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upon men's wits, yet they do not produce any great altera*ions in states : except it be by the help of civil occasions. There be three manner of plantations of new sects : by the power of signs and miracles ; by the eloquence and wisdom of speech and persuasion ; and by the sword. For martyrdoms, I reckon them amongst miracles, because they seem to exceed the strength of human nature : and I may do the like of superlative and admirable holiness of life. Surely there is no better way to stop the rising of new sects and schisms, than to reform abuses ; to compound the smaller differences; to proceed mildly, and not with sanguinary persecutions; and rather to take off the principal authors, by winning and advancing them, than to enrage them by violence and bitterness.

The changes and vicissitude in wars are many; but chiefly in three things : in the seats or stages of the war, in the weapons, and in the manner of the conduct. Wars, in ancient time, seemed more to move from east to west ; for the Persians, Assyrians, Arabians, Tartars (which were the invaders), were all eastern people. It is true, the Gauls were western ; but we read but of two incursions of theirs :

2 the one to Gallo-Græcia, the other to Rome : but east and west have no certain points of heaven ; and no more have the wars, either from the east or west, any certainty of observation : but north and south are fixed ; and it hath seldom or never been seen that the far southern people have invaded the northern, but contrariwise ; whereby it is manifest that the northern tract of the world is in nature the more martial region : be it in respect of the stars of that hemisphere," or of the great continents that are upon the north ; whereas the south part, for aught that is known, is almost all sea ; or (which is most apparent) of the cold of the northern parts, which is that which, without aid of discipline, doth make the bodies hardest, and the courage warmest.

Upon the breaking and shivering of a great state and empire, you may be sure to have wars; for great empires, Bacon, his opinions have been for two centuries, and still are, held by a large portion of the Church of England.

• A belief in astrology, or at least the influences of the stars, was almost universal in the time of Bacon.


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while they stand, do enervate and destroy the forces of the natives which they have subdued, resting upon their own protecting forces; and then, when they fail also all goes to

. ruin, and they become a prey ; so was it in the decay of the Roman empire, and likewise in the empire of Almaigne,P after Charles the Great,q every bird taking a feather ; and were not unlike to befall to Spain, if it should break. The great accessions and unions of kingdoms do likewise stir up wars : for when a state grows to an over-power, it is like a great flood, that will be sure to overflow; as it hath been seen in the states of Rome, Turkey, Spain, and others. Look when the world hath fewest barbarous people, but such as commonly will not marry, or generate, except they know means to live (as it is almost everywhere at this day, except Tartary), there is no danger of inundations of people ; but when there be great shoals of people, which go on to populate, without foreseeing means of life and sustentation, it is of necessity that once in an age or two they discharge a portion of their people upon other nations, which the ancient northern people were wont to do by lot; casting lots what part should stay at home, and what should seek their fortunes. When a warlike state grows soft and effeminate, they may be sure of a war: for commonly such states are grown rich in the time of their degenerating : and so the prey inviteth, and their decay in valour encourageth a


As for the weapons, it hardly falleth under rule and observation : yet we see even they have returns and vicissitudes ; for certain it is, that ordnance was known in the city of the Oxidraces, in India; and was that which the Macedonians' called thunder and lightning, and magic ; ana it is well known that the use of ordnance hath been in China above two thousand years.

The conditions of weapons, and their improvements are, first, the fetchings afar off; for that outruns the danger, as it is seen in ordnance and muskets ; secondly, the strength of the percussion, wherein likewise ordnance do exceed all arietations, and ancient inventions ; the third is, the commodious use of them, as that they inaj P Germany

4 Charlemagne. " When led thither by Alexander the Great. Striking • Applicati ;o of the "aries,” or battering-ram.

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serve in all weathers, that the carriage may be light and manageable, and the like.

For the conduct of the war : at the first, men rested extremely upon number ; they did put the wars likewise upou main force and valour, pointing days for pitched fields, and so trying it out upon an even match ; and they were more ignorant in ranging and arraying their battles. After they grew to rest upon number, rather competent than vast, they grew to advantages of place, cunning diversions, and the like, and they grew more skilful in the ordering of their battles. In the youth of a state, arms do flourish ; in the middle

; age of a state, learning ; and then both of them together for a time ; in the declining age of a state, mechanical arts and merchandise. Learning hath its infancy when it is but beginning, and almost childish ; then its youth, when it is luxuriant and juvenile; then its strength of years, when it is solid and reduced ; and, lastly, its old age, when it waxeth dry and exhaust; but it is not good to look too long upon these turning wheels of vicissitude, lest we become giddy : as for the philology of them, that is but a circle of tales, and therefore not fit for this writing.


