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was the first sea-going man-ofwar in any navy to be so fitted. odern vessels, , and especially men-of-war, are frequently fitted with a pair of screws, the advantages being that the necessary pro#. ling area may be got at a lower epth; while, by reversing one and letting the §: go ahead, the vessel may be turned without a rudder and without steerage way. A further advantage is that twin screws work independently, with separate engines, so that the loss or damage of one does not entirely disable a ship. Three and four screws have also been used, and have given satisfactory results. In turbine-engined vessels the screws are made of small diameter on account of their rapid rotation. Screws are made of cast iron, cast steel, or bronze. Though, not so strong as steel, bronze is the best material because it does not corrode rapidly. See Barnaby's Marine Propellers (1891), Froude's Elementary Relation between Pitch, Slip, and Proulsive Efficiency (1878), Bourne's reatise on the Screw Propeller };} and Catechism of the Steam Engine }} 1865), Seaton's Manual of Marine Engineering (1893), Tompkins's Text-book of Marine #iori; (1898), Sennitt and Oram's Marine Steam Engine 1898), Bennitt's Monitor and the avy Under Steam (1900). Scribe, AUGUSTINE EUGENE (1791–1861), . French dramatist, was born and died in Paris. In spite of the comparative failure of a number of his earliest F. he persevered until he com ised attention by the success of Une Nuit de la Garde Nationale, in 1815. This play was written, as were most of Scribe's, in collaboration; indeed, at the height of his success he is said to have employed a small army of collaborators, he himself o! editor and final polisher. His versatility was astonishing; comedy, vaudeville, opera libretto, emotional drama, farce—all seemed to flow equally easily from his pen. He was not a genius, but a craftsman of the highest rank; his great cleverness conceale the superficiality of his observation. A few of his more notable plays are Le Solliciteur, Mon Oncle César, Le Ménage de Garçon, La Dame Blanche L'Héritière, Frontin, Bertrand et Raton, Le Verre d'Eau, La Calomnie, Une Chaîne, Adrienne Lecouvreur, . Bataille de Dames, Les Doigts de Fée. His complete works appeared in 76 vols. (1874– 85). See Life, in French, by Legouvé (1874). Scribes, the official o ists and expounders of the Jewis }. The Hebrew name was applied to what might be termed a minister of state (2 Kings 19:2)—e.g. for

war. (2 Kings 25:19), or for home affairs (Neh. 13:13)—also quite foly to an amanuensis, like aruch (Jer. 36:26–32). With Ezra emerges the secondary significance as denoting an expert in the law (Neh. 8:1), and after is day the scribes were a recognized official order, the members of which were also called lawyers or teachers of the law, and belonged chiefly to the Pharisaie party. It was their function to expound both the written and the oral law. See Edersheim's #. and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i. 93 ff. (1887), Schürer's. Hist. of the Jewish People, vol. ii. (1891). Scriblerus Club, a club of authors in London founded by Swift (1714), its object being to satirize literary incompetence. Four of the principal contributions were Pope's Dunciad and Memoirs of Whio Scriblerus (1741), chiefly written by John Arbuthnot, and satirizing Martin's Travels; P. P. Clerk of this Parish, a satire on Burnet's History of his own Time; and The Travels of Lemuel Gulliver. Scribner, CHARLEs (1821–71), American publisher, was born in New York city, and graduated 1840) at Princeton. Failing ealth interrupted his preparation for the bar, and he passed some time in Europe. In 1846, with Isaac D. Baker, he organized the ublishing firm of . Baker & §. and on the death of Mr. Baker in 1848, published over his own name, and as Charles Scribner & Čo. until his death. Meanwhile he had developed his importation business, and in 1857 he organized, with Charles Welford, a separate firm, Scribner & Welford, for the importation of foreign books. Among the authors who placed their works in Mr. Scribner’s hands were J. T. Headley, W. G. T. Shedd, Noah forter, D. G. Mitchell, 'N. F. Willis, and Dr. J. G. Héliand. The firm had established a monthly periodical, . Hours , at Home, in 1865, and in 1870 this publication was merged in a new magazine, Scribner's Monthly, with Dr. Holland as editor. On the death of Mr. Scribner in the following year, he was succeeded by his eldest son, JoHN BLAIR ScRIBNER (1850–79), the firm being reorganized as Scribner, Armstrong & Co., with A. C Armstrong and Edward Seymour as partners, and subsequently, in 1878, as Charles Scribner's Sons. Anotable publication carried out by Mr. Scribner was Lange's − on the Holy Scriptures in twenty-six volumes. Sc rib ner, CHARLEs (1854), American publisher, son of the foregoing, was born in New York city, and graduated (1875) at Princeton. He joined the pub

