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scholastic period, and which, under a sometimes serious, sometimes ironical, profession of the ultra-rational character of religious doctrines, really undermines all belief in them. The other chartype of modern scepthat which takes its stand on physical science, and advocates a sort of naturalistic sitivism to the exclusion of any igher knowledge. The sensationalistic philosophy on which such a position is apt to be based had its *#: representative in Hume; but Hume, unlike some of his later followers, was well aware that his sensationalism had universal scepticism for its logical outcome. It is this philosophical incoherence of scientific naturalism which is the object of Mr. A. J. Balfour's attacks in his Defence of Philosophic Doubt §). and his Foundations of elief (1895). For history, and references, see Flint's Agnosticism (1903). Sceptre, a ruler's symbol of authority. In Greece it was often lance-shaped; in Egypt, tipped with plough or stork; in Rome, of ivory, straight or curved (see Livy, v. 41; Scipio); at Con

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stantinople, with globe, eagle, or cross; in France, with ball or fleur-de-lis. Famous specimens are : Charles v.'s, so-called of Charlemagne, at the Louvre; of Stephen of Hungary, at Aix-laChapelle; of Napoleon I. English royal sceptres date from the restoration of St. Edward. One of gold (15th century) exists in the Scottish regalia. Schadow, JoHANN Gottfried (1764–1850), German sculptor, born at Berlin; was director (1816) of the Berlin Academy of Arts; is known for his statues of Frederick the Great in Stettin, Blucher in Rostock, the monument of Luther at Wittenberg, the chariot over the Brandenburg gate at Berlin, and a great number of

royal portraits and busts; and he is regarded as the founder of that modern German school of sculpture in which classical influences were strong. Schadow-Godenhaus, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1789 – 1862), German , historical and portrait painter, born in Berlin; studied at Rome under Cornelius and Overbeck; , became (1819) professor in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, and succeeded Cornelius as director of the academy at Düsseldorf (1826). Among his chief works are The Four Evan#. in the Werder church in erlin, and an Ascension of #3. in St. Paul's church at Aixla-Chapelle. He was more distinguished as a teacher than as an artist. See Life, in German, by Hübner (1869). Schäfer. EDwARD ALBERT (1850), English physiologist, was born at Hornsey, London; in 1874 became assistant professor of P.E. at University College ondon, where he was jodrèjì rofessor (1883–99); after which e was appointed, professor of physiology in Edinburgh University. His works include A Course of Practical Histology (2d ed. 1897), Text-book of Thysiology (2 vols. 1898–1900), and Esseniials of Histology (6th ed. 1902). sch aff, PHILIP. (1819–93), German-American divine, was born at Chur, Switzerland, and received his education there and at the universities of Tübingen, Halle, and Berlin, taking his deo in divinity at Berlin. . He ectured at the last named university on exegesis and church history from 1842 to 1884, and was then called to the professorship of theology in the No. a. German Reformed Theo *. Seminary. He removed to New York city in 1863, was appointed professor of theological cyclopaedia and Christian symbolism in Union Theological Seminary in 1870, was transferred to other professorships in 1874 and 1887, and re; mained with this institution until his death. . He was president of the American Bible Revision Committee of 1871, and edited several important , theological works, , including the English translation of Lange's Commen‘. on the Holy Scriptures (24 vols., 1864–86). He was a founder and honorary secretary of the American branch of the Evanelical Alliance, was first presij. of the American Society of Church History, and with tongue and pen devoted himself to the harmonizing of Christian belief and feeling the world over. His principal work was his. History of the Christian Church (1858– 90), and secondary in importance was his editing of the SchaffHerzog Encyclopædia of Religious