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The poets make Fame a monster : they describe her in part finely and elegantly, and in part gravely and sententiously; they say, Look how many feathers she hath, so many eyes she hath underneath, so many tongues, so many voices, she pricks up so many ears.

This is a flourish ; there follow excellent parables ; as that she gathereth strength in going; that she goeth upon the ground, and yet hideth her head in the clouds ; that in the day-time she sitteth in a watch-tower, and flieth most by night; that she mingleth things done with things not done; and that she is a terror to great cities ; but that which passeth all the rest is, they do recount that the Earth, mother

This fragment was found among Lord Bacon's papers, and published by Dr. Rawley.

of the giants that made war against Jupiter, and were by him destroyed, thereupon in anger brought forth Fame; for certain it is, that rebels, figured by the giants, and seditious fames and libels are but brothers and sisters, masculine and feminine ; but now if a man can tame this monster, and bring her to feed at the hand and govern her, and with her fly other ravening fowl, and kill them, it is somewhat worth: but we are infected with the style of the poets. To speak now in a sad and serious manner, there is not in all the politics a place less handled, and more worthy to be handled, than this of fame. We will therefore speak of these points: what are false fames, and what are true fames, and how they may be best discerned ; how fames may be sown and raised; how they may be spread and multiplied ; and how they may be checked and laid dead ; and other things concerning the nature of fame. Fame is of that force, as there is scarcely any great action wherein it hath not a great part, especially in the war.

Mucianus undid Vitellius by a fame that he scattered, that Vitellius had in purpose to remove the legions of Syria into Germany, and the legions of Germany into Syria ; whereupon the legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed. Julius Cæsar took Pompey unprovided, and laid asleep his industry and preparations by a fame that he cunningly gave out, how Cæsar's own soldiers loved him' not; and being wearied with the wars, and laden with the spoils of Gaul, would forsake him as soon as he came into Italy. Livia settled all things for the succession of her son Tiberius, by continually giving out that her husband Augustus was upon recovery and amendment; and it is a usual thing with

; the bashaws to conceal the death of the Grand Turk from the janizaries and men of war, to save the sacking of Constantinople, and other towns, as their manner is. Themistocles made Xerxes, king of Persia, post apace out of Græcia, by giving out that the Grecians had a purpose to break his bridge of ships which he had made athwart Hellespont. There be a thousand such like examples, and the more they are, the less they need to be repeated, because a man meeteth with them everywhere: therefore let all wise governors have as great a watch and care over fames, as they have of the &ctions and designs themselves.

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1. I HAVE often thought upon death, and I find it the least of all evils. All that which is past is as a dream ; and

n he that hopes or depends upon time coming, dreams waking. So much of our life as we have discovered is already dead; and all those hours which we share, even from the breasts of our mothers, until we return to our grandmother the earth, are part of our dying days, whereof even this is one, and those that succeed are of the same nature, for we die daily; and as others have given place to us, so we must in the end give way to others.

2. Physicians in the name of death include all sorrow, anguish, disease, calamity, or whatsoever can fall in the life of man, either grievous or unwelcome. But these things are familiar unto us, and we suffer them every hour; therefore we die daily, and I am older since I affirmed it.

3. I know many wise men that fear to die ; for the change > is bitter, and flesh would refuse to prove it : besides, the

expectation brings terror, and that exceeds the evil. But I do not believe that any man fears to be dead, but only the stroke of death ; and such are my hopes, that if heaven be pleased, and nature renew but my lease for twenty-one years more, without asking longer days, I shall be strong enough to acknowledge without mourning, that I was begotten mortal. Virtue walks not in the highway, though she go per alta ; this is strength and the blood to virtue, to contemn things that be desired, and to neglect that which is feared.

4. Why should man be in love with his fetters, though of gold ? Art thou drowned in security? Then I say

thou art perfectly dead. For though thou movest, yet thy soul is

buried within thee, and thy good angel either forsakes his 1 guard or sleeps. There is nothing under heaven, saving a

true friend (who cannot be counted within the number of movables), unto which my heart doth lean. And this dear freedom hath begotten me this peace, that I mourn not for that end which must be, nor spend one wish to have one minute added to the uncertain date of my years. It was no mean apprehension of Lucian, who says of Menippus, that in


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