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of Paris. * One of Bishop St. Hugh's sever- 'grants in aid' to every school which was est struggles with the Crown arose from not wholly maintained either by some preroyal attempts to force courtiers into stalls, bendary, or by the rector and curate of the and the reputation and the peacefulness of place. the vast establishment † were much increased The central school of the choristæ themby the determination with which, while he selves (who were not to be mere hirelings, sought for men to fill them, “eminent for the or wholly free scholars, and who were to be prerogative of diligence and literature,' he of good birth as well as character) was to be yet would not accept the most eminent, un- a kind of model, with its strict discipline less he could satisfy himself that they were yet “gentle punishments’ | under the præ
of quiet and modest. spirit. In the same centor's immediate direction. The boys retone we find the great Grosseteste-philoso- sided with one of the canons as warden, had pher, statesman, patriot-not only defying an an industrious seneschal' to cater for them, excommunication for resisting the Pope's a trusty man to attend them out of doors, demand for a prebend for his nephew, but, and either one or two masters for singing I with an eye to the substantial work which he and grammar. $ expected, refusing Cardinal Otho's request III. There was the still more important that he would confer a stall upon one whom School of Grammar, under the chancellor. Grosseteste himself admits to be scientia He is responsible for all the grammar-schools eminens et moribus præclarus,' simply on the of the city and county, and for all appointground that work at Lincoln was not such ments made to them--save only singingas would suit him best; while to another schools, præbendal schools, and—how moscholar of high character he offers a small dern an exception - those schools which are prebend on condition of his coming at once wholly maintained by local managers, “pro into residence, there' to help feed the flock suis parochianis in fide et litteratura erudiwith the three necessaries, verbum prædi- endis.' Ile was in fact a Minister of Educationis; exemplum sanctæ conversationis ; cation. At St. Paul's, London, the correet devotio puræ orationis.' It was for the sponding officer, ' præest litteraturæ non tansake of greater efficiency in this same work tüm ecclesiæ sed totius civitatis. Omnes that earlier in life he had himself resigned magistri grammatices ei subjiciuntur. At • altior dignitas,' and become spontanee York his office is more ancient than that of pauperior,' devoting himself to the duties of dean or precentor, under the title of magishis prebendal stall.
ter scholarum,' which corresponds to the It is difficult to realize the amount and foreign escolâtre, scholaster or capiscol. diversity of interests which centred in this IV. Fourthly, there is the School of now quiet retreat. From foreign, national, Divinity' in the city itself; that it was large and diocesan relations, from the numerous and widely popular we know, but we have monasteries which these seculars' superin- no means of learning its numbers. It was, tended, and on which their larger spirit had like the Schools of Letters, ruled by the salutary effect,& let us turn to the cathedral chancellor, and it is from cathedral instituitself, and what was going on around it. tions that the Universities borrowed the I. There was then, first, the School of Ar- idea of this high officer. All
All appointchitecture, which, under the • Masters of the ments in this school were to be filled up by Fabric,' was creating continuously from cen- him, but he was also required .actualiter tury to centary a Christian Parthenon on a legere,' himself to lecture. He had besides Christian Acropolis, radiating adaptations through the diocese, and influencing far and
* MS. p. 28; see the direction ‘ut expensio wide the taste of the country in
p. 28; 'levi castigatione.' partment of Art.
# The remarks on style of singing, pp. 46, 49, II. There was the School of Music, which, are too long for quotation, but they are excelunder the headship of the præcentor' (se lent; insisting on a sharp, crisp style, on the cond, be it remembered, only to the dean), for intelligence of the sense. Perhaps it is some had offshoots (scholæ cantus) in every parish ancient procentor's precept which is quoted
, of the diocese, maintained a strict inspec- Auscultanda cave; simul incipe ; desine plane.' tión' through a magister cantus in civitate Š'Chorus non obest scholis' is the dictum et comitatu Lincolniensi (p. 28), and gave od author in answer to a natural inquiry. He fixed days on which he was bound to deliver staff of “Cathedral service,' while the canons popular lectures or sermons in English. He were the servers of "Cathedral work. The also was responsible for arranging the lec- vicars of the non-resident canons were a tiones or collationes read in the chapter- body corporate under the dean and chapter; house, which are characterised (remarkable the chaplains or commonsales of the resiphrase) as having proved ad fidèi et morum dents were subject to their dominus' alone. reformationem plurimum efficaces. He was But they and the vicars served the choir the custodian finally of the precious treasure whether the prebendary was present or not, of the libri scholastici
which, experientia teste,' is laid down by an
points especially to the schools of the Barnabites * · Vita M. Hugonis,' B. iii. c. ix.-x.