lishing house of Charles Scribner’s Sons, of which his brother, J. Blair Scribner was the head, im§ on graduation, and on the death of the latter, in 1879, himself became head of the firm. In 1881 Scribner's Monthly was sold to another house organized to purchase it, and its name was changed to The Čentury Magazine. In 1887 Charles Scribner's Sons established a new monthly periodical, Scribner's Magazine. Scribner, FRANK LAMson (1851), American botanist, born in Cambridgeport, Mass. He raduated at the Maine State ollege of Agriculture in 1873. After teaching in the public schools in Maine he became secretary to the state board of agriculture. In 1886 he was appointed special agent in charge of the o division of the botanical section of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and in 1887 became chief of the section of vegetable pathology. In 1888–94 he was professor of botany and director of the Agricultural Experimental Station at the University of Tennessee. In 1894–1901 he was chief of the division of .#. . S., Department of Agriculture, and in 1901–4 was chief of the Insular Bureau of Agriculture in the Islands. His Dublications include: Weeds of Maine (1869); Qrnamental and Useful Plants o Maine (1874); Fungus Diseases of the Grape, and other Plants 1886); American Grasses; and Fruits, Vegetables ... and Fibre Plants of the Philippines in Census of the Philippine Islands, 1903 (vol. iv. 1905). ‘Scribner's Magazine,’ founded , in 1887 by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Scribner's Monthly had been founded in 1870 and 1881 became The Century Magazine. Scribonia, a lady of ancient Rome, who was married in 40 B.C. to Octavian, afterwards the Emperor Augustus. It was a purely litical marriage, Scrib on ia ing the sister of Scribonius Libo, the father-in-law of Sextus Pompeius, whom Octavian wished to conciliate. But he divorced her in 39 B.C., on the .*. dav on which she bore him a daughter, Julia, in order to marry Livia. Scripture, EDward WHEELER 1864), American psychologist, orn in Mason, N. H. He graduated in the Čollege of the § of ew York in 1884, and also studied in the universities of Berlin, Zürich and Leipzig. In 1892–1904 he was director of the psychological laboratory in Yale, and discovered the law of ‘mediate association of ideas,' and methods of measuring hallucinations, and imaginings, and a process of producing anaesthesia



electrically. He invented an improved instrument for testing color-sight, and many appliances for experimenting in psychology and demonstrating the principa .** doctrines. is ublications include: Thinking, eeling, Doing (1895); The New chology (1897); and Elements y Experimental Phonetics (1901). Scrivener, FREDERICK HENRY AMBRose (1813–91), English Biblical scholar, was born in London; was a schoolmaster at Sherborne and Falmouth, and in 1874 became prebendary of Exeter, and in 1876 vicar of Hendon in Middlesex. He wrote A Su §: to the Authorized English Version of the New Testament (1845), Six ctures on the Text % the New Testament (1874), edited . The Cambridge Paragraph Bible (3 vols. 1870–3), and took an important part in the revision of the New Testament. Scrofula, STRUMA, or KING's Evi L. a tubercular affection of the lymphatic glands. It is maniested chiefly in the glands of the neck, which become swollen and thick like that of a pig, and the bronchial and mesenteric glands may also be affected. Scrofula is congenital only in this sense, that the children of weakly parents are enerally weaklings and have ittle resistive power. The disease is most common in childhood, but it may arise in adults and even in the aged. When the mesenteric glands are affected, the condition is known as tabes mesenterica, the “abdominal scrofula’ of older writers. Diarrhoea is a constant symptom of this affection, and while the abdomen becomes prominent and tympanitic, the patient is usually puny, wasted, and anaemic. In the treatment of scrofula good, food, fresh air sunlight, cod-liver oil, iron and tonics should be employed to strengthen the tissues. §: iodine painted over the glands sometimes appears to be beneficial in the early stages, but of late this method of treatment has rather fallen into disrepute. Should the glands suppurate, an early incision, shoul made; and even in the absence of suppuration it is often advisable to extirpate the tubercular focus by excising caseous glands. Scroggs, SIR WILLIAM (P1623– 83), lord chief justice of England, born at Deddington in Oxfordshire; has left an even more infamous reputation than Jeffreys. Though little of a lawyer, he was clever as well as brutal of speech. His most outrageous conduct on the bench was during the time of the Popish plot which, Titus Oates jo. ho this he was impeache the Commons in # and ovo from the bench.