§o (1882; 3d ed. 189 See the Life, by his son (1897). Schaffhausen. § Swiss ca ton, on r. bk. of Rhine. Are 114 sq. m.; pop. (1900), 41,51 mainly Protestants and Germa **ś It was admitted in the Swiss confederation in 150 and is remarkable for its man facturing industry. (2.) Tow cap. of above canton, on r. bk. Rhine, in which are the famo falls (80 ft.). Here are factori for vehicles, cottons, machiner soap, and candles; also brew eries and distilleries. It has fine old church, formerly belon ing to a celebrated Benedictin nunnery (1050–1524). Pop. (190 15,275. Schäffle, ALBERT (1831), Ge man political economist, born Nürtingen in Würtemberg; a pointed professor of politic economy at Tübingen (1860), an at Vienna (1868). e becam Austrian minister of commer 1871), and then he returned tuttgart, to engage in literal work. Among his more im tant publications are: Die K. tionclokönomie (1861); Kapita ismus und Sozialismus (1870 Das §§ System d Menschlichen Wirtschaft (1867 uintesseng des Sozialism? 1874); Bau und Leben des Soz alen Körpers (1896); Die Steuer §o Die agrarische Frag 1902); Aus meinem Leben (1904 Schalke, th:.., pro Westphalia, sm. N.N.E. of Essel is a coal-mining centre, and manu factures zinc, wire, and hardwar Pop. (1900) 26,077. Schall, Johan N ADAM vo (1591–1669), German Jesuit mi. sionary, born at Cologne; entere the Society of Jesus at, Rom (1611), and was sent to China a a missionary (1622). He the studied astronomy, revised th Chinese imperial calendar, an introduced into China the d vision of the day into hours, mir utes, and seconds. In 1664 h was imprisoned, and died afte a long confinement. He wrot a Latin narrative of Chine, Missions (1655). Schamir, a mythical Easter worm, small as a barleycorn, bu of mysterious power, able to sha ter rocks, reveal hidden treasur and give or paralyze life. It wa used by Solomon to , shape to temple stones. Styled Thuman - esta Romanorum, Thamir b Gervaise of Tilbury, it figure also as Samur, the stone of wi: dom, and among the Greeks a See Curious Myths. the Middle §§ second serie: by Baring-Gould (1881). Schandorph, SoPHUs (1837 1900), , whose proper name wo Skamdrup, Danish novelist, wo born at Ringsted. Beginning : a writer of the romantic schoo

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Scharf

he only found his true vocation after listening to the lectures of Georg Brandes, and henceforth distinguished himself as a delineator of actual life in small provincial towns. Among his gifts, was that of humor. His novels and tales include Fra Provinsen (1876), Uden Midtpunkt 1878), Smaajolk (1880), Thomas ris's Historie (1881), Det Gamle Apothek (1885), Poet og Junker 1891), Tre Appels iner (1894), rigiort (1896), Gamle Billeaer (1899), and Helga (1900). Scharf, John THOMAs (1843– 98), American author, was born in Baltimore, Md., and served in the Confederate, army and navy. He then engaged in business, was editor of the Baltimore Telegram and of the Baltimore Morning Herald, was admitted to the bar in 1874, and served in the Maryland state legislature. He gave much study to the history of his city and state, and published Chronicles of Baltimore (1874), History of Maryland (3 vols., 1879–80), History of . Western Maryland (2 vols., 1882), among other volumes, besides a History of the Confederate States Navy §§ and a History of Delaware (1888). Scharnhorst, HANN DAVID von Prussian soldier, was born at Bordenau in Hanover. He served in the army against France in 1793, and in 1801 became director of the military academy in Berlin. In 1806 he was He. at the battles of Auerstädt and Eylau, and in 1807 began the reorganization of the Prussian army, by which he laid the foundations of that country's military wer. In 1812 he accompanied, Blücher to the front as chief of his staff. See Life, in German, by Lehmann (1886–7). Scharwenka, XAVER (1850), German composer and pianist, born , at Samter, near Posen, Prussia, and *H.H. of Kullak and Wüerst in Berlin. For several years he devoted himself to concert playing, and to chamber music, in which latter field he had the assistance of Emil Sauret and H. Grunfeld, teaching the iano, meantime, in the Kulak Conservatory. In 1880 he founded the Scharwenka Conservatory in Berlin, and in 1891 he established a similar institution in New York city. In 1898 he returned to Germany, where he is highly esteemed as a pianoforte teacher, to take charge of the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. His compositions include an opera, Mataswintha (Weimar, o a symphony (C minor, Op. 60), three pianoforte concertos, ;: o: music, and a number of popular pianoforte pieces. He edited Schu