throughout Italy, and to the litterarum studia, + Cunctis ecclesiis gloriosius copiosiusque,'id. cantionum munus, animarum directio, conversio jii. 8.
infidelium, conducted by all those orders which | Compare in ‘Nov. Reg.' the contrast drawn found the full daily usus Hymnodiæ (choral serbeiween the pettiness of monastic discipline and vice) to be maxime carus et utilis. Ap. Miræum the wider spirit of the cathedral.
cod. Regg. et Constt. Cleric,' p. 57.
, except such as were and in no case relieved the latter of his chained in the library.' is multifarious duties, which were absolutely distinct, not duties, and the extent of the field, inade the only as to the work,' but in the service of chancellor, as we have seen, the principium the choir itself. No one but a prebendary et quasi fundamentum ecclesiæ,' and ren- could act as a prebendary's deputy in the dered the office of a Vice-chancellor indis- church. So at Exeter .each of the twentypensable.
four canons had his vicar from the comV. On the Archdeacons, whose head- mencement' ("Cath. Comm.' p. 183). The quarters were here, it is not necessary to same is the case in every old cathedral. dwell. Each had one of the seven counties VIII. We need scarcely speak of the acof the diocese under his direction, and the cretion of twenty chantries, each with its jurisdiction since lost through Archidia- chaplain, and the “pauperes clerici' who conorum incuria seu episcoporum potentia,'* guarded the altars. The system was an was not without its burdens.
after-growth, having no true connection with, VI. Under the treasurer,' besides the and no original place in, the cathedral sysmanagement of the funds, and the responsi- tem, a temporary enrichment, but, finally bility of the magnificence with which the and justly, one of the most active causes of pages of Dugdale flash out, as it passes from dissolution. When at last a fifteenth-cenits old home to the hands of Henry VIII. tury prelate commissioned two diocesan (and may that moveable magnificence never preachers, who should have had other subreappear in the cathedral of the future !), ject matter, to stimulate the decreasing supwas the supply of large quantities of warm ply of devotions for the fabric by proclaimclothing for the poor, distributed by the ing the chapter's care for the souls of decanons; and the dispensary, of which the parted benefactors—when the offerings of medicine-niches yet surround the walls of an the dead became the trade of the living, the apartment in the cathedral.
heart of the fabric was near ceasing to beat. The present statutes say nothing of the But this sad side of the picture, to which it road-making and bridge-making which is de- is only just to advert, need nevertheless not scribed in other cathedral statutes as part of detain us, for it belongs only to the centuthe work.' But their present form suffi- ries in which decay was at work, and is in ciently explains this; and it is clear that the itself the principal symptom of decay. character of the country made it at least as And now it is worth while to
pause imperative here as elsewhere.
moment to remember that of this great esVII. Lastly, we come to the Cathedral tablishment in its integrity-setting aside Service'; the sole function of the great in the chantry priests—not a single line of the stitution which was limited to its own walls. plan has perished. Not one office or title The ceaseless supplication for Grace, the (perexiles tituli though they have become perpetual Intercession, the endless Praise for the time) is extinct, with the significant unbroken, yet ever new, like Nature herself exception of the treasurership. Vicars, prewith varying majesty-practical issue of a bendaries in full tale, chancellor, precentors, still languidly acknowledged theory.t dean, and deputies are appointed still. It
Every prebendary provided a vicar for the is said that when it was proposed to leave choir service. Ignorant assertions are com- the prebendal stalls unabolished while conmon enough, that priest-vicars, or, as they fiscating the funds, the proposal was passed sometimes are called, minor canons-arose by the House of Commons with a derisive out of the absenteeism of the canons. The cheer. Members of the then Parliament fact is, that the vicars were the working thought they knew the clergy' too well to
suppose that they would accept offices * Frances, c. 30, n. 24.
which entailed expense, trouble, travelling, On tliis important sabject--the true theory labour in writing, and preaching without reof the perpetual leitovpyin of the Cathedral-we ward for the sake of maintaining the ancient may be permitted to refer to the beautiful chap- forms of their cathedrals in honour and ters on the Daily Office in the work of the Dean of Norwich, which has appeared since the above respect. Yet they were mistaken. Prepages were written.
bendal stalls are filled, and the duties ac
cepted with pride and without hire. It | It was otherwise when all these conditions would be difficult to find one instance in of society were reversed.
