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scholastic period, and which, under a sometimes serious, sometimes ironical, profession of the ultra-rational character of religious doctrines, really undermines all belief in them. The other characteristic type of modern scepticism is that which takes its stand on physical science, and advocates a sort of naturalistic positivism to the exclusion of any higher knowledge. The sensationalistic philosophy on which such a position is apt to be based had its greatest representative in Hume; out Hume, unlike some of his later followers, was well aware that his sensationalism had universal scepticism for its logical outcome. It is this philosophical incoherence of scientific naturalism which is the object of Mr. A. J. Balfour's attacks in his Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879), and his Foundations of Belief (1895). For history and references, sec Flint's Agnosticism (1903).
Sceptre, a ruler's symbol of authority. In Greece it was often lance-shaped; in Egypt, tipped with plough or stork; in Rome, of ivory, straight or curved (see Livy, v. 41; Scipio); at Con
Forms of Sceptre. Ancient Oreek: 1, from Tarentum; 2. 3, 4, from Mycena* (gold and cry&tah. F.nfflloh: ft, from seal of Edward: the Confessor; 4, from a portrait of Itichard ]!.; 7. the Bct'ptre with cross, used giuce the Keotoration.
stantinople, with globe, eagle, or cross; in France, with ball or fleur-de-lis. Famous specimens are: Charles v.'s, so-called of Charlemagne, at the Louvre; of Stephen of Hungary, at Aix-laChapelle: of Napoleon I. English royal sceptres date from the restoration of St. Edward. One of gold (15th century) exists in the Scottish regalia.
Schadow, Johann Gottfried (1764-1850), German sculptor, born at Berlin; was director (1816) of the Berlin Academy of Arts; is known for his statues of Frederick the Great in Stettin, Blucher in Rostock, the monument of Luther at Wittenberg, the chariot over the Brandenburg gate at Berlin, and a great number of
royal portraits and busts; and he is regarded as the founder of that modern German school of sculpture in which classical influences were strong.
Schadow-Godenhaus, FriedRich Wilhelm (1789-1862), German historical and portrait painter, born in Berlin: studied at Rome under Cornelius and Overbeck; became (1819) professor in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, and succeeded Cornelius as director of the academy at DUsseldorf (1826). Among his chief works are The Four Evangelists, in the Werder church in Berlin, and an Ascension of Mary, in St. Paul's church at Aixla-Chapelle. He was more distinguished as a teacher than as an artist. See Life, in German, by Hiibner (1869).
Schafcr, Edward Albert (1850), English physiologist, was born at Hornscy, London; in 1874 became assistant professor of physiology at University College, London, where he was Jodrell professor (1883-99); after which he was appointed professor of physiology in Edinburgh University. His works include A Course of Practical Histology (2d ed. 1897), Text-look of Physiology (2 vols. 1898-1900). and Essentials of Histology (6th ed. 1902).
Srhaff, Philip (1819-93), German-American divine, was born at Chur, Switzerland, and received his education there and at the universities of Tubingen, Halle, and Berlin, taking his degree in divinity at Berlin. He lectured at the fast named university on exegesis and church history from 1842 to 1884, and was then called to the professorship of theology in the Mcrcersburg, Pa., German Reformed Theological Seminary. He removed to New York city in 1863, was appointed professor of theological cyclopaedia and Christian symbolism in Union Theological Seminary in 1870, was transferred to other professorships in 1874 and 1887, and remained with this institution until his death. He was president of the American Bible Revision Committee of 1871, and edited several important theological works, including the English translation of Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (24 vols., 1864-86). He was a founder and honorary secretary of the American branch of the Evangelical Alliance, was first president of the American Society of Church History, and with tongue and pen devoted himself to the harmonizing of Christian Ix'lief and feeling the world over. His principal work was his History of the Christian Church (185890), and secondary in importance was his editing of the .SY/M//Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious
Knowledge (1882; 3d ed. 189 See the Life, by his son (1897).
Schaffhauspn. (1.) Swiss ca ton, on r. bk. of Rhine. Are 114 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 41,51 mainly Protestants and Germa speaking. It was admitted in the Swiss confederation in 150 and is remarkable for its man facturing industry. (2.) Tow cap. of above canton, on r. bk. Rhine, in which are the famoi falls (80 ft.). Here are factor! for vehicles, cottons, machincr soap, and candles; also brc\ cries and distilleries. It has fine old church, formerly belon ing to a celebrated Benedictii nunnery (1050-1524). Pop. (190 15,275.
