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7. RIP VAN WINKLE. The honest man could contain himself no longer. He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. “I am your father !” cried he, “young Rip Van Winkle onceold Rip Van Winkle now !— Does nobody know poor Rip Van Winkle ?”
IRVING. 8. ENOCH ARDEN. “Enoch, poor man, was cast away and lost.” He, shaking his gray head pathetically, Repeated muttering, “Cast away and lost ; ” Again in deeper inward whispers, “ Lost !”.
9. LITTLE GRETCHEN. They lifted her up tearfully, they shuddered as they
said, “It was a bitter, bitter night! the child is frozen dead." The angels sang their greeting for one more redeemed
from sin. Men said, “It was a bitter night; would no one let her
in ? "
RECAPITULATION OF STRESS. 1. The radical is the stress of animation, of earnestness, of assertion, of command, and of passion.
2. The median is the stress of sentiment, of pathos and tenderness, of awe, reverence, sublimity, and enthusiasm.
3. Vanishing stress is the stress of very strong emphasis, of contempt and disdain, of willfulness, petulance, and impatience.
4. Thorough stress is the stress of impassioned oratory, and intense dramatic expression.
5. The compound is the stress of the circumflex inflection, of irony, sarcasm, contempt, and astonishment.
6. The tremor is the stress of feebleness, of childishness, and of grief.
STRESS DRILL. 1. Radical. Attention, all. 2. Median. All in one mighty sepulcher. 3. Vanishing. All, all is lost! All lost ! 4. Thorough. Come one, come all ! 5. Compound. What ăll, are they ăll lost ? 6. Intermittent. All my sons are dead, all, all dead !
EXAMPLES OF STRESS.
MO V E MENT.
hend, Fuod extemporance, because heir hearers
INTRODUCTORY. 1. The three leading divisions of movement, rate, or time, in reading, are slow, moderate, and fast. These distinctions are, for convenience, subdivided as follows: 1. Moderate (corresponding, in music, to andante). 2. Fast (allegro). 3. Very fast (presto). 4. Slow (adagio). 5. Very slow (largo).
2. Different kinds of prose and verse require different rates of movement, but the general principle that governs all reading or speaking may be stated as follows: Read slowly enough for your hearers to comprehend, fully and easily, what is read.
3. Good extemporaneous speakers generally have a slow and deliberate utterance, because they take time to think what to say. They, also, give their hearers time to think of what is said by the speaker.
4. The habit of slow reading may be acquired, not hy a drawling, hesitating utterance, but by observing rhetorical and grammatical pauses; by prolonging vocal and liquid sounds; and by taking time to think of the meaning of what is read.
5. The general principles governing movement are well expressed in the following extract from Russell's “ American School Reader :” “Everything tender, or solemn, plaintive, or grave, should be read with great moderation. Everything humorous or sprightly, every
thing witty or amusing, should be read in a brisk and lively manner.
6. “ Narration should be generally equable and flowing; vehemence, firm and accelerated; anger and joy, rapid , whereas dignity, authority, sublimity, reverence, and awe should, along with deeper tone, assume a slower movement.
7. “The movement should, in every instance, be adapted to the sense, and free from all hurry on the one hand, or drawling on the other.
8. “The pausing, too, should be carefully proportioned to the movement or rate of the voice; and no change of movement from slow to fast, or the reverse, should take place in any clause, unless a change of emotion is implied in the language of the piece.”
MOVEMENT DRILL. 1. Repeat, three times, the long vocals, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū: (1) With low pitch and very slow movement. (2) With middle pitch and slow movement. (3) With moderate movement. (4) With fast movement. (5) With very fast movement.
2. Count from one to twenty: (1) With slow movement. (2) With moderate movement. (3) With fast movement. 3. Repeat, with moderate movement
The day is done, and the darkness
Falls from the wings of night
From an eagle in his flight.
I. MODERATE MOVEMENT. Moderate movement is the characteristic rate in the reading of didactic, descriptive, or narrative composition, and of the poetry of sentiment.
1. ENGLISH SCENERY. The great charm, however, of English scenery, is the moral feeling that seems to pervade it. It is associated in the mind with ideas of òrder, of quiet, of sober, wellestablished principles, of hoary úsage, and reverend cùstom. Everything seems to be the growth of ages of regular and peaceful existence. The neighboring village, with its venerable cottages, its public gréen, sheltered by trées, under which the forefathers of the present race have spórted ; the antique family mánsion, standing apart in some little rural domáin, but looking down with a protecting air on the surrounding scéne; all these common features of English lándscape evince a calm and settled security, a hereditary transmission of home-bred virtues and local attachments, that speak deeply and toùchingly for the moral character of the nation.
2. THE SEASONS IN SWEDEN. I must not forget the suddenly changing sedsons of the northern clime. There is no long and lingering spring unfolding leaf and blossom one by one; no long and lingering aútumn, pompous with many-colored leaves and the glow of Indian súmmers. But winter and súmmer are wonderful, and pass into each other. The quail has hardly ceased piping in the córn, when winter, from the folds of trailing clouds, sows broadcast over the land, snow, ścicles, and rattling hàil.
The days wane apace. Ere long the sun hardly rises above the horizon, or does not rise at all. The moon and the stars shine through the dày; only, at noon, they are pale and wàn, and in the southern sky a red, fiery glow, as of sunset, burns along the horizon, and then goes out. And pleasantly, under the silver moon, and under the silent, solemn stárs, ring the steel shoes of the skaters on the frozen sèo, and voices, and the sound of bells.