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Numismatic and Archaeological Society... An association in the United States, organized in 1858 and incorporated in 1865, for the collection and preservation of coins and medals, and the investigation of matters connected therewith. The society owns large collections of coins and medals and an extensive numismatic library. It holds four meetings a year and publishes an annual volume of Proceedings. The headquarters of the society, are in New York, where a building for its exclusive use is in process of erection. The members # is about 300. Secretary, H. R. Drowne. Numismatics, the science which treats of coins and medals. Coins are pieces of metal of fixed weight, §o a government stamp, and used as a circulatin medium. Medals are pieces struc —not necessarily by government —to commemorate an event. The metals used are gold, silver, and copper, and alloys of these,' such as electrum, which is an alloy of gold and silver, billon, bronze, and potin. . The earliest coins were very thick, ill-shaped pieces, upon which, by means of a handpunch, a more or less rude impress was struck. In the fully-developed coin there occur several distinct parts which are technically describe as follows: Obv. = obverse, that side of the coin bearing the head or bust of the ruler, hero, or divinity specified by the origin of its mintage; Rev. = reverse, the opposite face of the coin, bearing a symbol or commemorative figure or group of figures with an appropriate legend. The obverse usually bears the name, of the ruler in a line surrounding the border. Field is the term used to denote any clear. space not occupied by the principal design, Exergue is the space separated from the lowest portion of the central design; it usually bears the date and sometimes also the mint-mark...(m-m...or M.M.). The earliest coins were struck in that portion of Asia. Minor anciently known as, Lydia. As early as 716 B.C. Lydian coins in electrum were, in circulation, and continued to be so till 652 B.c.
This very early money bore the head of a lion. Later, gold and silver coins were instituted by Croesus, king of Lydia; and in strong contrast to the very small, dumpy, ill-shaped electrum specimens, many, specially fine examples of the numismatic art were struck in such cities as Acrasus, Bagis, Birula, and Germe. The coinage of the Seleucid kings of Syria came into use about 312 B.C., and, after running through , seven distinct series, closed with the reign of Antiochus, 65 B.C. These coins are specially noteworthy for the large variety of symbols used on their reverses. Fine workmanship is displayed in some of the larger pieces of Antiochus II. and Seleucus III. The coins ranged in-size from Ho of an inch to 1: inches in diameter. The principal Greek coin was , the gold stater, which was equivalent to six silver drachmae or to thirtysix oboli in copper. The earliest Greek coins, with the exception of the Lydian, bear as inscription the initial letter of the city of origin; the first coin bearing the name of a king is the tetradrachm of Alexander of Macedon. Persian coins date from the year 1502, , and after being in curren ogo; the 226 years of the Safavi dynasty, terminated. Fine gold coins of Sulaiman I., of Husain, and of Kajar-Nasir-ed-Din are extant, the largest being 34 inches in diameter. The dates of Parthian coins are given as beginning with Arsaces I., 255 B.C., and closing 227 A.D. Tetradrachms and drachms in silver were the principal coins. The majority are only o, circular, and thcir copper or brass coins were quite , insignificantly small and sometimes squarish. The largest measures 1 inches and the smallest A inches in diameter. In Jewish coins three epochs are distinguished. The first, struck at the time of Alexander the Great, were of copper, and are of extreme ji the second group were coine by Mattathias 169 b.c., and were current unti the date of Antigone, 37 B.C., The Idumaean dynasty instituted, the third, the earliest coins of which