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See Foss's Judges of England (1864). Scroll, a spiral ornament in architecture o Corinthian) and joinery. It is also a heraldic term for a motto-bearing ribbon or inscription. Scrope, a north of England family. GEoFFREY LE SCRoPE d. 1340) was chief-justice under dward II. and Edward III.HENRY L.E ScroPE (d. 1336), his brother, was chief-iustice of the King's Bench and the Exchequer. —RICHARD LE ScroPE (1327– 1403), son of Henry, was at the siege of Calais and at Neville's Cross (1346), and was afterwards steward to Richard II., and became chancellor (1378).-RICHARD LE SCRoPE (c. 1350–1405) archbishop of York, was beheade for conspiracy against Henry IV. Scrope, GEoRGE JULIUS PouLETT (iT97–1876), English geologist and litical economist. e published Considerations on Volcanoes (1824) and Geology of the Extinct Volcanoes in Central France (1826). He entered Parliament in 1833, and became a ...For of free trade and social reforms, which he advocated in amphlets so numerous that he É. known as ‘Pamphlet Scrope.” He sat in Parliament for Stroud till 1868, and was the author of a small book on Political Economy (1833) and of a Life of his brother, Lord Sydenham (1843). Scrophulariaceae, a natural order of plants, mostly herbaceous, though some are shrubs and a few are small trees. They bear usually irregular flowers with four or five persistent sepals, a amopetalous corolla, frequently ilabiate, , generally four stamens, didynamous, and a twolobed stigma. Many herbs used in medicine are included in this order, the most important, being the foxglove and digitalis. Among the genera are Pentstemon, Antirrhinum, Calceolaria, Mimulus, Linaria, and Verbascum. Scrub, the generic name applied to the stunted tree or shrub growth, which ... overruns many arts of Australia and elsewhere. he common scrub is known as the ‘mallee’ or ‘mulga.’ It lends a dreary aspect to the features of the country. Other more pleasing varieties are the tea tree and the heath. The term is applied generically to any scanty, dwarfgrowing, stunted vegetation, and even to underwoods. Scruple. See WEIGHTS AND MEASUREs. Scud. See CLOUD. Scud der, HENRY MARTYN 1822–1895), American Dutch eformed missionary. He was born at ologo Ceylon, the son of Rev. John Scudder, a mis