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7 mann's pianoforte works and several of Chopin's important compositions. His own compositions

reach nearly 100. Schassburg (Hung. Segesvár), tn., co. Nagy-Küküllo, Hungary, 25 m. by rail E.s.E. of MarosVásárhely, centre of a wine and hop district. Pop. (1900) 10,857. Schaumburg-Lippe, principality of Germany, within a loop of the Weser, between Westphalia and Hanover, with an area of 131 sq. m. and a population (1900) of 43,132, nearly all Protestants. The greater part belongs to the N., German plain. Agriculture is the principal occupation. Cap. Bückeburg. The principality has one vote in the Imperial Federal Council, and sends one representative to the Imperial Diet. It dates from 1807, but the dynasty go back to the ioth century. e also LIPPE. Schechter, Soloyo N (1849), American educator, born in Fok. shan, Roumania; was educated at the Universities' of Vienna and Berlin; made a special study of divinity and Semitics, and became reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic literature at Cambridge University and professor of Hebrew at Universit College, London. He distinguished himself as special agent at Cambridge University, by discovering in the oldest syna. ogue in the world, at Cairo, &gypt, a priceless store of books, scrolls, and MSS. of great an: tiquity. This collection was secured for the Cambridge library,

where he translated many of its

most precious parts. In 1902 he became president of the newly established, Jewish Theological Seminary of America at New York. Scheese, CARL WILHELM (1742– 86), Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund, became a chemist at Köping, and devoted himself to chemical research, being much influenced by Bergman. His principal work includes discoveries of chlorine, fo manganese, barium, and a host of compounds, among which are, ammonia, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, arsenic, russic, oxalic, and other acids. e also invented many new methods of preparation and analysis; a green pigment and a solution of russic acid are still called after im. See Nordenskiöld's Carl Wilhelm Scheele go; and Hays's The Life Work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1884). Scheffel, Joseph VIktor voN 1826–86), German t, born at arlsruhe. His first volume, written in Italy, was Der Trompeter von Säckingen (1854), a metrical tale of the time of the Thirt Years' War, which has run throug more than two hundred editions. He devoted himself to early German and folklore studies, the

Schelling

fruits of which were seen in his next tale (in prose),..., Ekkehard (1857), likewise exceedingly popular. . His remaining, volumes were lao; poetry—Gaudeamus §: 'rau Aventiure (1863); ergpsalmen (1870); Waldeinmkeit (1880); with two excellent romances, Juniperus (1868) and Hugideo (1884). See Lives by Ruhemann (1886), Prölss (1887), and Pilz (1887). Scheffer, ARY (1795 – 1858) French rtrait and historicai ainter, born at. Dordrecht, of erman, parentage, was a pupil of Guérin in Paris. His Suliote Women (1827) marked his severance from the classic school of his master. He was court painter at Amsterdam, and in 1836 became art instructor to the Orleans family. Influenced by Byron and Goethe, he #. argaret at her is hol, Margaret at the Well, and many other Faust subjects. Later he turned to religious painto g. Christus Consolator, Christus Remunerator, St. Augustime and Monica. His Francesca da Rimini is his finest work. See Mrs. Grote's Memoir (ed. 1860). Scheffler, JoHANN. See ANGELUs SILEsiús. Scheid e c k, or SCHEIDEGG, GREAT and LITTLE, Swiss passes, limiting on N.E. and s.w.. respectively the valley of Grindelwald, in the Bernese Oberland. The Little Scheideck (6,772 ft.) is crossed by a mountain railwa from Lauterbrunnen to Grindeswald. The Great Scheideck (6,434 ft.) is trayersed by a mule-path (a road, and railway are §§ which leads from Grindelwald to Meiringen in the upper Aar or Häsli valley, and at the S. foot of the Brünig Pass. Scheldt, or SCHELPE (French Escaut), riv., rises in § Aisne, France, flows N.E. into Belgium, and enters the North Sea by E. Scheldt and the W. Scheldt (or Honte). , The river passes, Cambrai and Valenciennes in France, and in Belgium, Tournai, Oudenarde, Ghent, Benjermondé, and Antwerp. Its chief tributaries are Lys (1... bk.), and Dender and Rupes (r. bk.). "Of its total length go m.) 211 m. are navigable to ambrai, round which is a network of canals connecting the basins of the Seine and Somme. In 1648, tolls were placed on Lower Scheldt trade by the treaty of Westphalia, but were removed by the treaty of Brussels in 1863. Schelling, FELIX EMMANUEL (1858), American educator, author, and editor, born in New Albany, Ind.; graduated from the Univ., of Penn., 1881; admitted to the Philadelphia bar in 1883; begame assistant professor of English literature, Univ. of Penn., 1889, and since 1893 has been John Welsh Centennial professor