were struck in the epoch of Herod the Great, 40 B.C., and the latest during the reign of . Vespasian 134 A.D. Coins of the imperial colonies of Marcus Aurelius and ajan are also in the category of Jewish coins, which terminated with Hostilianus, 251 A.D. There are fine and interesting -pieces commemorative of the Jewish revolt during the period of Simon Barcochab (Bar-coziba). The coins of the Romans are divisible into three important classes—(1 the republican, (2) the family, an (3) the imperial. Most of the republican coins were of bronze and belonged to the earl period of Roman culture. At about 170 B.C. the family coins came in; these were marked usually by i. of events occurring in the great family, the members of which had hereditarily held office in the mint. Imperial coins, chiefly in gold and silver, represent a very great variety in size, and in the style of their execution, as well as in the choice of the subject delineated. The art on the coins of Augustus and Nero is specially fine; with the reign of Commodus the art reached its climax. Copper coins washed with silver were the invention of Gallienus. Mediaeval European coins find their most specific representative in the denier, or silver, penny, a coin that came to be i. by feudal lords and ecclesiastical rinces, as well as by sovereigns. fter the municipal corporation had, in the 13th and 14th centuries, begun to issue, their own coins, a thin piece, called a bracteate, came *ś into circulation, both on the Continent and in England; but there can be no doubt that, centuries earlier, the inhabitants of the British Isles, go." even to the true Angloaxons, had a coinage of their own. These coins were of silver, and were, in short, somewhat coarse imitations of Grecian and Macedonian coins brought into England by Phoenician trade. They are small, rudely circular, and thick. Qn the very earliest specimens, which are unlettered, the head or, the figure of a horse is nearly always present, sometimes in combination with a man
wielding a battle-axe. Later specimens bear such lettering as CAIII, which may mean Camelodunum, or TIGII, for Tiguocobauc, the earliest name of Nottingham. The best examples were struck by Cunobeline, after whose date lettering oh these coins became constant. The coins of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy range in time from Hengist (454 A.D.) to Edgar (959). About eighty different mints are known. These coins consisted of (1) skeattas, (2) stycas, , (3) heptarchical pennies, and (4) ecclesiastical pennies. All of them are rare, and about *::::: are known to be unique. Stycas have been fairly frequently found in the sandy shores of Scotland, as, for example, near Glenluce, Wigtownshire. Though Greek, Roman, and Carthaginian coins have been found in Ireland, none that can be rightly attributed to the Irish rulers themselves are known prior to the arrival of the Danes. . As in many other countries,..., rings, of metal, perhaps
fibulae (brooches of a special type), were used, as a monetary currency; . This is borne out in part by historic evidence of payments .# been made by #. ounce of gold, and also by the discovery of enormous quantities of met . as, for example, a large cart-load of them in a tumulus in Co. Monaghan. The Hiberno-Danish coinage began with Anlaf I. (853 A.D.), and closed with Magnus, who was slain 968 A.D. These coins are of an average diameter of about three-quarters of an inch, are well contoured and neatly lettered, the earliest being the largest. In England, the beauty and ornate style of many of the coins of Edward III. are very marked in comparison with previous coinages. It is on coins of this king that there first appear the words ‘Dei Gratia’ and the title “Rex Franciae.” Coins of gold called nobles and angels were , the special feature of this period. The sovereign, or double ryal, was first coined by Henry VII. (1485–1509). Henry vii.I. first used the title ‘Hiberniæ Rex.’ During the reign of Elizabeth coins were for a time made by the mill and screw. . Cromwell issued some fine coins, but to a small extent only; they show his laureated bust and title as protector, and on the reverse a crowned shield, with the harp and the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew. During George III.'s reign few new, coins were minted in silver. The principal recent feature in the coinage o Great Britain was the issue of the two-shilling piece, or florin, which was regarded as a step in the direction of a decimal system; In 1579, during the reign of