sionary. In 1840 he graduated


at the New York University, and in 1843 at the Union Theological Seminary. He returned to India under the auspices of the American Board, and remained there as missionary and physicianhe took a degree of M.D. in 1853–until ill-health compelled him in 1864 to return to the U. S. He was pastor in San Francisco in 1865-71; in. Brooklyn in 1872–82, and in Chicago in 1882– 87. In the last year he again took up missionary work, this time going to Japan, where he remained until 1889. He wrote several books in the Tamil dialect of India. Among them are: Liturgy of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church (1862); Sweet Savors of Divine Truth (1868); Spiritual Teaching (1870). He wrote also Reminiscences of Rev. John Scudder (1870). Scud der, HoRACE ELISHA (1838–1902), American editor and author. He was born in Boston, and graduated at Williams College in 1858. He engaged in literary work in New York, and his first book, Seven Little People and Their Friends (1862), was so successful that he devoted himself for several years entirely to juvenile writing. In 1867–70 he edited the Riverside Magazine for Young People, in Boston. In the latter year he became connected with the publishing house of Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and remained in the book department until 1890, when he , succeeded Thomas Bailey Aldrich as editor of , the Atlantic Monthly, a. position which he retained until *. death. His Life of James Russell Lowell (1901) was a notable contribution to American letters. His other books include: Dream Children (1863); Stories from my Attic (1869); The Bod% Books, 8 vols.... (1875–87); he Dwellers in Five Sisters Court (1876); Stories and Romances (1880); The Children's Book (1881); Boston Town (1881); Noah Webster, in ‘The American Men of Letters’ series (1882); History of the United States (1887); Life % George Washington (1889); Childhood in Literature and Art (1894). He edited, with Justin Winsor, A Memorial History of Boston (1880–81); Life and Letters of Bayard Taylor, with Mrs. Taylor, and The American Commonwealth series. Scudder, SAMUEL HUBBARD 1837), American entomologist, orn in Boston, Mass. He graduated at Williams College in 1857, in 1862–64 was assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; in 1863–64 lecturer; and in 1879–82 assistant librarian in Harvard University. . He was custodian (1864–70) and president so." of the Boston Natural istory Society, In 1389–92 he was a palaeontologist to the U. S. Geological Survey. He was editor of Science in 1883–85. His publications include: A Century of Orthoptera (1879); The Winnipeg Country (1886); Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada 1889); , The Fossil Insects of orth America (1890); Index to the Known Fossil Insects of the World (1891); The Life of a Butterfly (1893); Catalogue of the Described Orthoptera of U. S. and Canada (1900); and Index to the North American Orthoptera (Boston Soc. of Nat. History's 18th and 19th Centuries, 1901). Scudder, VIDA DUTToN (1861), American educator and writer, born at Madura, India, the daughter of Rev. Henry M. Scudder. She graduated at Smith College in 1884, and studied at Oxford and in Paris. In 1887 she became instructor in literature in Wellesley College, and subsequently associate professor in the same chair. She was active in the establishment of college settlements in large cities. She wrote: How the Rain Sprites were Freed (1883); Life of the Spirit in the Modern English Poets 1895); Social Ideals in English etters (1898); An Introduction to the Study of English Literature (1901); A Listener in Babel (1903);

and edited Selected Poems o George MacDonald (1887) and Selected Letters of St. Catharine

of Sienna (1905). Scudéry, MADELEINE DE (1607– 1701), French writer of romances, born at Havre, who wrote among other works Ibrahim cu l'Illustre Bassa (1641); Artamene, ou le Grand Cyrus (1649–53); Clélie Histoire Romaine (1656–60); and Almahide, ou l'Esclave "Reine (1660–3), which were greeted with universal admiration. The first three were published under her brother's name. . Although they were long-winded and indifferent novels, they reflected the spirit of the time, reproducing faithfully, in some respects, the fashionable, society of France. Mlle. de Scudéry had a famous salon in Paris. §. Rathery's Mlle. de Scudéry, sa Vie et sa Correspondance (1873), and Mason's The Women of the French Salons (1891). Her brother GEORGEs (1601–67), acquired some distinction as a dramatist, winning the favor of Richelieu, and becoming a member of the Academy (1650). Scudo. (1.) An old Italian silver coin, varying locally in value from 5 to 8 francs, and subdivided into 10 pagli and 100 bajocchi. (2.) A §: coin struck at Rome by the French = 17.25 francs. , (3) At present a silver coin equivalent to the U.S. dollar, Spanish piastre, English crown = 5 francs. - Sculling, the impelling of a

boat, by means of two sculls or small oars, each rowed with one hand. The term is also applied to the propulsion of a boat by means of a long oar, from its stern, where it is worked from side to side with a twist which produces the effect of a screwpropeller. See Rown NG, . Sculpin, a name first given to the fishes belonging to the genus Callionymus, especially C. lyra, the gowdie of Scotland and gemmeous dragonet of England. In North America the name is applied to similar rough and despised cattaid fishes known more usually as sea-robins. . Sculptor, a small constellation between Cetus, and Phoenix, formed by Lacaille in 1752. The brightest star is of 4.2 magnitude. Sculpture is the art of carvin any substance into a designe form. The material may be

stone, clay, wood, ivory, , or metal, hand wrought or cast in moulds. Sculpture may be in