of English literature at that Univ. He lectured at Johns Hopkins in 1908–10. rof. Schelling has published Literary and Verse Criticism of the Reign of Elizabeth (1891); The English Chronicle Play (1902); History of Elizabethan Drama (1907), etc., and has also edited various works. Schelling, FRIEDRICH WILHELM. Joseph voN (1775–1854), German post - Kantian philosoher, was born at Leonberg in 'urtemberg, and became (1798) a university teacher at Jena. He occupied chairs in a number of the German universities, his longest terms being at Munich (1808–20, 1827–40), and his last at Berlin. His earlier philosophy is, on the whole a continuation and developent of the idealism of Fichte. ut whereas in Fichte's philosophy, nature is wholly subordinated to the human or spiritual side of experience, Schelling seeks to do equal justice to nature, and to conceive the absolute principle as one of which nature and spirit are the equally necessary though opposed expressions. is common principle is neither nature to the exclusion of spirit, nor spirit to the exclusion of nature—neither object nor subject—but the identity in which their difference disappears. It can be adequately apprehended neither by the theoretical philosophy which is concerned with nature, nor by the practical philosophy which is concerned with human action, but only, by some mode of thought which transcends this, antithesis, and which is described by Schelling as a sort of intellectual intuition. It is in art that Schellin sees the truest illustration of suc intellectual intuition. In science and morality, form and matter are in different ways o sed to each other, but in art they are completely fused. The theosophical nosticism of his later thought alls outside the idealistic movement proper. The titles of his chief works are: Ideas for a Phio of Nature § System | ranscendental Idealism (1800); ectures on Philosophy of Art o: Lectures on the Method of Academic Study §§ Nature of Human Freedom (1809); His Sämtliche . Werke (14 vols.) were issued by his son in 1856–61. See Aus Schellings Leben, ed. Plitt (1870), also Watson's Schei. {so Transcendental Idealism 1883). ( Schenck, Robert CUMMING (1809–90), American soldier and politician, born at Franklin, O. He graduated at Miami Univ. in 1827, was a member of Congress in 1843–51, and Minister to Brazil in 1851–53. In 1861 he was made brigadier-general cos volunteers, and saw service in West

Virginia and Virginia, reachin the rank of major-general an resigning in 1863. . He was a member of Congress from Ohio in 1863–71 and Minister to England in 1871–76. In 1871 he was a member of the Joint High Commission which drew up the Treaty of Washington.

Schenectady, city, N. Y., co. seat of Schenectady co., 15 m. N.W. of Albany, on the Mohawk R. and the Erie Čanal, and on the N. Y. Cent. and H. R. and the Del. and H. R. Rs. It also has railroad connections with the Bost. and Me. and W. Shore R. Rs., an electric lines run to Troy, Åibany, jo, Springs, and othertowns. It is the seat of Union University, founded as Union College §. and possesses a public ibrary, city hall, court house, the Ellis Hospital, Čhildren's Home, Home of the Friendless, opera house, public park, and a state

armory. The First Reformed Church and St. George's (P. E.) are both of colonial origin.

