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which, contrariwise, moveth so round, that a froward retention of custom is as turbulent a thing as an innovation ; and they that reverence too much old times are but a scorn to the new. It were good, therefore, that men in their inuovations would follow the example of time itself, which indeed innovateth greatly, but quietly, and by degrees scarce to be perceived ; for otherwise, whatsoever is new is unlooked for; and ever it mends some and pairs other; and he that is holpen, takes it for a fortune, and thanks the time; and he that is hurt, for a wrong, and imputeth it to the author. It is good also not to try experiments in states, except the necessity be urgent, or the utility evident; and well to beware that it be the reformation that draweth on the change, and not the desire of change that pretendeth the reformation; and lastly, that the novelty, though it be not rejected, yet be held for a suspect, and, as the Scripture saith, “That we make a stand upon the ancient way, and then look about usand discover what is the straight and right way, and so to walk in it."

XXV. Y DISPATCH. AFFECTED dispatch is one of the most dangerous things to business that can be : it is like that which the physicians call predigestion, or hasty digestion, which is sure to fill the body full of crudities, and secret seeds of diseases : therefore measure not dispatch by the times of sitting, but by the advancement of the business : and as in races, it is not the large stride, or high lift, that makes the speed ; so in business, the keeping close to the matter, and not taking of it too much at once, procureth dispatch. It is the care of some, only to come off speedily for the time, or to contrive some false periods of business, because they may seem men of dispatch : but it is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, a

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Injures, or impairs.

d A thing suspected. • He probably alludes to Jeremiah vi. 16: “Thus saith the Lord Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls"

. That is, by means of good management.



another by cutting off; and business so handled at several
sittings, or meetings, goeth commonly backward and forward
in an unsteady manner. I knew a wise man b that had it for
a by-word, when he saw men hasten to a conclusion, “Stay a
little, that we may make an end the sooner.”
On the other side, true dispatch is a rich thing ; for time

is the measure of business, as money is of wares ; and business
is bought at a dear hand where there is small dispatch. The
Spartans and Spaniards have been noted to be of small dis-
patch : “Mi venga la muerte de Spagna ;"_“Let my death

come from Spain;" for then it will be sure to be long in coming

Give good hearing to those that give the first information in business, and rather direct them in the beginning, than interrupt them in the continuance of their speeches ; for he that is put out of his own order will go forward and backward, and be more tedious while he waits


his memory, than he could have been if he had gone on in his own course ; but sometimes it is seen that the moderator is more troublesome than the actor.

Iterations are commonly loss of time; but there is no such gain of time as to iterate often the state of the question ; for it chaseth away many a frivolous speech as it is coming forth. Long and curious speeches are as fit for dispatch as a robe, or mantle, with a long train, is for a race. Prefaces, and passages, and excusations, d and other speeches of" reference to the person, are great wastes of time ; and though they seem to proceed of modesty, they are bravery. Yet beware of being too material when there is any impediment, or obstruction in men’s wills; for pre-occupation of mindi

; ever requireth preface of speech, like a fomentation to make the unguent enter.

Above all things, order and distribution, and singling out of parts, is the life of dispatch ; so as the distribution be not too subtile : for he that doth not divide will never enter well into business; and he that divideth too much will never




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• It is supposed that he here alludes to Sir Amyas Paulet, a very
able statesman, and the ambassador of Queen Elizabeth to the court
of France.
c Quotations.


r Prejudice.


come out of it clearly. To choose time, is to save time, and an unseasonable motion is but beating the air. There be three parts of business : the preparation; the debate, or examination; and the perfection. * Whereof, if you look for dispatch, let the middle only be the work of many, and the first and last the work of few. The proceeding, upon somewhat conceived in writing, doth for the most part facilitate dispatch ; for though it should be wholly rejected, yet that negative is more pregnant of direction than an indefinite, as ashes are more generative than dust.



It hath been an opinion, that the French are wiser than they seem, and the Spaniards seem wiser than they are; but howsoever it be between nations, certainly it is so between man and man; for as the apostle saith of godliness, “ Having a show of godliness, but denying the power thereof; "a so certainly there are, in points of wisdom and sufficiency, that do nothing or little very solemnly; “magno conatu nugas. It is a ridiculous thing, and fit for a satire to persons of judgment, to see what shifts these formalists have, and what prospectives to make superficies to seem body, that hath depth and bulk. Some are so close and reserved, as they will not show their wares but by a dark light, and seem always to keep back somewhat; and when they know within themselves they speak of that they do not well know, would nevertheless seem to others to know of that which they may not well speak. Some help themselves with countenance and gesture, and are wise by signs; as Cicero saith of Piso, that when he answered him he fetched one of his brows up to his forehead, and bent the other down to his chin; " Respondes altero ad frontem sublato, altero ad mentum depresso supercilio; crudelitatem tibi non placere.”c Some think to bear it by speaking a great word, and being peremptory; and go on, • 2 Tim. iii. 5.

b « Trifles with great effort." c “With one brow raised to your forehead, the other bent down ward to your chin, you answer that zruelty delights you not."