the round or detached form— such as statues of gods, men, animals—or may be figures or designs, in low or high relief for decorative purposes and architectural ornamentation. Sculpture, as an art, in its widest sense, can be traced through all the known civilizations—in Mexico, Babylon, in the rock-hewn temples of India, the bronze gods and demons of China, in the colossal figures and decorations of temples in Egypt, and its admirable wrought statues in carved wood. As a concrete art it reached its culmination at the hands of the Greeks—such as Myron, Phidias, Praxiteles—who developed it from the limitations imposed by Egyptian convention to the fullest expression of beauty of the human form. e Romans were the inheritors and imitators of the Greek tradition, but, adding nothing to it, brought about its decadence. The decay, of Graeco-Roman art was coincident with the waning of paganism. The Byzantine empire introduced a new element of Oriental design, which, blended with the o spread Celtic influence, especially among the Scandinavian branches, produced an elaborate form of sculptural decoration from Sicily and Ravenna to Norway, and Ireland. This reached its highest expression, after the general spread of Christianity in sculptural ornamentation o tombs and crosses. Out of it grew in the north the form of architectural sculpture devoted in France and England mainly to the beautifying of stone cathedrals. Natural instinct was strong, and faith fervent, and with the development of Gothic architecture, façades, capitals altars, demanded carved detail

and ornamentation of figure reliefs and statues. With the rise of Norman power Norman-Gothic art spread in France, and England, to Italy and to Sicily, where it was blended , with singering Byzantine and Saracenic influences. In Sicily, Greek and Saracen workmen wrought out Norman ideas. During the 13th century Italian workmen were imported as skilled carvers into England, and there stone carvin excelled till the middle of the 14t century, and wood carving during the Perpendicular of the 15th to: but with the 16th centu othic art declined under Italian influence, such as that of Torrigiano. Gothic sculpture, reached its highest expression in France, in the 12th and 13th centuries. Façades of great cathedrals were richly, ornamented with , carved traceries and statues, such as at Poitiers, Chartres, Rheims, the Sainte-Čhapelle in Paris, and the tombs and statues of dead heroes, such as the effigies in St. Denis— a... form of sculpture peculiarl Christian, as compared with Gree feeling, which concerned itself with the representation of life only. In the 14th century the Gothic impulse waned, and the 15th saw the transition to the style of the Italian Renaissance. In Germany, Gothic, sculpture culminated in the 14th century in the hands of the Nuremberg schools, and of men such as Balier. In the 15th century flourished the §. wood-carvers Syrling, Veit, Stoss, and three generations of the Vischer family; while to the 16th century belongs fine bronze and metal work, such as the tomb of the Emperor Maximilian at Innsbruck. In Spain, after the expulsion of the Mohammedans, sculpture was the handmaid of religious architecture, under French and German influence, such as in the churches of Salamanca, Valladolid, Burgos, and the tombs of the church of Miraflores. In the 16th century the influence of the Italian Renaissance was paramount, and produced a few noted native sculptors, such as Montañes, whose statues are in Seville, and the realist Caño. The Greek tradition in sculptural form is peculiarly distinguished among the Graeco-Latin races. In mediaeval days the Italians, , in modern, times, the French, have inherited the Greek severity of form with suavity of expression, and no little of the severe but less abstract Roman touch. Byzantine influence was paramount in Italy until the 12th century; thereafter, in the 13th and iith centuries, came a rebirth of art at the hands of those pioneers of the Renaissance, the


1, Egyptian: Statue of Chephren. 2. Assyrian: , Assur-bani-pallion-hunting. 3. Greek. the ‘Victory of Samothrace. 4. Italian : Hebe by Canova. 5. Italian: Lorenzo de' Medici, by Michelangelo. 6. Greek the venus of Milo. 7. French : a Water-nymph, by Goujon 8. Italian: The Annunciation, by bjnatelio v. stalian Perseus, by Benvenuto Čellini.



1. Frederick the Great, by Rauch, at Berlin. 2. Lion and Serpent, by Barye. Paris. 3. Triumph of the Republic, by Dalou. Paris. 4. Teucer, by Hamo Thornycroft, R. A., Tate Gallery, London. 5. Christ, ‘. Thorwastisen, at Copenhagen.6. The y

Mower (Le Faucheur), by Meunier. 7. Truth plucking out the Tongue of Falsehood, Alfred Stevens, from the Wellington Monument, St. Paul's Cathedral. 8. Bavaria, by Schwanthaler, Munich. 9. Voltaire, by Houdon.

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