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bills of charges ; nay more, there are some foolish rich cove tous men, that take a pride in having no children, because they may be thought so much the richer; for, perhaps they have heard some talk, "Such an one is a great rich man, and another except to it, “Yea, but he hath a great charge of children ;" as if it were an abatement to his riches : but the most ordinary cause of a single life is liberty, especially in certain self-pleasing and humorous minds, which are so sensible of every restraint, as they will go near to think their girdles and garters to be bonds and shackles. Unmarried men are best friends, best masters, best servants; but not; always best subjects, for they are light to run away, and almost all fugitives are of that condition. A single life doth well with churchmen, for charity will hardly water the ground where it must first fill a pool. It is indifferent for judges and magistrates; for if they be facile and corrupt, you shall have a servant five times worse than a wife. For soldiers, I find the generals commonly, in their hortatives, put men in mind of their wives and children ; and I think the despising of marriage amongst the Turks maketh the vulgar soldier more base. Certainly wife and children are : kind of discipline of humanity; and single men, though the be many times more charitable, because their means ar less exhaust, yet, on the other side, they are more cruel and hard-hearted (good to make severe inquisitors), because their tenderness is not so oft called upon. Grave natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are commonly loving husbands, as was said of Ulysses, “ Vetulam suam prætulit immortalitati.”b Chaste women are often proud and froward, as presuming upon the merit of their chastity. It is one

of the best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the wife, if she think her husband wise, which she will never do if she find him jealous. Wives are young men's mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men's nurses, so as a man

· His meaning is, that if clergymen have the expenses of a family to support, they will hardly find means for the exercise of benevolence | toward their parishioners.

b" He preferred his aged wife Penelope to immortality.” This was when Ulysses was entreated by the goddess Calypso to give up all thoughts of returning to Ithaca, and to remain with her in the enjoy Inent of immortality.

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inay have a quarrel to marry when he will : but yet he was reputed one of the wise men that made answer to the question when a man should marry: young man not yet, an elder man not at all.” It is often seen that bad husbands have very good wives ; whether it be that it raiseth the price of their husbands' kindness when it comes, or that the wives take a pride in their patience; but this never fails, if the bad husbands were of their own choosing, against their friends' consent, for then they will be sure to make good their own folly.

IX.-OF ENVY.

THERE be none of the affections which have been noted to - fascinate or bewitch, but love and envy: they both have vehement wishes; they frame themselves readily into imaginations and suggestions, and they come easily into the eye, especially upon the presence of the objects which are the points that conduce to fascination, if any such thing there be. We see, likewise, the Scripture calleth envy an evil eye ; a and the astrologers call the evil influences of the stars evil aspects; so that still there seemeth to be acknowledged, in the act of envy, an ejaculation, or irradiation of the eye : nay, some have been so curious as to note, that the times, when the stroke or percussion of an envious eye doth most hurt, are, when the party envied is beheld in glory or triumph ; for that sets an edge upon envy: and besides, at such times, the spirits of the person envied do come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the blow.

But leaving these curiosities (though not unworthy to be

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‘May have a pretext,” or

excuse." * So prevalent in ancient times was the notion of the injurious effects of the eye of envy, that in common parlance the Romans generally used the word " præfiscini,”: “ without risk of enchantment," or " fascination,” when they spoke in high terms of themselves. They supposed that they thereby averted the effects of enchantment produced by the evil eye of any envious person who might at that moment possibly be looking upon them. Lord Bacon probably here alludes to St. Mark vii. 21, 22: “Out of the heart of men proceedeth — deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye.” Solomon also speaks of the evil eye, Prov. xxiii. 6, and xxviii. 22.

thought on in fit place), we will handle what persons are ap! to envy others, what persons are most subject to be envied themselves, and what is the difference between public and private envy.

A man that hath no virtue in himself ever envieth virtue in others; for men's minds will either feed upon their own good, or upon others' evil; and who wanteth the one will prey upon the other; and whoso is out of hope to attain to another's virtue, will seek to come at even hand,b by depressing another's fortune.

A man that is busy and inquisitive is commonly envious; for to know much of other men's matters cannot be, because all that ado may concern his own estate ; therefore it must needs be that he taketh a kind of play-pleasure in looking upon the fortunes of others : neither can he that minde. but his own business find much matter for envy; for env is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth not keep home : “Non est curiosus, quin idem sit malevolus.”c

Men of noble birth are noted to be envious towards net! men when they rise ; for the distance is altered ; and it is like a deceit of the eye, that when others come on they think themselves go back. Deformed persons

and eunuchs, and old men and bastards, are envious : for he that cannot possibly mend his own case, will do what he can to impair another's; except these defects light upon a very brave and heroical nature, which thinketh to make his natural wants part of his honour ; ir that it should be said, “ That a eunuch, or a lame man, did such great matters,” affecting the honour of a miracle : as it was in Narsesd the eunuch, and Agesilaus and Tamerlane, that were lame men. b To be even with him.

