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in a reversed order. It was gravely said by some of the prelates in the Council of Trent,d where the doctrine of the schoolmen bare great sway, that the schoolmen were like astronomers, which did feign eccentrics and epicycles, and such engines of orbs to save the phenomena, though they knew there were no such things; and, in like manner, that the schoolmen had framed a number of subtle and intricate axioms and theorems, to save the practice of the Church. The causes of superstition are, pleasing and sensual rites and ceremonies ; excess of outward and pharisaical holiness ; overgreat reverence of traditions, which cannot but load the Church ; the stratagems of prelates for their own ambition and lucre ; the favouring too much of good intentions, which openeth the gate to conceits and novelties; the taking an aim at divine matters by human, which cannot but breed mixture of imaginations : and, lastly, barbarous times, especially joined with calamities and disasters. Superstition, without a veil, is a deformed thing; for as it addeth deformity to an ape to be so like a man, so the similitude of superstition to religion makes it the more deformed : and as wholesome meat corrupteth to little worms, so good forms and orders corrupt into a number of petty observances. There is a superstition in avoiding superstition, when men think to do best if they go furthest from the superstition formerly received ; therefore care would be had that (as it fareth in ill purgings) the good be not taken away with the bad, which commonly is done when the people is the ceformer.
XVIII.-OF TRAVEL. TRAVEL, in the younger sort, is a part of education ; in the elder, a part of experience. He that travelleth into a coun
d This Council commenced in 1545, and lasted eighteen years It was convened for the purpose of opposing the rising spirit of Protes tantism, and of discussing and settling the disputed points of the Catholio faith. • Irregular or anomalous movements.
An epicycle is a smaller circle, whose centre is in the circumference of a greater one.
& To account for.
try, before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. That young men travel under some tutor or grave servant, I allow well; so that he be such a one that hath the language, and hath been in the country before ; whereby he may be able to tell them what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go, what acquaintances they are to seek, what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth ; for else
young men shall
hooded, and look abroad little. It is a strange thing, that in sea voyages, where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea, men should make diaries; but in land travel, wherein so much is to be observed, for the most part they omit it; as if chance were fitter to be registered than observation : let diaries, therefore, be brought in use. The things to be seen and observed are, the courts of princes, especially when they give audience to ambassadors ; the courts of justice, while they sit and hear causes ; and so of consistories a ecclesiastic; the churches and monasteries, with the monuments which are therein extant; the walls and fortifications of cities and towns; and so the havens and harbours, antiquities and ruins, libraries, colleges, disputations, and lectures, where any are ; shipping and navies ; houses and gardens of state and pleasure, near great cities; armories, arsenals, magazines, exchanges, burses, warehouses, exercises of horsemanship, fencing, training of soldiers, and the like: comedies, such whereunto the better sort of persons do resort ; treasuries of jewels and robes ; cabinets and rarities; and, to conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the places where they go ; after all which the tutors or servants ought to make diligent inquiry. As for triumphs, masks, feasts, weddings, funerals, capital executions, and such shows, men need not to be put in mind of them : yet are they not to be neglected. If you will have a young man to put his travel into a little room, and in short time to gather much, this you must do: first, as was said, he must have some entrance into the language before he goeth ; then he must have such a servant, or tutor, as knoweth the country, as was likewise said : let him carry with him also some card, or book, describing the country where he travelleth, which will be a good key to his inquiry;
Synods, or councilo.
let him keep also a diary; let him not stay long in one city or town, more or less as the place deserveth, but not long; nay, when he stayeth in one city or town, let him change his lodging from one end and part of the town to another, which is a great adamant of acquaintance; let him sequester himself from the company of his countrymen, and diet in such places where there is good company of the nation where he travelleth: let him, upon his removes from one place to another, procure recommendation to some person of quality residing in the place whither he removeth, that he may use his favour in those things he desireth to see or know; thus he may abridge his travel with much profit. As for the acquaintance which is to be sought in travel, that which is most of all profitable, is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of ambassadors; for so in travelling in one country he shall suck the experience of many: let him also see and visit eminent persons in all kinds, which are of great name abroad, that he may be able to tell how the life agreeth with the fame; for quarrels, they are with care and discretion to be avoided; they are commonly for mistresses, healths, place, and words; and let a man beware how he keepeth company with choleric and quarrelsome persons; for they will engage him into their own quarrels. When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath travelled altogether behind him, but maintain a correspondence by letters with those of his acquaintance which are of most worth; and let his travel appear rather in his discourse than in his apparel or gesture; and in his discourse let him be rather advised in his answers, than forward to tell stories: and let it appear that he doth not change his country manners for those of foreign parts; but only prick in some flowers of that he hath learned abroad into the customs of his own country.
