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Gôd! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me líberty, or give me death !

PATRICK HENRY.

VI. RECAPITULATION OF FORCE. 1. Force must be regulated by the thought or feeling to be expressed.

2. Soft force prevails in the expression of peaceful thought, of sentiment, of tranquillity, and of suppressed emotion.

3. Moderate force is the natural tone of conversation and of narrative, descriptive, and didactic composition.

4. Loud force prevails in the expression of anger, passion, sublimity, command, and strong feeling.

5. Very loud force prevails in calling and shouting ; in cries of alarm, fear, and terror; and in intense dramatic expression.

EXAMPLES OF FORCE.

VERY SOFT. Low, low, breathe and blow, wind of the western sea.

SOFT.
How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank.

MODERATE.
Marley was dead, to begin with.

LOUD.
Hear the loud alarum bells-brazen bells !
How they clang, and clash, and roar.

VERY LOUD.
Liberty! freedom! Tyranny is dead.
Require each pupil to select, write out, and read in the class, a
similar set of quoted illustrations.

SECTION II.

STRESS OF VOICE. Stress denotes the manner of applying volume of voice to single words or sounds. The elocutionary divisions of stress are: 1. Radical >

4. Thorough = 2. Median <>

5. Compound X 3. Vanishing >

6. Intermittent The radical and the median stress are the most important and the most used of these divisions; and to these the attention of school readers should be chiefly directed. The other forms of stress mainly concern the special elocutionist or the actor; and may, therefore, be treated very briefly.

I. RADICAL STRESS. 1. In radical stress, the force strikes abruptly upon the radix, or beginning of a word or a sound. It corresponds to the diminuendo in music.

2. It may be illustrated by exploding the full force of the voice upon the initial vowel in the following words ; (1) āle, ärm, all, õld, ooze. (2) ăt, ěnd, în, ón, úp.

3. Of this stress, Dr. Rush says : “ There are so few speakers able to give a radical stress with this momentary burst, and therefore so few who may compreheni the mere description of it, that I must draw an illustration from the effort of coughing. A single impulse of coughing is not in all points exactly like the abrupt voice on syllables, for that single impulse is a forcing out of almost all the breath, which is not the case in syllabic utterance; yet if the tonic element be employed as the vocality of coughing, its abrupt opening will truly represent the function of radical stress, when used in Iliscourse.

4. “It is this stress which draws the cutting edge of words across the ear, and startles even stupor into attention; this, which lessens the fatigue of listening, and out-voices the murmur and unruly stir of an assembly; and a sensibility to this, through a general instinct of the animal ear, which gives authority to the groom, and makes the horse submissive to his angry accent.

5. “Besides the fullness, loudness, and abruptness of the radical stress, when employed for distinct articulation, the tonic sound itself should be a pure vocality. When mixed with aspiration, it loses the brilliancy that serves to increase the impressive effect of the explosive force.”

DISTINCTIONS OF RADICAL STRESS. 1. Radical stress may be distinguished as unimpassioned and impassioned.

2. The unimpassioned radical is used in narrative, descriptive, and didactic reading, to give a clear, distinct, energetic style of expression. The impassioned radical is the strong, full, abrupt utterance which characterizes the voice when under the influence of strong passions, such as anger, hatred, etc. It is the stress of authoritative command, of strength, and of power.

I. THE UNIMPASSIONED RADICAL. This form of the radical stress is generally combined with moderate force and middle pitch. In the unimpassioned radical the vowel and liquid sounds are cut short as in the staccato movement in music.

This stress is characteristic of vivacity, gayety, humor, and of clear, distinct, and definite statement.

and of stress is staccato mool and pitch, In,

UNIMPASSIONED RADICAL DRILL. 1. Repeat rapidly four times, with the falling inflec

tion, the short vowel sounds, ā, ē, Y, , ; the long vocals, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū.

2. Count from one to twenty with moderate force and falling inflection, cutting short the words as in staccato movement. 3. Is this a time to be gloomy and sad,

When our mother nature laughs around ?
When even the deep blue heavens look glad,

And gladness breathes from the blossoming ground ?
4. Hear the sledges, with the bells-silver bells,
What a world of merriment their melody foretells;
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,

In the icy air of night!

EXAMPLES OF UNIMPASSIONED RADICAL.

1. Bob-o'-link, bob-o'-link,
Spink, spank, spink;

Chee! chee! chee!
2. Sometimes, with secure delight,

The upland hamlets will invite,
When the merry bells ring round,
And the jocund rebecs sound
To many a youth and many a maid,
Dancing in the checkered shade.

3. HUDIBRAS.
In mathematics he was greater
Than Tycho Brahe or Erra Pater;
For he, by geometric scale,
Could take the size of pots of ale ;
Resolve by sines and tangents, straight,
If bread or butter wanted weight;
And wisely tell what hour oth' day
The clock does strike, by algebra.

4. RHYME OF THE RAIL.
Singing through the forests,

Rattling over ridges,
Shooting under arches,

Rumbling over bridges ;
Whizzing through the mountains,

Buzzing o'er the vale-
Bless me! this is pleasant,

Riding on the rail !

5. SUMMER. There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bòver,

There's a titter of winds in that beechen trèe, There's a smile on the frùit, and a smile on the flower,

And a làugh from the brook that runs to the sea !

BRYANT.

6. SUMMER.
And what is so rare as a day in June ?

Then, if ever, come perfect days;
Then Heaven tries the earth if it be in tune,

And over it softly her warm ear lays;
Whether we look or whether we listen,
We hear life murmur or see it glisten;
Every clod feels a stir of might,

An instinct within it that reaches and towers,
And, groping blindly above it for light,

Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers.

LOWELL

7. SEA-WEED.
When descends on the Atlantic

The gigantic
Storm-wind of the equinox,
Landward in his wrath he scourges

The toiling surges,
Laden with sea-weed from the rocks :

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