“There is no person a busy-body but what he is ill-natured too." This passage is from the Stichus of Plautus.

Narses superseded Belisarius in the command of the armies of Italy, by the orders of the Emperor Justinian. He defeated Totila, the king of the Goths (who had taken Rome), in a decisive engagement, in which the latter was slain. He governed Italy with consummate ability for thirteen years, when he was ungratefully recalled by Justin the Second, the successor of Justinian.

e Tamerlane, or Timour, was a native of Samarcand, of which territory he was elected emperor. He overran Persia, Georgia, Hin. dnstan. and captured Bajazet, the valiant Sultan of the Turks, at the - battle of Angora, 1402, whom he is said to have inclosed in a cage E of iron. His conquests extended from the Irtish and Volga to the Per*sian Gulf, and from the Ganges to the Grecian Archipelago. While

The same is the case of men that rise after calamities and misfortunes ; for they are as men fallen out with the times, and think other men's harms a redemption of their own sufferings.

They that desire to excel in too many matters, out of levity and vain-glory, are ever envious, for they cannot want work : it being impossible, but many, in some one of those things, should surpass them ; which was the character of Adrian the emperor, that mortally envied poets and painters, and artificers in works, wherein he had a vein to excel.

Lastly, near kinsfolk and fellows in office, and those that have been bred together, are more apt to envy their equals when they are raised; for it doth upbraid unto them their own fortunes, and pointeth at them, and cometh oftener into their remembrance, and incurreth likewise more into the note of others; and envy ever redoubleth from speech and fame. Cain's envy was the more vile and malignant towards his brother Abel, because when his sacrifice was better accepted, there was nobody to look on. T us much for those that are apt to envy.

Concerning those that are more or less subject to envy: First, persons of eminent virtue, when they are advanced, are less envied, for their fortune seemneth but due unto them; and no man envieth the payınent of a debt, but rewards and liberality rather. Again, er.vy is ever joined with the comparing of a man's self; and where there is no comparison, no.envy; and therefore kings are not envied but by kings. Nevertheless, it is to be noted, that unworthy persons are most envied at their first coming in, and afterwards overcome it better; whereas, contrariwise, persons of worth and merit are most envied when their fortune continueth long; for by that time, though their virtue be the same, yet it hath not the same lustre; for fresh men grow up that darken it.

preparing for the invasion of China, he died, in the 70th year of his age, A.D. 1405. He was tall and corpulent in person, but was mained in one hand, and lame on the right side.

I Comes under the observation.

Persons of noble blood are less envied in their rising; for it seemeth but right done to their birth : besides, there seemeth not so much added to their fortune; and envy is as the sunbeams, that beat hotter upon a bank or steep rising ground, than upon a fiat; and, for the same reason, those that are advanced by degrees are less envied than those that are advanced suddenly, and “ per

saltum.”g Those that have joined with their honour great travels, cares, or perils, are less subject to envy; for men think that they earn their honours hardly and pity them sometimes and pity ever healeth envy: wherefore you shall observe, that the more deep and sober sort of politic persons, in their greatness, are ever bemoaning themselves what a life they lead, chanting a "quanta patimur;"h not that they feel it so, but only to abate the edge of envy : but this is to be understood of business that is laid upon men, and not such as they call unto themselves ; for nothing increaseth envy more than an unnecessary and ambitious engrossing of business ; and nothing doth extinguish envy more than for a great person to preserve all other inferior officers in their fuli rights and pre-eminences of their places; for, by that means, there be so many screens between him and envy.

Above all, those are most subject to envy, which carry the greatness of their fortunes in an insolent and proud manner : being never well but while they are showing how great they are, either by outward pomp, or by triumphing över all opposition or competition : whereas wise men will rather do sacrifice to envy, in suffering themselves, sometimes of purpose, to be crossed and overborne in things that do not much concern them. Notwithstanding so much is true, that the carriage of greatness in a plain and open manner (so it be without arrogancy and vain-glory) doth draw less envy than if it be in a more crafty and cunning fashion ; for in that course a man doth but disavow fortune, and seemeth to be conscious of his own want in worth, and doth but teach others to envy him.

Lastly, to conclude this part, as we said in the beginning that the act of envy had somewhat in it of witchcraft, so there is no other cure of envy but the cure of witchcraft;

8 “ By a leap," i. e. over be heads of others.

“How vast the evils we endure."

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