Schafflo, Albert (1831), Ge man political economist, born Nurtingen in Wurtemberg: aj pointed professor of politic economy at Tubingen (I860), ar at Vienna (1868). He bccarr Austrian minister of commcrc (1871), and then he returned Stuttgart, to engage in literal work. Among his more impo tant publications are: Die Ar. tionrlokonomie (1861); Kapita ismus und Sozialismus (1870 Das Gcsellschaitliche System d, Menschlichcn Wirtschajt (1867 Ouintessenz des Sozialismt (1874): Bau und Leben des Soz alen Korpers (1896); Die Steuer (1895—7): Die agrarische Fra^ (1902); Aus meinem Leben (1904
Schalko, tn., Prussia, pro Westphalia, 8 m. N.N.E. of Essci is a coal-mining centre, and mam factures zinc, wire, and hardwart Pop. (1900) 26,077.
Schall, Johanx Adam vo (1591-1669), German Jesuit mi: sionary, born at Cologne; cntcre the Society of Jesus at Rom (1611), and was sent to China £ a missionary (1622). He thci studied astronomy, revised th Chinese imperial calendar, an introduced into China the d vision of the day into hours, mir utes, and seconds. In 1664 ^ was imprisoned, and died afu a long confinement. He wrol a Latin narrative of Chine: Missions (1655).
Schamlr, a mythical Easter worm, small as a barleycorn, bi of mysterious power, able to sha ter rocks, reveal hidden treasun and give or paralyze life. It We used by Solomon to shape tn temple stones. Styled Thumai in Gcsta Romanorum, Thamir b Gervaise of Tilbury, it figuri also as Samur, the stone of wi: dom, and among the Greeks a a plant. See Curious Myths i the Middle Ages, second scric: by Baring-Gould (1881).
Schandorph, Sophus (1837 1900), whose proper name w; Skamdrup, Danish novelist, w; born at Ringsted. Beginning •< a writer of the romantic schoc Scharl
he only found his tme vocation after listening to the lectures of Gcorg Brandes, and henceforth distinguished himself as a delineator of actual life in small provincial towns. Among his gifts was that of humor. His novels and tales include Fra Provinsen (1876), I!den Midtpunkt (1878), Smaafolk (1880), Thomas Fris's Historic (1881), Del Gamle Apathek (1885), Poet og Junker (1891), Tre Appelsiner (1894), Frigjorl (1896), Gamle Billeaer (1899), and Heiga (1900).
Si-ii.irf, John Thomas (184398), American author, was born in Baltimore, Md., and served in the Confederate army and navy. He then engaged in business, was editor of the Baltimore Telegram and of the Baltimore Morning Herald, was admitted to the bar in 1874, and served in the Maryland state legislature. He gave much study to the history of his city and state, and published Chronicles of Baltimore (1874), History of Maryland (3 vols., 1879-80), History of Western Maryland (2 vols., 1882), among other volumes, besides a History of the Confederate States Navy (1887) and a History of Delaware (1888).
Scharnhorst, Gerhard JoHann David Von (1755-1813), Prussian soldier, was born at Bordenau in Hanover. He served in the army against France in 1793, and in 1801 became director of the military academy in Berlin. In 1806 he was present at the battles of Aucrstadt and Eylau, and in 1807 began the reorganization of the Prussian army, by which he laid the foundations of that country's military power. In 1812 he accompanied Blucher to the front as chief of his staff. See Life, in German, by Lehmann (1886-7).
Scharwenka, Xaver (1850), German composer and pianist, born at Samter, near Posen, Prussia, and a pupil of Kullak and Wiicrst in Berlin. For several years he devoted himself to concert playing and to chamber music, in which latter field he had the assistance of Emil Sauret and H. Grunfcld, teaching the piano, meantime, in the Kullak Conservatory. In 1880 he founded the Scharwenka Conservatory in Berlin, and in 1891 he established a similar institution in New York city. In 1898 he returned to Germany, where he is highly esteemed as a pianoforte teacher, to take charge of the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. His compositions indude an opera, Afatasu-intha (Weimar, 1890), a symphony (C minor, Op. GO), three pianoforte concertos, much chamber music, and a number of popular pianoforte pieces. He edited Schu
mann's pianoforte works and several of Chopin's important compositions. His own compositions reach nearly 100.
