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7. The love that loves a scărlet coat
Should be more ûniform.
8. BUNKER HILL. Just a glimpse (the air is clearer), they are nearer | |
nearer | | nearer, When a flash—a curling smoke-wreath—then a crash
the steeple shakes; The deadly truce is ended ; | | the tempest's shroud is
rended; II Like a morning mist it gathered, I like a thunder cloud
| | it breaks.
All through those hours of trial, I had watched a calm
clock-dial, As the hands kept creeping, | | creeping, | | | they were
creeping | | round to four.
1. In general, a rhetorical pause should be made between the subject and the predicate, when the subject is emphatic, or when it consists of a phrase, a clause, or a noun modified by a phrase or a clause.
2. A rhetorical pause should be made whenever the regular order of a sentence is broken by the inversion of words, phrases, or clauses.
3. An emphatic pause occurs before any word that is very strongly emphatic, or to which the reader or speaker desires to call marked attention.
I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 1. In all good speaking or reading, there must be ever-varying upward and downward slides of the voice. Inflection is a means, not only of expressing emotion, passion, and emphasis, but, also, of conveying the finer distinctions and contrasts of ideas, and the more delicate shades of feeling and sentiment.
2. Inflection forms an important element of emphasis : for emphasis consists, not only in force, but also in the slides and in quantity.
3. Reading, when it lacks the melody of varied emphasis and inflection, becomes like the monotonous droning of children who laboriously pronounce the successive words of their reading lesson in the conventional school tone.
4. In animated conversation, and in the reading of simple stories, the inflections take care of themselves without thought by the speaker or reader; but in the long and often inverted sentences of finished prose or poetry, involving a higher and more complicated order of thought, the proper application of emphasis and inflection requires some knowledge of the principles of elocution.
5. While it is true that a clear conception of the spirit and meaning by the reader is essential to good reading, it is equally true that, having the right conception, the reader may fail to convey it to the hearer, from ignorance of the principles that govern the correct expression of thought and feeling.
6. Good reading, like fine singing, is the result of systematic training—is the product of culture and art. There are good natural voices both for singing and
reading, but a fine singer, without training in the science and art of music, is as rare as is a good reader of general English literature, who is ignorant of the principles of elocution, and untrained in the management of the voice.
7. The real object of school elocution is, not to enable pupils to read by imitation a few selected pieces in the style of an actor, but to make thoughtful and intelligent readers independent of the assistance of teachers.
8. One reason for the full treatment of inflection in this book is the great importance of the subject as a means of expressive and impressive reading.
9. Another reason is the cursory manner in which the few introductory rules and illustrations are taken up in the grammar School Teachers of high schools and normal schools are aware of the fact that many of their pupils come into school not only ignorant of the principles of inflection, but also so untrained in the management of the voice that they cannot give the correct inflections even when indicated, and sometimes cannot even innitate them when given by the teacher.
10. It is not unreasonable to expect that, in high and normal schools, there should be training enough to enable students themselves to apply the general principles of elocution; and that there should be practice enough to secure some flexibility in the management of the voice.
11. Expression in reading depends largely on the variety produced by the proper and effective application of the slides. There is no excuse for the neglect that leads to the monotonous and lifeless style of reading characteristic of many high schools and colleges.
“This school-tone,” says Prof. Russell, “can be tolerated only in a law paper, a state document, a bill of lading, or an invoice, in the reading of which the mere distinct enunciation of the words is deemed sufficient. In other circumstances, it kills, with inevitable certainty, everything like feeling or expression.”
12. The careful study of an extract from some standard author, for the purpose of marking it for inflection, emphasis, and pauses, is an intellectual discipline of no mean order. It combines, in one lesson, rhetoric, grammar, and elocution.
13. It matters little whether aspiring elocutionists can or can not render effectively such pieces as “The Raven," “The Bells,” or “ Catiline's Defiance”; but it is a matter of solid importance for them to be able to read intelligently and effectively such extracts as Macaulay's “Puritans,” Bryant's “Winds,” Byron's “ Apostrophe to the Ocean," one of Webster's “Speeches,” or an extract from Milton or Shakespeare. The trained reader is able not only to read well, but also to give good reasons for reading with good taste, discrimination, and judgment.
14. As an aid both to teachers and pupils in applying principles and rules, a considerable number of extracts and examples are marked for inflection, emphasis, and pauses. When these have been carefully studied and read, pupils ought to be able to apply, to some extent at least, principles and rules to unmarked extracts, thus becoming independent of imitation and of teachers.
II. DISTINCTIONS OF INFLECTION. 1. Inflection may be defined as an upward or downward slide of the voice, generally on the emphatic word or words of a sentence. In words of more than one syllable, the inflection falls chiefly on the vowel of the accented syllable; hence the mark of inflection is placed over the vowel in the accented syllable.
2. The rising inflection, indicated by the acute accent
( ), is used in direct questions, and, in general, whenever the sense is incomplete.
3. The falling inflection, indicated by the grave accent ( ), is used in complete declarative, exclamatory, or very emphatic statements, and, in general, wherever the sense is complete, or does not depend on something to follow.
4. The circumflex, a combination of the rising and falling inflections on the same sound or word, indicated thus ( or ^), is used in surprise, sarcasm, irony, wit, humor, and in expressing a pun, or a double meaning. The rising circumflex is used in place of the direct rising inflection to add force to the emphasis, and the falling circumflex in place of the direct falling inflection.
5. The monotone (- -), that is, one uniform tone, is merely the absence of any marked rising or falling slide above or below the general level of the sentence.
III. LENGTH OF SLIDES. 1. The length of the rising or the falling inflection, in ascending or descending the scale, depends on the force of emphasis applied to words marked by inflection.
2. The degrees of inflection may be roughly distinguished as corresponding to the second, third, fifth, and eighth notes in the musical scale, including the semitones, or chromatic notes, of the minor second, third, fifth, and eighth notes.
3. The “second” and “third” are classed as the unemotional slides, as contrasted with the “fifth” and “eighth,” which are the emotional inflections.
IV. THE SLIDE OF THE SECOND. 1. The inflection of the second 'is a very slight up. ward or downward slide of the voice, expressing what