|. vs. (1567–1625), the famous egend Nemo me impune lacessit, with a large-leaved thistle between I and R, was introduced, on twomerk and one-merk pieces. This king issued twenty-four yarieties of silver coins and ten in gold, the largest of , the latter bein a twenty-pound piece; lion j thistle nobles are also characteristic of this period. Charles I. issued a large number of coins several of which are grouped under specific names, such, for example, as the hammered coinage of 1636, milled, coinage of same date, Briot's milled coinage of 1637, and Falconer's coinages. In the next reign dollars or fourmerk, pieces. came in. During the brief, reign of James v11. go." the old legend conveyed y the letters sco. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REx gives place to MAG. BRIT. FRA. ET. HiB. REx under date 1687. William and Mary (1689–94) issued silver coins of values o from five shillings to sixty shillings (Scots), and Queen Anne a number chiefly remarkable for their plainness and lack of variety and style. The earliest American coinage was that of the Virginia Company
about 1612. It consisted 9 shillings and sixpences, only three specimens of , which are
known to exist, and was called “Hogge Money’, from the figure of a hog stamped on it. In 1652 the first mint was established at Boston and issued the ‘Pine-tree money'—shillings, sixpences, and threepences. ood's Halfpence, of mixed metal, were coined in England in 1722 for circulation in Ireland and America. , Private coinages were established in various states until Congress in 1789 adopted the present system, the first mint being established in 1792. The rarest United States coins are the silver dollar of 1804 and the double eagle of 1849, of the latter only one specimen being known. See Burns's Coinage ol Scotland (1887); Cochran-Patrick's Records of the Coinage of Scotland (1876); A. B. Richardson's Catalogue o Scottish Coins (1901); Gardner's Catalogue of Greek Coins (1883); Coins of the Ancient Britons, by Sir John Evans (1864); De Saulcy's Numismatique Judaique §. Lindsay's Hist. and Coinage of the Parthians (1852); the various British Museum coin catalogues by Head and Poole; and #j's Historia Numorum (1887). Nummulites, a genus of foraminifera abundant in the Eocene but found also on rocks as ol as the Carboniferous limestone. The shells, which are in some species one or two inches in ameter, , are flattened, circular, discoidal, resembling coins.
Their outer surface has often a fine grooving or other ornamentation; but when the shell is broken through the middle, it shows a large number of chambers spirally arranged, and forming a beautifully regular pattern. Nummulitic Limestone. In ... Europe, N: Africa, and over a wide part of Asia the Eocene formations are characterized by the development of white or
Section of a Nummulite.
creamy limestones, which consist almost entirely of the coin-shaped shells of the giant foraminifer nummulites. he ramids of Egypt are built of this material; It is found also in Mexico and the W. Indies. Nun, a member of a religious order for women, living under rule, and bound by vow to the service of God. The first convent for women was founded (4th century) in the Pgpo desert by the sisters of Sts. Anthony, and Pachomius. St. Jerome tells us that in Rome a number of patrician ladies, guided by a widow named Marcella, lived (end of 4th century) there apart from the world, under rule, and bound by the vows of poverty and chastity. Besides the ancient contemplative orders for women, the needs of the church and society in modern times have given rise to various active orders—e.g. , Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of Notre Dame. The superiors of the various orders, for women are ordinarily elected % a chapter of their own ; hey bear, the title of mother-general, abbess, prioress, rev. mother, sister-superior. Unless their house belongs to the class of the exempt, they and their communities are under the bishop's jurisdiction. See MonASTICISM. Nunc Dimittis, the name taken from the first words of the Latin version of the song of Simeon (Luke 2:29–32). It forms art of o; o in the nglican Church, and it is used in the Greek Church and in the Roman Catholic Church. Nuncio, or, LEGATE, a representative of the Pope outside of Rome. Legates are of three kinds: (1.) Legati a latere, who used to govern papal provinces, or have
been sent to other courts on special business; they have been cardinals since the time of Innocent Iv. (d. 1254). (2.) Legati missi or nuncios, regular papal representatives at foreign courts. (3.) Le§ nati, certain bishops or arch
