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After these two noble fruits of friendship (peace in the affections, and support of the judgment), foīloweth the last fruit, which is like the pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean aid, and bearing a part in all actions and occasions. Here the best way to represent to life the manifold use of friendship, is to cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself; and then it will appear

that it was a sparing speech of the ancients to say, “ that a friend is another himself :" for that a friend is far more than himself. Men have their time, and die many times in desire of some things which they principally take to, heart; the bestowing of a child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure that the care of those things will continue after him ; so that a man hath, as it were, two lives in his desires. A man bath a body, and that body is confined to a place : but where friendship is, all offices of life are, as it were, granted to him and his deputy ; for he may exercise them by his friend. How many things are there, which a man cannot, with any face or comeliness, say or do himself! A man can scarce allego his own merits with modesty, much less extol them : a man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate, or beg, and a number of the like : but all these things are graceful in a friend's mouth, which are blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's person hath many proper relations which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to his son but as a father ; to his wife but as a husband ; to his enemy but upon terms whereas a friend may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the person : but to enumerate these things were endless ; I have given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part, if he have not a friend, he may quit



the stage.



RICHES are for spending, and spending for honour and good actions ; therefore extraordinary expense must be limited by the worth of the occasion ; for voluntary undoing may be as well for a man's country as for the kingdom of heaven ; but ordinary expense ought to be limited by a

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man's estate, and governed with such regard, as it be within his compass; and not subject to deceit and abuse of servants; and ordered to the best show, that the bills may be less than the estimation abroad. Certainly, if a man will keep but of even hand, his ordinary expenses ought to be but to the half of his receipts ; and if he think to wax rich, but to the third part. It is no baseness for the greatest to descend and look into their own estate. Some forbear it, not upon negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselves into melancholy, in respect they shall find it broken : but wounds cannot be cured without searching. He that cannot look into his own estate at all, had need both choose well those whom he employeth, and change them often ; for new are more timorous and less subtle. He that can look into his estate but seldom, it behoveth him to turn all to certainties. A man had need, if he be plentiful in some kind of expense, to be as saving again in some other : as if he be plentiful in diet, to be saving in apparel : if he be plentiful in the hall, to be saving in the stable: and the like. For he that is plentiful in expenses of all kinds will hardly be preserved from decay. In clearinga of a man's estate, he may as well hurt himself in being too sudden, as in letting it run on too long; for hasty selling is commonly as disadvantageable as interest. Besides, he that clears at once will relapse ; for findir:g himself out of straits, he will revert to his customs : but he that cleareth by degrees induceth a habit of frugality, and gaineth as well upon his mind as upon his estate. Certainly, who hath a state to repair, may not despise small things; and, commonly, it is less dishonourable to abridge petty charges than to stoop to petty gettings. A man ought warily to begin charges, which once begun will continue : but in matters that return not, he may be more magnificent.


ESTATES. THE speech of Themistocles, the Athenian, which was haughty and arrogant, in taking so much to himself, liad

. From debts and incumbrancos,

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been a grave and wise observation and censure, applied at large to others. Desired at a feast to touch a lute, he said, " He could not fiddle, but yet he could make a small town & great city." These words (holpen a little with a metaphor} may express two different abilities in those that deal in business of estate ; for if a true survey be taken of coun. sellors and statesmen, there may be found (though rarely) those which can make a small state great, and yet cannot fiddle : as, on the other side, buere will be found a great many that can fiddle very cunningly, but yet are so far from being able to make a small state great, as their gift lieth the other way ; to bring a great and flourishing estate to ruir and decay. And certainly, those degenerate arts and shifts whereby many counsellors and governors gain both favour with their masters and estimation with the vulgar, deserve no better name than fiddling ; being things rather pleasing for the time, and graceful to themselves only, than tending to the weal and advancement of the state which they serve. There are also (no doubt) counsellors and governors whics may be held sufficient, negotiis pares,” a able to manage affairs, and to keep them from precipices and manifest inconveniences; which, nevertheless, are far from the ability to raise and amplify an estate in power, means, and fortune : but be the workmen what they may be, let us speak of the work ; that is, the true greatness of kingdoms and estates, and the means thereof. An argument fit for great and mighty princes to have in their hand; to the end, that neither by over-measuring their forces, they lose themselves in vain enterprises : nor, on the other side, by undervaluing them, they descend to fearful and pusillanimous counsels.