But even in which they had ever been declined, and all modern times it is well known how affecprebendal stalls are full. Is there not sig- tionate and lofty have been the friendships nificance in the fact ?
of ecclesiastics thus paired, as they loved to And now in speaking of the daily cor- think, after the pattern of the first disciples; porate life of this great body, our space is and we can still recognise the beneficial intoo scant to allow us to dwell on the many fluence the system would have on the selecdelicate and even tender provisions for tion, and in the cultivation of the younger mutual respect and harmony, on the precau- man. tions taken for the houourable discharge of From the society itself we pass to the all private debts; the grave admonitions not consideration of the head of the society. to take up the time of the chapter with per- The Dean was not an original officer in sonal grievances; the visiting of the sick; every chapter even in England, and his posithe thrilling vigils of all the canons through tion is difficult to delineate. His powers the night on the occurrence of a death in were always great but indefinite.* He was their ranks; the kindliness towards the simply pre-eminent.' Older than Grosseteste • familia' of the deceased enjoined on the (Ep. 127; Ed. Luard) was the gradual assuccessor; the penalties for violation of such sumption of that place with respect to the respect; or again, the assignment of a por- chapter which belonged originally to the tion of the Psalter to the bishop and each bishop, but which it rarely seemed worth prebendary, so that the whole Psalter might the bishop's while to battle for. be daily recited as a common act of private Reserved for our days has been a decanal devotion, and with the thought and memory proposition to diminish decanal difficulties, of common obligation, but there are three by dissolving the canonical co-operation, and points to which we must advert; they show making the dean a grander rector, with vias well as any number could do, what was cars for curates. Yet all allowance must be the spirit which animated that life.
made. Such positions have been ever diffi1. The consideration of inferiors. In the cult. The terminable office of the vicepayment of every dividend and every due chancellor is the solution of similar difficulthe inferior, ministers and vicars receive ties in the Universities. I their full salaries before any other persons We speak only of the cathedral system as receive anything; 'not in order to give it was in its vigour. During the quiet period them higher place,' but because they are a deanery has been often indeed a well-merit
Christ's poor, who depend on this their ed reward, which the Church of England is labour bearing the burden of the night as only too blest in being allowed to dispense; well as of the day.'
a position in which wit and learning, 2. Elevating influence on subordinates. eloquence, hospitality, and gentle Christian Every prebendary on his Sunday turn enter life have most fairly fourished. But antains nineteen of the under officers of the ciently the very variety of influence assignstaff at dinner; and daily through his week ed in different cases tells of long-felt difothers, some at luncheon, and some at ficulties. In some cases a dean was but one breakfast. The dean, about thirty times a voice in the chapter; in others he was year, gave a honorificus pastus ' in his own equipollent with the whole chapter; house to all the choir and all the vicars, independent of it, now superior to it, and with a view to making • life and work more pleasant to them.' One dean having evaded The rule through frequent absence, is enjoin
* Quid ad Decani officium spectet modicum ed to give the feast equally whether present reperitur in jure decisum. Nov. Reg.' MS., or absent. But the rule is that the giver p. 12. shall dine or sup along with his humbler
# In one see an eminent bishop never saw his
cathedral during an episcopate of twenty years. guests, and cultivate personal relations with The grotesque fact is well known that, in some them.
cathedrals, the bishop cannot cross from his 3. Companionship. Its importance to throne to the pulpit without invitation; in others bachelors' engaged as these men were is cannot ordain without obtaining permission. fully recognised. Each prebendary in re- | in his eloquent letter to the Ecclesiastical Comsidence is as far as possible to make his missioners, 1837) expresses sorrow and surprise vicar a companion; he is to be his commen- at the part taken by the bishops against the salis, he is to accompany him in walking. chapters. But at that time the estrangement To us, with our restless movements, and dis- was complete. tant communications and crowd of acquaint-Church are exceptional. No retiring dean (still
| Decanal functions like those of Christ ances, this seems, and would be, too formal. I less a bishop) could discharge them.