6 At the present day called "attachés."
• He probably means the refusing to join on the occasion of drinking healths when taking wine.
XIX.-OF EMPIRE. It is a miserable state of mind to have few things to desire, and many things to fear; and yet that commonly is the case of Kings, who being at the highest, want matter of desire,a which makes their minds more languishing ; and have many representations of perils and shadows, which makes their minds the less clear : and this is one reason also of that effect which the Scripture speaketh of, “ That the king's heart is inscrutable :”b for multitude of jealousies, and lack of some predominant desire, that should marshal and put in order all the rest, maketh any man's heart hard to find or sound. Hence it comes likewise, that princes many times make themselves desires, and set their hearts upon toys ; sometimes upon a building ; sometimes upon erecting of an order ; sometimes upon the advancing of a person ; sometimes upon obtaining excellency in some art, or feat of the hand : as Nero for playing on the harp ; Domitian for certainty of the hand with the arrow; Commodus for playing at fence ; c Caracalla for driving chariots, and the like. This seemeth incredible unto those that know not the principle, that the mind of man is more cheered and refreshed by profiting in small things than by standing at a stayd in great. We see also that Kings that have been fortunate conquerors in their first
years, it being not possible for them to go forward infinitely, but that they must have some check or arrest in their fortunes, turn in their latter years to be superstitious and melancholy ; as did Alexander the Great, Dioclesian,e and in our memory, Charles the Fifth, and others ; for he that is used to go forward, and findeth a stop, falleth out of his own favour, and is not the thing he was.
Something to create excitement. b “The heart of kings is unsearchable.”—Prov. v. 3.
Commodus fought naked in public as a gladiator, and prided him. self on his skill as a swordsman.
d Making a stop at, or dwelling too long upon.
• After a prosperous reign of twenty-one years, Dioclesian abdicated the throne, and retired to a private station.
• After having reigned thirty-five years, he abdicated the thrones of Spain and Germany, and passed the two last years of his life in retiro. ment at St. Just, a convent in Estremadura.
To speak now of the true temper of empire, it is a thing rare and hard to keep; for both temper and distemper consist of contraries ; but it is one thing to mingle contraries, another to interchange them. The answer of Apollonius to Vespasian is full of excellent instruction. Vespasian asked him, “What was Nero's overthrow?” he answered, “Nero could touch and tune the harp well; but in government sometimes he used to wind the pins too high, sometimes to let them down too low.” And certain it is, that nothing destroyeth authority so much as the unequal and untimely interchange of power pressed too far, and relaxed too much.
This is true, that the wisdom of all these latter times in princes' affairs is rather fine deliveries, and shiftings of dangers and mischiefs, when they are near, than solid and grounded courses to keep them aloof : but this is but to try masteries with fortune ; and let men beware how they neglect and suffer matter of trouble to be prepared. For no man can forbid the spark, nor tell whence it may come. The difficulties in princes' business are many and great; but the greatest difficulty is often in their own mind. For it is common with princes (saith Tacitus) to will contradictories; “Sunt plerumque regum voluntates vehementes, et inter se contrariæ ;”& for it is the solecism of power to think to command the end, and yet not to endure the mean.
Kings have to deal with their neighbours, their wives, their children, their prelates or clergy, their nobles, their second nobles or gentlemen, their merchants, their commons, and their men of war; and from all these arise dangers, if care and circumspection be not used.
First, for their neighbours, there can no general rule be given (the occasions are so variable), save one which ever holdeth ; which is, that princes * do keep due sentinel, that none of their neighbours do overgrow so (by increase of territory, by embracing of trade, by approaches, or the like), as they become more able to annoy them than they were ; and this is generally the work of standing counsels to foresee and to him.er it. During that triumvirate of kings, King Henry the Eighth of England, Francis the First, King of France,
"The desires of monarchs are generally impetuous and conflicting ainong theniselves."
" He was especially the rival of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and