The greatness of an estate, in bulk and territory, doth fall under measure ; and the greatness of finances and revenue doth fall under computation. The population may appear by musters ; and the number and greatness of cities and towns by cards and maps ; but yet there is not anything amongst civil affairs more subject to error than the right valuation and true judgment concerning the power and forces of an estate. The kingdom of heaven is compared, not to any great kernel, or nut, but to a grain of mustard-seed ; b

A “Equal to business.” " He alludes to the following passage, St Matthew xii. 31 : “An

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which is one of the least grains, but hath in it a property and spirit hastily to get up and spread. So are there states great in territory, and yet not apt to enlarge or command; and some that have but a small dimension of stem, and yet apt to be the foundations of great monarchies.

Walled towns, stored arsenals and armories, goodly races of horse, chariots of war, elephants, ordnance, artillery, and the like; all this is but a sheep in a lion's skin, except the breed and disposition of the people be stout and warlike. Nay, number itself in armies importeth not much, where the people is of weak courage ; for, as Virgil saith, It never troubles a wolf how many the sheep be.” The army of the Persians in the plains of Arbela was such a vast sea of people, as it did somewhat astonish the commanders in Alexander's army, who came to him, therefore, and wished him to set upon them by night; but he answered, “ He would not pilfer the victory" and the defeat was easy. When Tigranes, the Armenian, being encamped upon a hill with four hundred thousand men, discovered the army of the Romans, being not above fourteen thousand, marching towards him, he made himself merry with it, and said, “ Yonder men are too many for an ambassage, and too few for a fight;" but before the sun set, he found them enow to give him the chase with infinite slaughter. Many are the examples of the great odds between number and courage : so that a man may truly make a judgment, that the prin. cipal point of greatness in any state is to have a race of military men. Neither is money the sinews of war (as it is trivially said), where the sinews of men's arms in base and effeminate people are failing : for: Solon said well to Croesus (when in ostentation he showed him his gold), “ Sir, if any other come that hath better iron than you, he will be master of all this gold.” Therefore, let any prince, or state, think soberly of his forces, except his militia of natives be of good and valiant soldiers; and let princes, on the

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other parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustar eed, which a man took and sowed in his field : which indeed is the least of all seeds ; but when it is grown, it is tha greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof."

• He was vanquished by Lucullus, and finally submitted to Pompoy,


other side, that have subjects of martial disposition, know their own strength, unless they be otherwise wanting unto themselves. As for mercenary forces (which is the help in this case), all examples show that, whatsoever estate, or prince, doth rest upon them, he may spread his feathers for a time, but he will mew them soon after.

The blessing of Judah and Issachard will never meet; that the same people, or nation, should be both the lion's whelp and the ass between burdens; neither will it be, that a people overlaid with taxes should ever become valiant and martial. It is true that taxes, levied by consent of the estate, do abate men's courage less; as it hath been seen notably in the excises of the Low Countries; and, in some degree, in the subsidiese of England; for, you must note, that we speak now of the heart, and not of the purse ; so that, although the same tribute and tax, laid by consent or by imposing, be all one to the purse, yet it works diversely upon the courage. So that you may conclude, that no people overcharged with tribute is fit for empire.

Let states that aim at greatness take heed how their nobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast; for that maketh the common subject grow to be a peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and in effect but the gentleman's labourer. Even as you may see in coppice woods; if you leave your staddlest too thick, you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes. So in countries, if the gentlemen be too niany, the commons will be base ; and you will bring it to that, that not the hundred poll will be fit for a helmet : especially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of an army; and so there will be great population and little strength. This which I speak of hath been nowhere better seen than by comparing of England and France ; whereof England, though far less in territory and population, nath been (nevertheless) an overmatch ; in regard the mid

• He alludes to the prophetic words of Jacob on his death-bed, Gen. xlix. 9, 14, 15: “Judah is a lion's whelp he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as an old lion-Issachar is a strong ass crouch ing down between two burdens : And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and becamp a servant unto tribute."

e Sums of money voluntarily contributed by the people for the use of the sovereign.

! Young trees.

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