Schas.shurg (Hung. Scgesvar), In., co. Nagy-KUkullo, Hungary, 25 m. by rail E.S.E. of MarosVisarrHv, centre of a wine and hop district. Pop. (1900) 10,857. Schaumburg-J.tppe, principality of Germany, within a loop of the \Vescr, between Westphalia and Hanover, with an area of 131 sq. m. and a population (1900) of 43,132, nearly all Protestants. The greater part belongs to the N. German plain. Agriculture is the principal occupation. Cap. Buckcburg. The principality has one vote in the Imperial Federal Council, and sends one representative to the Imperial Diet. It dates from 1807. but the dynasty goes back to the 10th century. See also I.ippe.
Seheehtor, Solomon (1849), American educator, born in Fokshan Rpumania; was educated at the Universities of Vienna and Berlin; made a special study of divinity and SemiUcs, and became reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic literature at Cambridge University and professor of "Hebrew at University College, London. He distinguished himself as special agent at Cambridge University, by discovering in the oldest synagogue in the world, at Cairo, Kgypt, a priceless store of books, scrolls, and MSS. of great antiquity. This collection was secured for the Cambridge library, where he translated many of its most precious parts. In 1902 he became president of the newly established Jewish Theological Seminary of America at New York. Seheele, Carl\vilhelm (174286), Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund, became a chemist at Koping, and devoted himself to chemical research, being much influenced by Hergman. His principal work includes discoveries of chlorine, oxygen, manganese, barium, and a nost of compounds, among which arc ammonia, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, arsenic, g'ussic, oxalic, and other acids. e also invented many new methods of preparation and analysis: a green pigment and a solution of prussic acid are still called after him. See Nordcnskiiild's Carl Wilhelm Schctlc (1893), and Hays's The Life Work oj Carl Wilhelm Seheele (1884).
Scheffel, Joseph Viktor Von (1826-86), German poet, born at Karlsruhe. His first volume, written in Italy, was Der Trompcter von Sacking_cn (18">4), a metrical tale of the time of the Thirty Years' War, which has run through more than two hundred editions. He devoted himself to early German and folklore studies, the
fruits of which were seen in his next tale (in prose), Ekkchard (1857), likewise exceedingly popular. His remaining volumes were largely poetry—^Gaudeamus (1867); Frau Aventiure (1863); Bergpsalmen (1870); Waldeinsamkeit (1880); with two excellent romances, Juniperus (1868) and Hugideo (1884). See Lives by Ruhemann (1886), Prolss (1887), and Pilz (1887).
Scheffer, Ary (1795-1858). French portrait and historical painter, horn at. Dordrecht, of German parentage, was a pupil of Guerin in Pans. His Suliote Women (1827) marked his severance from the classic school of his master. He was court painter at Amsterdam, and in 1836 became art instructor to the Orleans family. Influenced by Byron and Goethe, he produced Margaret at her Wheel, Margaret at the Well, and many other Faust subjects. Later he turned to religious painting —e. g. Christus Consolator, Cnristus Remuneralor> St. Augustine and Monica. His Francesco, da Rimini is his finest work. See Mrs. Grote's Memoir (ed. 1860).
Schemer, Johann. See An
Scheldcck, or Scheidegg, Great and Little, Swiss passes, limiting on N.e. and s.w. respectively the valley of Grindelwald, in the Bernese Oberland. The Little Scheideck (6,772 ft.) is crossed by a mountain railway from Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald. The Great ScheideCk (6,434 ft.) is traversed by a mule-path (a road and railway are projected), which leads from Grindelwald to Meiringen in the upper Aar or H,isli valley, and at the s. foot of the Briinig Pass.
Scheldt, or Schelde (French Escaut), riv., rises in derx Aisne, France, flows N.e. into Belgium, and enters the North Sea by E. Scheldt and the W. Scheldt (or Honte). The river passes Cambrai and Valenciennes in France, and in Belgium, Tournai, Oudenarde, Ghent, Dendermonde, and Antwerp. Its c? ^ef tributaries are Lys (I. bk.), and Dender and Rupel (r. bk.). Of its total length (270 m.) 211 m. are navigable to Cambrai, round which is a network of canals connecting the basins of the Seine and Somme. In 1648 tolls were placed on Lower Scheldt trade by the treaty of Westphalia, but were removed by the treaty of Brussels in 1803.