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and take by admittance that which they cannot make good. Some, whatsoever is beyond their reach, will seem to despise, or make light of it as impertinent or curious: and so would have their ignorance seem judgment. Some are never with out a difference, and commonly by amusing men with a subtilty, blanch the matter; of whom A. Gellius saith, “Hominem delirum, qui verborum minutiis rerum frangit pondera."d Of which kind also Plato, in his Protagoras, bringeth in Prodicus in scorn, and maketh him make a speech that consisteth of distinctions from the beginning to the end. Generally such men, in all deliberations, find ease to bee of the negative side, and affect a credit to object and foretell difficulties ; for when propositions are denied, there is an end of them; but if they be allowed, it requireth a new work: which false point of wisdom is the bane of business. To conclude, there is no decaying merchant, or inward beggar, hath so many tricks to uphold the credit of their wealth as these empty persons have to maintain the credit of their sufficiency. Seeming wise men may make shift to get opinion ; but let no man choose them for employment; for certainly, you were better take for business a man somewhat absurd than over-formal.

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XXVII.-OF FRIENDSHIP. It had been hard for him that spake it to have put more truth and untruth together in few words than in that speech, “Whosoever is delighted in solitude, is either a wild beast or a god :"a for it is most true, that a natural and secret hatred and aversion towards society in any man hath somewhat of the savage beast; but it is most untrue that it should have any character at all of the divine nature, except it proceed,

d“ A foolish man, who fritters away the weight of matters by finespun trifling on words."

• Find it easier to make difficulties and objections than to originate.

* One really in insolvent circumstances, though to the world he does not appear so.

* He here quotes from a passage in the “Politica" of Aristotle, book i. “He who is unable to mingle in society, or who requires nothing, by reason of sufficing for himself

, is no part of the state, so that he is either a wild beast or a Divinity.”

uot out of a pleasure in solitude, but out of a love and desiro to sequester a man's self for a higher conversation : such as is found to have been falsely and feignedly in some of the heathen; as Epimenides, the Candian ; Numa, the Roman ; Empedocles, the Sicilian; and Apollonius of Tyana ; and truly and really in divers of the ancient hermits and holy fathers of the Church. But little do men perceive what solitude is, and how far it extendeth; for a crowd is not company, and faces are but a gallery of pictures, and talk but a tinkling cymbal, where there is no love. The Latin adage meeteth with it a little, “ Magna civitas, magna solitudo ;"C because in a great town friends are scattered, so that there is not that fellowship, for the most part, which is in less neighbourhoods : but we may go further, and affirm most truly, that it is a mere and miserable solitude to want true friends, without which the world is but a wilderness ; and even in this sense also of solitude, whosoever in the frame of his nature and affections is unfit for friendship, he taketh it of the beast, and not from humanity.

A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and discharge of the fulness and swellings of the heart, which passions of all kinds do cause and induce. We now diseases of stoppings and suffocations are the most dangerous in the body; and it is not much otherwise in the mind; you may take sarzad to open the liver, steel tu open the spleen, flower of sulphur for the lungs, castoreum. for the brain ; but no receipt openeth



Epimenides, a poet of Crete (of which Candia is the modern name), is said by Pliny to have fallen into a sleep which lasted fifty-seven years. He was also said to have lived 299 years. Numa pretended that he was instructed in the art of legislation by the divine nymph Egeria, who dwelt in the Arician grove. Empedocles, the Sicilian philosopher, declared himself to be immortal, and to be able to cure all evils : he is said by some to have retired from society that his death might not be known, and to have thrown himself into the crater of Mount Ætna. Apollonius of Tyana, the Pythagorean philosopher, pretended to miraculous powers, and after his death a temple was erected to him at that place. His life is recorded by Philostratus; and some persons, among whom are Hierocles, Dr. More, in his Mystery Godliness, and recently Strauss, have not hesitated to compare his miracles with those of our Saviour. C“A great city, a great desert.”

a Sarsaparilla. • A liquid matter of a pungent smell, extracted from a portion of the body of the beaver.

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