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النشر الإلكتروني

ASPIRATED.

Angels, and ministers of grace, defend us.

GUTTURAL.

How like a fawning públican he looks !

SEMITONE.

For Heaven's sake, Hubert, let me not be bound.

VIII. GENERAL REVIEW DRILL. 1. Repeat, three times, the long vowel sounds, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū: (1) With moderate rising inflection. (2) Moderate falling inflection. (3) High rising inflection. (4) Emphatic falling inflection. (5) High rising circumflex. (6) Emotional falling circumflex. (7) Low monotone.

2. Repeat, three times, ā, ē, ī, ā, ū: (1) With very soft force. (2) With soft force. (3) With moderate force. (4) Loud force. (5) Very loud force.

3. Repeat, three times, ā, ē, i, o, ū: (1) With the median stress. (2) With the radical stress. (3) With compound stress. (4) With vanishing stress. (5) Thorough stress. (6) With intermittent stress.

4. Repeat, three times, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū: (1) With slow movement. (2) With moderate movement. (3) With fast movement.

5. Repeat, three times, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū: (1) With very high pitch. (2) With high pitch. (3) With middle pitch. (4) With low pitch. (5) With very low pitch.

6. Repeat, three times, ā, ē, ī, ā, ū: (1) With the whisper. (2) With pure tone. (3) With the orotund.

CHAPTER VI.

MODULATION AND STYLE OF

EXPRESSION.

SECTION I.

MODULATION. 1. Modulation is the variation in the tones of the voice in order to express the ever-varying thought, feeling, emotion, or passion to be expressed.

2. These changes depend largely upon the perception, taste, and judgment of readers; upon the extent to which readers are capable of entering into the spirit of what they read; and upon the flexibility of the voice in expressing different shades of emotion by appropriate tones.

3. There are certain general principles that control modulation, but there are no fixed rules of detail which can be applied in the exercise of “good taste.”

4. “The importance of this principle of adaptation of voice,” says Prof. William Russell, “may be perceived by adverting to the fact, that nothing so impairs the effect of address, as the want of spirit and expression in elocution.

5. “No gravity of tone, or intensity of utterance, or precision of enunciation, can atone for the absence of that natural change of voice, by which the ear is enabled to receive and recognize the tones of the various emotions accompanying the train of thought which the speaker is expressing. These, and these only, can indicate his own sense of what he utters, or communicate it by sympathy to his audience.

6. “The adaptation of the voice to the expression of sentiment is not less important, when considered in reference to meaning, as dependent on distinctions strictly intellectual, or not necessarily implying a vivid or varied succession of emotions.

7. “The correct and adequate representation of continuous or successive thought, requires its appropriate intonation; as may be observed in those tones of voice which naturally accompany discussion and argument, even in their most moderate forms.

8. “The modulation or varying of tone is important, also, as a matter of cultivated taste. It is the appropriate grace of vocal expression; it has a charm founded in the constitution of our nature; it touches the finest and deepest sensibilities of the soul; it constitutes the spirit and eloquence of the human voice, whether regarded as the noblest instrument of music, or the appointed channel of thought and feeling.”

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 1. A low key is the natural expression of awe, reverence, solemnity, sadness, and melancholy ; a high key, of violent passions, such as anger and rage, joy and exultation. The middle key is the natural pitch of conversation, and of unimpassioned narrative, descriptive, or didactic writing

2. Soft or gentle force is expressive of subdued feeling, pathos, and tenderness; loud force, of strong passions and oratorical declamation; moderate force, of unimpassioned thought.

3. Slow movement is appropriate to the expression of deep thought, power, grandeur, sublimity, solemnity; fast movement is characteristic of vivacity, joy, and uncontrolled passion; moderate movement, of unimpassioned narrative, descriptive, or didactic pieces.

4. The whisper is expressive of secrecy, silence, or extreme fear; guttural quality, of revenge, hatred, despair, horror, or loathing; the orotund, of power, grandeur, vastness, sublimity; the falsetto, of puerility or weak

the semitone, of sadness and pathetic entreaty. 5. The radical stress is expressive of command, assertion, force, power, and excited feelings; the median stress, of peace, tranquillity, solemnity, grandeur, sublimity, reverence, and awe.

6. Then there is the variety that arises from imitative reading, or the suiting of the sound to the word, phrase, or sentence; and that of personation, or the changes of expression to denote the different characters in a dialogue or play.

II. STYLE OF READING. 1. The following analysis of a good style of reading is taken from Russell's “American School Reader": "If we observe attentively the voice of a good reader or speaker, we shall find his style of utterance marked by the following traits. His voice pleases the ear by its very sound. It is wholly free from affected suavity ; yet, while perfectly natural, it is round, smooth, and agreeable. It is equally free from the faults of feebleness and of undue loudness.

2. “It is perfectly distinct, in the execution of every sound, in every word. It is free from errors of negligent usage and corrupted style in pronunciation. It avoids a measured, rhythmical chant, on the one hand, an a broken, irregular movement, on the other.

3. “It renders expression clear, by an attentive observance of appropriate pauses, and gives weight and effect to sentiment, by occasional impressive cessations of voice. It sheds light on the meaning of sentences, by the emphatic force which it gives to significant and expressive words.

4. “It avoids the 'school' tone of uniform inflections, and varies the voice upward or downward, as the successive clauses of a sentence demand. It marks the character of every emotion, by its peculiar traits of tone; and hence its effect upon the ear, in the utterance of connected sentences and paragraphs, is like that of a varied melody, in music, played or sung with evervarying feeling and expression.”

SECTION II.

THE READING OF POETRY.

I. INTRODUCTORY. 1. Pupils are sometimes told to read verse as if it were prose. Such a direction may be given to counteract the tendency to sing-song, or it may be applied in the reading of doggerel rhymes; but it cannot be applied to the reading of poetry.

2. Poetry, being the language of imagination, sentiment, or passion, requires, as compared with prose, a greater variety of expression. Moreover, poetry is rhythmical and melodious, and, in reading it, attention must be given to movement and harmony.

3. “The modulation of the voice,” says Prof. Russell, “in adaptation to different species of metrical composition, is indispensable to the appropriate or effective reading of verse. The purest forms of poetry become, when deprived of this aid, nothing but awkward prose. A just and delicate observance of the effect of meter, on the other hand, is one of the surest means of imparting that inspiration of feeling which it is the design of poetry to produce.”

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