Schelllng, Felix Emmanuel (1858). American educator, author, and editor, born in New Albany, Ind.; graduated from the Univ. of Penn.. 1881; admitted to the Philadelphia bar in 1883: became assistant professor of English literature, Univ. of Penn., 1SS9, and since 1893 has been John Welsh Centennial professor Srhclllng
of English literature at that Univ. He lectured at Johns Hopkins in 1908-10. Prof. Schelling has published Literary and Verse Criticism of the Reign of Elizabeth (1891); The English Chronicle Play (1902); History of Elizabethan Drama (1907), etc., and has also edited various works.
ScheMlng, Friedrich Wil
HELM JOSKPH VON (1775-1854),
German post - Kantian philosopher, was born at Leon berg in VVurtemberg, and became (1798) a university teacher at Jena. He occupied chairs in a number of the German universities, his longest terms being at Munich (18(IS-20, 1827-40), and his last at Berlin. His earlier philosophy is on the whole a continuation and development of the idealism of Fichte. But whereas in Fichte's philosophy nature is wholly subordinated to the human or spiritual side of experience, Schelling seeks to do equal justice to nature, and to conceive the absolute principle as one of which nature and spirit are the equally necessary though opposed expressions. Tnis common principle is neither nature to the exclusion of spirit, nor spirit to the exclusion of nature—neither object nor subject—but the identity in which their difference disappears. It can be adequately apprehended neither by the theoretical philosophy which is concerned with nature, nor by the practical philosophy which is concerned with human action, but only by some mode of thought which transcends this antithesis, and which is described by Schelling as a sort of intellectual intuition. It is in art that Schelling sees the truest illustration of sucn intellectual intuition. In science and morality, form and matter are in different ways opposed to each other, but in art they are completely fused. The theosophical gnosticism of his later thuught falls outside the idealistic movement proper. The titles of his chief works are: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature (1797); System of Transcendental Idealism (1800); Lectures on Philosophy of Art (p jsthumous); Lectures on the Method of Academic Study (1803); Nature of Human Freedom (1809); His Silmlliehe Wcrke (14 vols.) were issued by his son in 1856-61. See Aus Schcllings Lcben, ed. Plitt (1870), also Watson's SchtUr ling's Transcendental Idealism (1883).
Schenck, Robert Cumming (1809-90), American soldier and p litician, born at Franklin, O. He graduated at Miami Univ. in 1827, was a member uf Congress in 1843-51, and Minister to Brazil in 1851-53. In 1801 he was p*ade brigadier-general cf volunteers, and saw service in West
Virginia and Virginia, reaching the rank of major-general and resigning in 1863. He was a member of Congress from Ohio in 1863-71 and Minister to England in 1871-76. In 1871 he was a member of the Joint High Commission which drew up the Treaty of Washington.
Schenectady, city, N. Y., co. seat of Schenectady co., 15 m. N.w. of Albany, on the Mohawk R. and the Erie Canal, and on the N. Y. Cent, and H. R. and the Del. and H. R. Rs. It also has railroad connections with the Bost. and Me. and W. Shore R. Rs.. and electric lines run to Troy, Albany, Saratoga Springs, and other towns. It is the seat of Union University, founded as Union College (1795), and possesses a public library city hall, court house, the Ellis Hospital, Children's Home, Home of the Friendless, opera house, public park, and a state armory. The First Reformed Church and St. George's (P. E.) are both of colonial origin. Schenectady has important manufacturing interests, including the chief plant of the Edison General Electric Company, the Westinghouse Agricultural Works, and the American Locomotive Works. According to the U. S. census of 1905 it had 103 manufacturing establishments, with an invested capital of 122,050,746, employing 14,316 wage-earners, and having a total product valued at (33,084,451. This was an increase of (8,444,954 in invested capital as compared with 1900, and of (16,479,592 in the value of output. In 1900 the value of the products of the four foundry and machine shops was (5,207,586. Other important manufactures are brooms and brushes, mirrors, picture frames, furniture, patent medicines, electrical construction supplies, stoves, women's underwear, shawls, shirts, lace, sashes and blinds, carriages, varnish, and boats. Schenectady was founded in 1661 by Arent Van Curler. Letters patent were granted in 1684. In 1690 a French and Indian band massacred all but 60 of the inhabitants and burned the town. It was incorporated as a borough in 1765 and chartered as a city in 1799. The business section of the town was almost wholly destroyed by a fire in 1819. Pop. (1890) 19,902; (1900) 31,682; (1910) 72,826.
