothic art declined under Italian influence, such as that of Torrigiano.
Gothic sculpture reached its highest expression in France in the 12th and 13th centuries. Facades of great cathedrals were richly ornamented with carved traceries and statues, such as at Poitiers, Chartres, Rheims, the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, and the tombs and statues of dead heroes, such as the effigies in St. Denis— a f9rm of sculpture peculiarly Christian, as compared with Greek feeling, which concerned itself with the representation of life only. In the 14th century the Gothic impulse waned, and the loth saw the transition to the style of the Italian Renaissance. In Germany, Gothic sculpture culminated m the 14th century in the hands of the Nuremberg schools, and of men such as Balier. In the 15th century flourished the great wood-carvers Syrling, Veit Stoss, and three generations of the Vischer family; while to the 16th century belongs fine bronze and metal work, such as the tomb of the Emperor Maximilian at Innsbruck. In Spain, after the expulsion of the Mohammedans, sculpture was the handmaid of religious architecture, under French and German influence, such as in the churches of Salamanca, Valladolid, Burgos, and the tombs of the church of Miraflores. In the 16th century the influence of the Italian Renaissance was paramount, and produced a few noted native sculptors, such as Montanes, whose statues are in Seville, and the realist Cano.
The Greek tradition in sculptural form is peculiarly distinguished among the Grajco-Latin races. In mediaeval days the Italians, in modern times the French, have inherited the Greek severity of form with suavity of expression, and no little of the severe but less abstract Roman touch. Byzantine influence was paramount in Italy until the 12th century: thereafter, in the 13th and 14*th centuries, came a rebirth of art at the hands of those pioneers of the Renaissance, the