Schenectady has important manufacturing interests, including the chief plant of the Edison, General Electric . the Westinghouse Agricultural Works, and the American Locomotive Works. * to the U. S. census of 1905 it had 103 manufacturin establishments, with an investe capital of $22,050,746, employing 14,316 wage-earners, and having a total product valued at soośī. 451. This was an increase of $8,444,954 in invested capital as compared with 1900, and of $16,479,592 in the value of output. In 1900 the value of the products of the four foundry and machine , shops was $5,207,586. Other important manufactures are brooms and brushes, mirrors, picture frames, furniture, patent medicines, electrical construction supplies, stoves, women's underwear, shawls, shirts, lace, sashes and blinds, carriages, varnish, and boats. Schenectady was founded in 1661 by Arent Van Curler. Letters patent were granted in 1684. In 1690 a French and Indian band massacred all but 60 of the inhabitants and burned the town. It was incorporated as a borough in 1765 and chartered as a city in 1799. The business section of the town was almost wholly destroyed by a fire in 1819. Pop. (1890) 19,902; (1900) 31,682; (1910) 72,826. Schenkel, DANIEL (1813–85), German liberal theologian, was born at Dägerlen, Zürich, and after a pastorate at Schaffhausen |..." he became professor at asel, and at Heidelberg (1851). He published Das Wesen des Protestantismus (1846–51), Unionsberuf des Evangelischen Protestantismus (1855), Christliche Dogmatik (1358–0), Grundlehren des

Christenthums (1877), and a raphy of Schleiermacher % and edited the Allgemeine liche Zeitschrift. is chief morial is the 'Charakterbild (1864; trans. 1866), a clever eloquent work, though ne profound nor convincing. Sc her er, EDMOND H ADolphe (1815–89), French of letters, born at Paris. had an excellent knowledg the English language and li ture. aving entered the l estant ministry at Strass (1836), he became professo exegetical theology, at , Ge (1845). Gradually his faith in essentials of Christianit ened, and he retired from church to devote himself to erature. He acted as Paris co spondent to the Daily News. accomplished critic and lite historian, he is chiefly rem bered by his Etudes Criti sur la Littérature Contempor (1863–95), parts of which translated by Professor Saints| as Essays on English Litera (1891); Etudes Critiques de térature (1876); Diderot (18 Etudes sur la Littérature A VIIIe §§ and in ology by La Critique et La §: and Lettres à Mon (

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which is perhaps most freque employed to designate, a part lar movement in symphonies sonatas. The music of a sch is generally of a light, dainty, P'o. character. cheveningen, seaside re and fishing port, Netherla prov. S. Holland, on North 3 m. N.w.. of The Hague. It an imposing Kurhaus (1886), a herring *g. Pop. (1: 20,000. Off, Scheveningen last great fight of the first Di War was fought on June 31, 1 between the Dutch and Bris The Dutch had 14 ships sunl burned,and Admiral Trompkil Schiaparelli, GIovaNNI V GINIo (1835), Italian astronor born at Savigliano; studied Turin, Berlin, and Pulkova; came assistant director, 1. and director, 1862, of the servatory at Milan; in 1861 he covered the planetoid Hesp and in 1877 markings on the face of Mars, which he called nals, and to which his name iven. He also announced e had observed markings on M cury. His numerous writings clude Note e off.” sulla to astronomica delle stelle cad (1867), and I Precursori di pernuco nell' antichità (1876). Schiavone, ANDREA (1522– Italian painter of the Vene school, born at Sebenico in l matia. His real name was . Schiedam

doia, and his identity with Meldolla, the engraver, has been established. In his youth he was a house decorator, and had no special training. Titian, under whom he studied at Venice, befriended him. His best works are cabinet. pictures. . Among others are Adoration of the Shep: herds, Holy Family, and Death of Abel. Schiedam... th:, Netherlands W. S. iioland, near ... bk of saas, 3 m. by rail w. of Rotterdam; the centre of gin distillation. Pop. (1900), 27,126. Schiehallion, isolated mountain (3,547 ft.), Perthshire, Scotland, 11 m. w.N.w.. of Aberfeldy,

table and educational institutions. He assisted in the so and became Dresident of the N. Y. Montefiore ome for Chronic Invalids, and was a founder of the N. Y. Jewish Theological Seminary, for which he erected a building. In 1903 he presented to Harvard the first Semitic Museum founded in the U. S., and he made many lesser benefac

tions.