Schenkel, Daniel (1813-85), German liberal theologian, was born at Dagerlen, Zurich, and after a pastorate at Schaffhausen (1841-9), he became professor at Basel, and at Heidclljcrg (1851). He published Das Wesen des Proteslanlismus (1846-51), Unionsberuj dfs Evtingelischcn Protcslantismiis (1855), Chrislliche Dogmal'.k (IjjS-'J), Crundlchren des
Christenthums (1877), and a raphy of Schleiermacher (1 and edited the Allgemeine K liche Zeitschrifl. His chief morial is the CaaraktcrbiJd (1864; trans. 1866), a clever eloquent work, though nc profound nor convincing.
Scherer, Edmond H Adolphe (1815-89), French of letters, born at Paris, had an excellent knowledg the English language and hi ture. Having entered the J estant ministry at Strass (1836)t he became professo exegetical theology at Ge (1845). Gradually his faith ii essentials of Christianity w ened, and he retired from church to devote himself to erature. He acted as Paris c< spondent to the Daily News. accomplished critic and lite historian, he is chiefly rerr bered by his Etudes Criti sur la Lilterature Contempor (1863-95). parts of which i translated by Professor Saintsl as Essays on English Litera (1891); Etudes Critiques de ttrature (1876); Diderot (IS Etudes sur la Lilterature XVIII' Sierle (1891); and in ology by La Critique et La (1850), and Leltres a. Man < (1853). See Greard's Edn Scherer (1890).
Scherzo, a term in mi which is perhaps most frcque employed to designate a part lar movement in symphonies sonatas. The music of a sch is generally of a light, dainty, playful character.
Schevenlngen, seaside re and fishing port, Netherla prov. S. Holland, on North 3 m. N.w. of The Hague. It an imposing Kurhaus (1880), a herring fishery. Pop. (11 20,000. Off Scheveningen last great fight of the first Di War was fought on June 31. 1 between the Dutch and Bril The Dutch had 14 ships sun] burned,and Admiral Tromp kil
Schlaparelll, Giovanni ^ OQJIO (1886), Italian astronoi born at Savigliano; studied Turin, Berlin, and Pulkova; came assistant director, 1; and director, 1802, of the scrvalory at Milan; in 1861 he covered the planetoid Hespi and in 1877 markings on the face of Mars, which he called nals, and to which his name given. He also announced he had observed markings on A cury. His numerous writings elude Note e refiessiom suUa ti astronomica delle stelle cad (18e>7), and / Precursor! di penned nelf anlichita (1876).
Schlavonc, Andrka (1522Italian painter of the Vene school, burn at Sebcnico in 1 u:atia. llis real nuinc was I Schiedam
doia, and his identity with Meldolla, the engraver, has been established. In his youth he was a house decorator, and had no special training. Titian, under whom he studied at Venice, befriended him. His best works are cabinet pictures. Among others are Adoration of the Shepherds, Holy Family, and Death of Abel.
Schiedam- tn., Netherlands, prov. S. Holland, near r. bk. of Maas, 3 m. by rail w. of Rotterdam; the centre of gin distillation. Pop. (19OO) 27,126.
Schlehalllon, isolated mountain (3,547 ft.), Perthshire, Scotland, llm. W.n.w. of Aberfeldy,
table and educational institutions. He assisted in the founding and became president of the N. Y. Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, and was a founder of the .N. Y. Jewish Theological Seminary, for which he erected a building. In 1903 he presented to Harvard the first Semitic Museum founded in the U. S., and he made many lesser benefactions.