ishops who claimed the right by virtue of their office; the Archbishop of $o. was legate for England until the Reformation. Papal representatives analogous to the older legates were sent to America , by Leo XIII. Legatus was also the name in the Roman Empire of an official who assisted the proconsuls and propraetors in the provinces. he
4 soldier , and explorer, born at Jerez de la Frontera. He, ac
companied Narvaez's expedition to Florida, in 1528, as royal treasurer and comptroller, and was one of the four who escaped from the wrecked ship, and were cast ashore on an island in Matagora Bay; He and his companions lived among the savages for several years, virtually as slaves, but finally managed to reach the Spanish settlements in northern Mexico (1536), whence De Vaca returned to Spain the following year. Three years afterward he set out for Paraguay, , of which he had been appointed governor, in lieu
ciones y milagros, and Commentarios §§ trans. by Smith, 1870, and by Dominguez, in the Hakluyt, documents for 1891), both in defence of his conduct, but of much historical value. Nuñez de Arce, GAsPAR (1834), Spanish poet, born at Valladolid, was minister for the colonies in the Sagasta cabinet (1883-4), and in 1888 took charge of commerce, agriculture, and home airs. He is distinguished as a lyrist, and, has been called the ‘Spanish, Tennyson.’. He has published Gritos del Combate W; El Vértigo (1879), and La ision de Fray Martin (1880);
title was also given to the officer who was next in rank to the commander-in-chief on any military expedition, , on whom, , in , his superior's absence, devolved the command. he Romans also styled political ambassadorslegati. Nuncupative Will. See WILL. Nuneaton, mrkt. th:, Warwickshire, England, 9 m. N.E., of Coventry. Some traces exist of a Benedictine nunnery founded in the time of Henry II. Manufactures ribbons, worsted goods, elastic web, and hats. Coal, ironstone, and stone. are worked. Pop. (1901), including Chilvers Coton, 24,996. Nuñez Cabeça de , Vaca, Alvar (c. 1490–c. 1560), Spanish
of his claim against the government for some payment for his services and suffering in Florida. His company, consisting of about 400 men, landed on the coast of Brazil, and proceeded to Asuncion. He explored, the upper Paraguay, but in , the followin
year (1544) the colonists rebelle
against him, and deported him to Spain, (1555), where he was sentenced to banishment to Orca, Africa. It is doubtful if this sentence was enforced in spirit, however, for he seems to have settled finally in Seville, where he was a judge of the Supreme Court, and received a pension from the grown. See his narratives of his adventures, Naufragios, peregrina
and his o include Como se Empeñe in Marido (1860) and El Haz de Leña (1882). Nunneries. See MonASTICISM. Nuphar. See NYMPHAEA. Nuremberg (Ger. Nürnberg) tn., Bavaria, 96 m. N.N.W. § Munich. It still retains its ancient walls and moat, and is one of the richest towns on the Continent in mediaeval buildings and works of art. Albrecht Dürer Veit Stoss, Peter Vischer, and Adam Kraft lived and worked here. Among the monuments are statues of Melanchthon, Hans Sachs, , and the Prince Regent Luitpold (1901), and a fountain in commemoration of the first railway in Germany, opened in 1835 Nurse Corps
between Nuremberg and Fürth. The churches are full of priceless paintings, *. and carvings. The castle, dating from 1050, was enlarged by Frederick 1. (Barbarossa), and has served as a residence for many German emperors. Of famous collections the Germanic museum is the most valuable, and a remarkable library, dating from 1445, is preserved in the old Dominican monastery. The principal industries are the manufacture of toys, optical and other scientific instruments, cycles, automobiles, bronzes, and the brewing of beer. Nuremberg was made a free city in 1219, and retained its independence till 1803, . when NaFo I. bestowed it upon the
ing of Bavaria. It was from the beginning a Protestant stronghold, and the gymnasium or hi school was opened by Melanchthon in 1526. Pop. (1900) 261,081. See Réc's Nuremberg (1905).
Nurse Corps, U. S. ARMY, a body of female nurses appointed and discharged by the surgeongeneral of the army with the approval of the secretary of war, and assigned to duty at hospitals where their services are required to attend sick and wounded officers and soldiers. The cor consists of a superintendent who has general charge thereof, chief nurses for each important station, and a variable number of nurses depending upon the necessities of the case.