Schiller, JoBANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH von (1759–1805), German t, was born at Marbach in Würtemberg. He wished to study for the church; but the Duke of Würtemberg had established a military school (Carls

Schiller

drama was received with great o though its #no ls often wildly rhetorical. et the charm of romance hangs round the story, which is rendered with dramatic power, and inspired by the reat idea of freedom. Theatreirector Dalberg put the play upon the Mannheim stage go. 13, 1783); but this involved Schuller in difficulties with the court of Würtemberg. Finally he fled from Stuttgart in disguise (Sept. 22, 1782)... Frau von Wolzogen : received him in her house at Bauerbach, near Karlsruhe in Baden, till in June, 1783, he was appointed poet to the theatre at

annheim. Here, in the follow

was in 1774 the scene of experiments by , Dr. Nevil Maskelyne to ascertain the mean density of the earth. Schiff, JAcob HENRY (1847), American banker and philanthropist, born at Frankfort-onthe-Main, Germany, and educated in the schools of that city. He early entered the of business, came to New Yor city in 1865, achieved success in financial circles, and became head of the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. He became director in many important corporations, #do. §§ Y. No. City Bank, the Equitable Life. Assurance Society, and the Union Pacific Railroad Co. As he grew wealthy he gave freely to chari

solo the sons of his officers, and he decreed that Schiller should study jurisprudence. Two years later, when the school was removed to Stuttgart, Schiller deserted law for medicine. The military discipline of the academy...was exceedingly galling to Schiller's sensitive mind; and it was only in secret that he could ruse such books as Götz von erlichingen and Werther, Klopstock's Messias, Shakespeare, Ossian, Rousseau, and Plutarch. Inspired by these great models he wrote the , play of Die Räuber, into which he breathed all his passionate and tumultuous hatred of tyranny. It was not published till 1781, when he had been a pointed an army surgeon. The

ing year, appeared his next two dramas, Fiesco (January 11) and Kabale und Liebe (April 15). The scene of Fiesco is laid in Genoa. It is a dark picture of Italian intrigue; Kabale und Liebe is a tro of court life in Germany.

fter leaving Mannheim in 1785, Schiller resided for about a year in Leipzig and the neighboring village of Gohlis, where he wrote his Lied an die Freude. He was at this time in great poverty, , and lived at Dresden on the hospitality of Christian Gottfried Körner, the father of the poet of the War of Liberation, till Jo 1787. In the meantime the Rheinische Thalia, a literary journal founded in 1785 was carried on as Thalia till

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und Würde, Naive und mentale Dichtung, Die tra Kunst, and Die osthetische j hung des Menschen. In 1794 Schiller began to nearer to Goethe in personal literary, sympathy. T. Both tributed to the Horen (1795–7 to the Musenalmanach (179 which superseded it. In the ter journal appeared the X. (1797), a series of keen satire the mediocre literati of the They were followed in 1798 number of splendid ballads, most famous of Schiller's b Der Taucher. Der Ring des 1 grates. Die Kraniche àes I by and Ber Kampf mit dem Drac These are worthy of a place be the best ballads of any literal In the Musenalmanach appe also after 1796 a series of pc of a more philosophical chara expressing Schiller's mature i on religion, education, hu

life, and happiness. The 1 famous of these are Der Spa, ang, Das Glück, Idea

eben, and, above all, the fan Lied von der Glocke (1800).

In 1798 appeared Wallenst Lager, the herald of that splen series of plays–Die Piccolor and , Wallensteins Tod (18 Maria Stuart (1800), Die B. von Messina (1803), Die Jung von, Orleans (1802), and Wilk Tell (1804). These works re. dramatic power of an except ally high order. The weakes the series is the Braut von M sina, in which Schiller attemp to combine romantic eleme with the Greek chorus. Joar Arc is more successful as a hero than Queen Mary, though b enlist our warmest sympat The greatest of the series Wallenstein and Wilhelm T The latter drama had been modelled for the Weimar st in 1797.

Schiller is one of the m sympathetic figures in literati

man of singular, purity

character, with a mind ambiti

of reaching the highest, he stro in spite of bodily weakness ; the frowns of fortune, to att

the ideal in life and art. In most successful dramas (T Wallenstein, and Nie Räu the interest lies in the questi of great national moment—libe tion, revolt against authority, struggle for individual freedo Into these he breathed all warmth of his own passion, t thus transformed philosophy a history, into poetry. In his s limity he sometimes neglected work out the details of charac was usually dead to the effects humor, and too much devo to needless rhetoric. In la life he manifested the same lo ing for the artistic, the same l of Greek art as Goethe. Ther

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