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedricu VON (1759-1805), German poet, was born at Marbach in Wurtemberg. He wished to study for the church; but the Duke of Wurtemberg had established a military school (Carls
drama was received with great applause, though its language is often wildly rhetorical. Yet the charm of romance hangs round the story, which is rendered with dramatic power and inspired by the great idea of freedom. Theatredirector Dalberg put the play upon the Mannneim stage (June 13, 1782); but this involved Schiller in difficulties with the court of Wurtemberg. Finally he fled from Stuttgart in disguise (Sept. 22, 1782). Frau von Wolzogen received him in her house at liauerbach, near Karlsruhe in Baden, till in June, 1783, he was appointed poet to the theatre at Mannheim. Here, in the follow
was in 1774 the scene of experiments by Dr. Ncvil Maskelyne to ascertain the mean density of the earth.
SchlfT, Jacob Henry (1847), American banker and philanthropist, born at Frankfort-onthe-Main, Germany, and educated in the schools of that city. He early entered the banking business, came to New York city in 1805, achieved success in financial circles, and became head of the banking firm of Kuhn, Ix>eb & Co. He became director in many important corporations, including the N. Y. National City Bank, the Equitable Life Assurance Society, and the Union Pacific Railroad Co. As he grew wealthy he gave freely to chari
schule) for the sons of his officers, and he decreed that Schiller should study jurisprudence. Two years later, when the school was removed to Stuttgart, Schiller deserted law for medicine. The military discipline of the academy was exceedingly galling to Schiller's sensitive mind; and it was only in secret that he could peruse such books as Colz von Berlichingen and Werther, Klopstock's Messias, Shakespeare, Ossian, Rousseau, and Plutarch. Inspired by these great models he wrote the play of Die Riiuber, into which he breathed all his passionate and tumultuous hatred of tyranny. It was not published till 1781, when he had been appointed an army surgeon. The
ing year, appeared his next two dramas, Ficsco (January 11) and Kabale und Liebe (April 15). The scene of Fiesco is laid in Genoa. It is a dark picture of Italian intrigue; Kabale und Liebe is a tragedy of court life in Germany. After leaving Mannheim in 1785, Schiller resided for about a year in Leipzig and the neighboring village of Gohlis, where he wrote his Lied an die Freude. He was at this time in great poverty, and lived at Dresden on the hospitality of Christian Gottfried Korner, the father of the poet of the War of Liberation, till Julv, 1787. In the meantime the Rhfinische Tlialia, a literary journal founded in 1785. was carried on as Thalia till
und Wurdc, Naive und . mentale Dichtung, Die trag Kunst, and Die t.sthetische 2 hung des Menschen.
In 1794 Schiller began to nearer to Goethe in personal literary sympathy. Both tributed to the Horen (1795-7 to the Afusenalmanach (179 which superseded it. In the ter journal appeared the A'< (1797), a scries of keen satire the mediocre literati of the They were followed in 1798 number of splendid ballads, most famous of Schiller's r. Der Tauclier. Der Ring des 1 crates. Die Kraniche des Iby and Der Kamfil mil dent Drac These are worthy of a place Ix the best ballads of any literal In the Musenalmanach appc also after 1796 a series of pc of a more philosophical chara expressing Schiller's mature i on religion, education, hu life, and happiness. The r famous of these are Der Spa: •ang. Das Glitck, Ideal ",eben, and, above all, the fan Lied von der Glocke (1800).
In 1798 appeared Watlenst Lager, the herald of that spiel series of plays—Die Piccoloi and Wa/tensteins Tod (18 Maria Stuart (1800), Die B von Messina (1803), Die June, von Orleans (1802), and Will, Tell (1804). These works re' dramatic power of an except ally high order. The weakes the series is the Braut von 3 sina, in which Schiller attcmf to combine romantic elcmc with the Greek chorus. Joar Arc is more successful as a hen than Queen Mary, though h enlist our warmest sympat The greatest of the series Wallenstein and Wilhelm ^ The latter drama had been modelled for the Weimar st in 1797.
Schiller is one of the n sympathetic figures in literati A man of singular purity character, with a mind ambfti of reaching the highest, he strc in spite ol bodily weakness; the frowns of fortune, to all the ideal in life and art. In most successful dramas (7 Wallfnstein, and Nie Rait the interest lies in the quest! of great national moment—Mix tion, revolt against authority, struggle for individual freedc Into these he breathed all warmth of his own passion, z thus transformed philosophy; history into poetry. In nis s limity he sometimes neglected work out the details of charac was usually dead to the effects humor, and too much devo to needless rhetoric. In la life he manifested the same lo ing for the artistic, the same I of Greek art as Goethe. Then