No. While barely a majority of the nurses that are available for duty in all localities can be trained, it is highly desirable that every one who follows the profession should have had experience with disease under the guidance of medical and surgical teachers. The best training, is obviously obtained in the Training Schools connected with hospitals in large cities. In some small towns the course of training covers a year or 18 months; but in large, cities, it covers 2 or 3 years. A brief personal history of the o is required, together with two references, and a statement from a physician that the applicant is in good health and possessed of , unimpaired mentality. A good knowledge of English is essential, and preference is given to those of superior cultivation. Candidates must be between 21 and 35 years of age of average height oš weight and of strong physique. Approved applicants are received into the School for two months on probation, receiving their board and lodging free, and serving without remuneration. During this period they are tested as to education, strength, endurance, adaptability, powers of observation and judg: ment. If they pass the test, they
sign an agreement to remain in the School for the remainder of the 2 or 3 years' course, and to obey the regulations. Unmarried or widowed women are preferred to those with husbands, in the schools for women. Misconduct, inefficiency, neglect of duty, or failure to pass examinations will result in a. student's being dropped. Residing in the hospital Šišin. wearing a uniform, and assisting in all the work of the various departments are part of the duty. There is no charge made for the instruction, which is given by the members of the visiting and resident staffs of physicians and surgeons. . small amount of money is paid the nurses during training, for the purchase of books, uniforms and certain incidentals. A nurse receives from $7 to $10 a month during the first year, from $10 to $13 a month during the second year, and from $10 to $16 the third year. The hours of duty are from 7 A.M. to 7 P.M., or 7 P.M. to 7 A.M., with about two hours leisure time, also one afternoon a week and four hours every Sunday. Upon the completion of the course and passage of the final examinations, a diploma and generally a medal is given each successful nurse. * Some institutions require that a graduate, nurse shall serve on a case in a private house before leaving the control of the School, and that a report of efficiency in this case's care shall be a requisite before the diploma is granted. Prominent schools for the training of nurses are connected with the following hospitals: Bellevue, Mt. Sinai, Presbyterian, New York and St. Luke's, in , New York city; Seney, in #.o Hopkins, in Baltimore; assachusetts General, in Boston; Philadelphia and, Pennsylvania University, in Philadelphia. To this list should be added the Illinois Training School, in Chicago. There are Lying-in Hospitals, Nursery and Children's Hospitals, and opol. for the Insane, where special instruction can be obtained in these special branches of nursing; while courses of lessons in cooking are offered in certain Diet Kitchens, as, for example, at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. Most nurses who devote themselves, to private nursing find it expedient to join one of the many associations which provide their members with patients, and in some cases with residence while they are unemployed. . While, all nursing must be s cially adapted to the nature of a #. ill.i. certain general principles apply to , every case of sickness, #' hold onio: stood by untrained nurses. The room, must be scrupulously clean, and it should contain no super
fluous furniture. It should be well ventilated, light and airy, and of a size that permits of a uniform temperature being maintained if necessary. When possible it should have painted walls and polished floor. either hangings nor valances should be about the , bed, which ought to be furnished with a spring mattress below a thin hair one. The blankets should be light, and soiled linen must have no place in the sickroom. Vessels and toilet dishes must be most rigorously cleaned. ...Antiseptics may be employed if necessary, but thorough cleanliness is the best antiseptic. A sickroom window ought always to be open at the top both by night and by day, while as much light should be admitted as is possible without inconveniencing . the patient. . Spotless purity of person, and of attire is indispensable. The nurse's constant aim must be to keep her go; at rest in mind and body. he has to think for both. She must relieve the sufferer from anxiety and fear. Without abrogating her rule, she must, as best she can, by sweet reasonableness, soothe, the relatives, yet avoid their fond but injudicious suggestions. The taking of care# notes of her, patient's condition, records of his temperature and pulse, and faithful observation of changing and often evanescent symptoms, are amon the nurse’s chief duties. Wit regard to the patient, cleanliness is again the first of the nurse's duties. The , excreta must , be destroyed. The skin, nails, hair, and teeth require attention. In many cases the ... bladder , and bowels must be relieved, and bed
sores, must be prevented if possible. Nusl ... crown land of Bo:
hemia, Austria, a S.E. suburb of Prague. Pop., including adjacent village of Pankratz (1900), 20,440. -
Nut, a hard indehiscent pericarp containing only one seed. Many nuts are foods of considerable value, containing a large proportion of oil, together with a considerable amount of proteid material. They are of great importance in international commerce, and are frequently cultivated. Except in the case of chestnuts, few nuts contain any considerable amount of starch. Ground-nuts , or pea-nuts are really leguminous seeds, containing , about 50 per cent. of oil, and 25 per cent. of nitrogenous matter.
Nutation, a slight ..". of the earth's axis, detected by Bradley, about 1727, and definitively described in 1748. It is chiefly due to , an inequality in the moon’s action on the earth's