indeed its visitor;* but Alnwick declared | parochiani, whose presence he requires to that no law had defined the status of deans, form his consilium, to compose his boards and that it was so various in various places for examining, for teaching whether by lecthat local custom alone could regulate it. tures or by sermons, for inspecting, for But he does not hesitate to affirm that, visitations, for organisations of every kind, while the enemy jugiter sedet insidians ec- for the protection of church rights and clesiasticis viris,' and while there arise.in- charitable funds, for resistance alike to numera et scandalosa jurgia, adeo inveterata royal, aristocratical, and papal encroachquod ex eis infinita mala et pericula anima- ment, for the promotion of learning and bus personis rebusque ecclesiæ nostræ per- science. Nay, in order that the prebends venerint et perveniunt (pro dolor) incessan- themselves might not lose their original reter,' the main cause of the cathedral mis- lation to the bishop, the 'vicars perpetual chiefs and evils of his day was to be found of the prebendal churches were still, imme: in the conduct of the deans; so obvious was diate subjects' to the bishop, and from bim this that the prebendary's very oath of obe- received their cure of souls. The bishops dience quaintly anticipated it. At his ad- accordingly were the founders and endowers mission he promises to obey the chapter of every prebendal stall; they nominated * vobis (i. e. decano) absentibus aut negli- the incumbents; when convenience required gentibus,' when you, the dean, are absent or an additional prebendary besides those enneglectful.t
dowed with land, it was the bishop who A few words must be said on the position paid his stipend. They on their part, in of the Bishop with regard to the dignitaries order to represent them, to exercise their and prebendaries of his cathedral, because jurisdictions more consistently, to sum up much misconception prevails on the point and unite their voices, elected with absoluto He is, according to the definition, not only freedom their own dean; but not until the a dignitas within his Church, but the cul- Crown had appropriated this appointment, men dignitatum.' According to the still and until various interests had largely influmore important definition above quoted (p. enced the appointments to stalls, did the 231), “Quinquaginta et sex canonici ecclesiae aims and interests of chapters begin to draw B.V.M. Lincolniensis cum capite suo corpus away from the bishops. The older history et capitulum constituunt, and this caput of brings out the full force of terms and usages. the Mystic Body' is (p. 14) the bishop Dean and chapter addressing the bishop, dehimself. I
signate the cathedral universally as 'vestra Non-residence and jealousies have con- ecclesia;' he to them always calls it ‘nosverted this into the present unreasonable tra.' It was not theirs, but his; the bells, status; a supposed courtesy' has allowed are to peal when he attends service; the him to preach or appoint preachers on Or- seemly choir salutations (too frequently dis-dination Sundays, but his right of preach- used) are to be made to the dean only when ing is supposed to be confined to his turn as the bishop is absent, to the bishop alone if a prebendary.. This is far from the original present; he alone is to give any benediction conception. The pastoral office and work (frequent as they were in the old services),are doubtless not the same as the canonical may supersede at his pleasure any dignitary or cathedral function. Yet the canons are, in his turn for celebrating mass; and now says Saravia, fratres episcopi,' as the car- that to these the preaching turns have sucdinals are 'fratres papæ ;' he is the pastor of ceeded,* he has an indubitable right to his canons as much as of his parochial clergy. preach at pleasure. He convokes the entire They are in fact, according to an early, if body of dignities, canons and prebendaries pot primitive, idea of the institution, the long chapter, as it is in some places
called—not immediately,' but through the * This is clear enough from the statutes, in spite of Grosseteste's logical proof that the dean date. They appear either personally or by
dean and chapter of residentiaries by manwas visor, not visitator. Ep. 127.
| Few sketches of medieval life are more proxy ; receive his communication, deliberate, amusing than the history of Dean Macworth's and vote. Lastly, the bishop is the sole iogenious evasions and tyrannical contraventions of the statutes. So Saravia Quæstio, i. $ 7,' episcopus (not
* Even this ‘Ordo Prædicatorum’is the comDecanus) est caput Capituli et per persequens paratively modern legislation of Bishop Sanderprincipalis pars ipsius. 'Faciunt unum corpus son for his own Cathedral of Lincoln.
corpus non licet a capite separare.' Frances, † Nos Willelmus vocatis de mandato nostro De Ecci. Cath.'c. 30, $ 19.
per Decanum et Capitulum juxta Eccãe nrãe According to the Augustinian theory of consuetudinem loci Canonicis et aliis dignitates their origin the connection with the bishop is et officia atque personatus in eadem obtinenti still closer. See Cheruel, · Dictionnaire des In- bus universis de consuetudine hujusmodi evo stitutions,' 8. v. Chanoine.
candis ; et 9° die mensis Junii sic vocatis, vir : L-9
interpreter of the cathedral statutes, and it gave to both sides ease without peace, awoke may startle us to find how responsible he is jealousies which shifted their ground from for the good conduct of the dean, 'quem ad the best interests of society to poorest trihoc vel ad aliud quod tenetur compellare vialities, distorted the view of chapter life, debet et arctare.' Liable to such responsi- and forfeited its claim to administrate noble bilities he is armed with adequate power; means. he visits at will the cathedral and the pre- The cathedral has in our day to begin the bends; he is bound to present offences in the world again, and inch by inch to win its way first instance to the chapter for their correc-back to a usefulness commensurate with its tion, but such intervention then becomes dignity. compulsory on their part, and if they For is there no need ? Rather is not the neglect to correct them he corrects them conviction very general and very strong that himself, and may punish the chapter with the Church of England labours under disabiinterdict or even excommunication,
lities which no existent machinery is at work We have hastily surveyed the constitution to remedy; that its excellent scheme is inand the functions of the large yet compact validated by deficiencies which are scarcely body which constituted an ancient chapter. supplemented, much less repaired. It may We have not averted our eyes from its pos- not be possible to deny the necessity of such sible or actual failure. Its scope and aims changes as have been made from other may be summed up in three words— science, points of view; but we cannot refuse to see law, religion. Not severed, like monastic the fact, that while the church is unable in orders, from the daily, interests of the citi- any way to contract her operation, and must zens, the secular foundation continued for accelerate her work of evangelisation, not centuries to be of the people, as it sprang only upon divine principles, but upon nafrom the people ; its members were the bu- tional grounds, she must also cease to look siest of men, and the least recluse. The history to the Universities for a complete training of of an early English bishop of that age-him- ecclesiastical or clerical energies. They have self a man of the people—is often a narra- altered their aims. Her hold is not merely tive of successful war against nobles, courts, precarious on them, it is assumed to be deand popes. The identity of his interests clining, and she is thereby left for the prewith the interests of the commons is set sent without either "centres' or 'organisms' forth in the o!d metaphor that he was be- from and through which living forces of the trothed to his Church, and bound to stand nature required can come into operation. by her as a husband. ad latus sponsæ.' The Yet we already possess in our cathedrals-if continuity of the tradition was set forth with the Church shall devote itself to renew their a strange beauty in the church of Lincoln, vitality, and to reconstruct them-organic when, on the recurrence of any bishop's centres, bases of operation, outlines of ad
orbit,' the canons lit with tapers not his vance. We have them in types of societies tomb only, but the tomb of every bishop dwindled, yet alive—which resemble, which through the church. The brightness of that indeed gave the pattern to the Universities continuity has ceased for a while, and various themselves, and are specially adapted to adinfluences have effected a divorce* which dress themselves successfully to the solution discretis viris et comparentibus ct in Capitulo
of these problems. On the one side lie defiadunatis Præmissa et alias convocacionis prae
nite necessary functions to be performed; đictæ causas aperuimus super quibus communi. on the other side there are capable bodies, catione et deliberatione præhabitis .... nobis craving these very functions, and with faculet omnibus sic convocatis videbatur saluberri- ties for expansion in just proportion to the mum fore . . . [Marginal note. Canonici con
May we not forge the link which Episcopum.] The prescription of the modus shall restore the office to the officers? The convocandi assumes the existence of the Jus, p. cathedral bodies themselves are inseparably 114. Preamble to the Laudum. Considerantes connected with the history and progress of quod id quod omnes tangit ab omnibus debet Christianity in England. They date back to nitates personatus aut præbendas in ipsa Eccã its very planting. They have needed revinrā obtinentium in ea parte possit conqueri se con
demands. vocantur per Decanum et Capitulum et non
sion and renovation from time to time. temptum et aliis ex causis nos noventibus ad Speaking approximately, the 11th, the 14th, certam diem in Capitulo ejusdem Eccãe eosdem and the 16th centuries have been the periods omnes et singulos fecimus convocari, quibus dictis die et loco comparentibus, aliquibus viz. personaliter, et nonnullis per eorum Procuratores the Church of Rome, for which Saravia gives two comparentibus, &c. . . . Here it is assumed that causes :-1. Negligentia Canonicorum ; 2. The the bishop summons as many or as few as he fact that the chapters were not represented at will. To summon all is an act of grace in some the Council of Trent, and that their ancient degree.
rights were then curtailed. In England at least * Nearly the same severance has occurred in one of those causes has not been operatire.