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interlocution, shows slowness; and a good reply, or second speech, without a good settled speech, showeth shallowness and weakness. As we see in beasts, that those that are weakest in the course, are yet nimblest in the turn ; as it is betwixt the greyhound and the hare.
To use too many circumstances, ere one come to the matter, is wearisome ; to use none at all, is blunt.
XXXIII.-OF PLANTATIONS.a PLANTATIONS are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical works. When the world was young, it begat more children; but now it is old, it begets fewer : for I may justly account new plantations to be the children of former kingdoms. I 'ike a plantation in a pure soil ; that is, where people are not displanted,b to the end to plant in others; for else it is rather an extirpation than a plantation. Planting of countries is like planting of woods ; for you must make account to lose almost twenty years' profit, and expect your reconpense in the end : for the principal thing that hath been the destruction of most plantations, hath been the base and hasty drawing of profit in the first years. It is trile, speedy profit is not to be neglected, as far as may stand with the good of the plantation, but no farther. It is a shameful and unblessed thing to take the scum of people and wicked condemned men, to be the people with whom you plant; and
; not only so, but it spoileth the plantation ; for they will ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, and be quickly weary, and then certify over to their country to the discredit of the plantation. The people wherewith you plant ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks, and bakers. Ir
a The old term for Colonies.
b He perhaps alludes covertly to the conduct of the Spaniards in extirpating the aboriginal inhabitants of the West India Islands, against which the venerable Las Casas so eloquently but vainly protested.
c Of course this censure would not apply to what is primarily and essentially a convict colony ; the object of which is to drain the mother country of its impure superfiuities.
a country of plantation, first look about what kind of victual
person will manure for his own private Consider, likewise, what commodities the soil where the plantation is doth naturally yield, that they may some way help to defray the charge of the plantation; so it be not, as was said, to the untimely prejudice of the main business, as it hath fared with tobacco in Virginia.d Wood commonly aboundeth but too much ; and therefore timber is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams whereupon to set the mills, iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth. Making of bay-salt, if the climate be proper for it, would be put in experience : growing silk, likewise, if any be, is a likely commodity : pitch and tar, where store of firs and pines are, will not fail ; so drugs and sweet woods, where they are, cannot but yield great profit: soap-ashes, likewise, and other things that may be thought of; but moile not too much under ground, for the hope of mines is very uncertain, and useth to make the planters lazy in other
a Times have much changed since this was penned : tobacco is now the staple commodity, and the source of “the main business Virginia.
. To labour hard.
things. For government, let it be in the hands of one, assisted with some counsel ; and let them have commission to exercise martial laws, with some limitation ; and above all, let men make that profit of being in the wilderness, as they have God always, and his service, before their eyes : let not the government of the plantation depend upon too many counsellors and undertakers in the country that planteth, but upon a temperate number; and let those be rather noblemen and gentlemen, than merchants ; for they look ever to the present gain. Let there be freedoms from custom, till the plantation be of strength; and not only freedom from custom, but freedom to carry their commodities where they may make their best of them, except there be some special cause of caution. Cram not in people, by sending too fast company after company ; but rather hearken how they waste, and send supplies proportionably ; but so as the number may live well in the plantation, and not by surcharge be in penury. It hath been a great endangering to the health of some plantations, that they have built along the sea and rivers, in marishf and unwholesome grounds: therefore, though you begin there, to avoid carriage and other like discommodities, yet build still rather upwards from the streams, than along. It concerneth likewise the health of the plantation, that they have good store of salt with them, that they may use it in their victuals when it shall be necessary. If you plant where savages are, do not only entertain them with trifles and gingles, but use them justly and graciously, with sufficient guard nevertheless; and do not win their favour by helping them to invade their enemies, but for their defence it is not amiss; and send oft of them over to the country that plants, that they may see a better condition than their own, and commend it when they return. When the plantation grows to strength, then it is time to plant with women as well as with men ; that the plantation may spread into generations, and not be ever pieced from without. It is the sinfullest thing in the world to forsake or destituto a plantation once in forwardness ; for, besides the dishonour, it is the guiltiness of blood of many commiserable persons.
' Marshy; from the French marais, a inarsko « Gewgaws, or spangles.
XXIV.-OF RICHES I CANNOT call riches better than the baggage of virtue ; the Roman word is better, “ impedimenta ; for as the baggage is to an army, so is riches to virtue ; it cannot be spared nor left behind, but it hindereth the march; yea, and the care of it sometimes loseth or disturbeth the victory: of great riches there is no real use, except it be in the distribution; the rest is but conceit; so saith Solomon,“ Where much is, there are many to consume it; and what hath the owner but the sight of it with his eyes ?”a The personal fruition in any man cannot reach to feel great riches : there is a custody of them ; or a power of dole and donative of them ; or a fame of them ; but no solid use to the owner. Do you 1.0t see what fcigned prices are set upon little stones and rarities ? and what works of ostentation are undertaken, because there might secin to be some use of great riches ? But then you will say, they may be of use to buy men out of dangers or troubles; as Solomon saith, " Riches are as a strong hold in the imagination of the rich man ;" b but this is excellently expressed, that it is in imagination, and not always in fact : for, certainly, great riches have sold more men than they have bought out. Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly ; yet have no abstract nor friarly contempt of them ; but distinguish, as Cicero saith well of Rabirius Posthumus," In studio rei amplificandæ apparebat, non avaritiæ prædam, sed instrumentum bonitati
Hearken also to Solomon, and beware of b.sty gathering of riches : “ Qui festinat ad divitias, non erit
The poets feign, that when Plutus (which is
a He alludes to Ecclesiastes v. 11, the words of which are somewhat varied in our version : "When goods increase, they are increased that eat them; and what good is there to the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them with their eyes ?”.
6. “The rich man's wealth is his strong city.”—Prov. x. 15; xviii. 11.
• “In his anxiety to increase his fortune, it was evident that not the gratification of avarice was sought, but the means of doing good."
d “He who hastens to riches will not be without guilt." In our Version the words are : “He that maketh haste to be rich shall not be iunocent."-Proverbs xxviii. 22,
riches) is sent from Jupiter, he limps, and goes slowly; but when he is sent from Pluto, he runs, and is swift of foot; meaning, that riches gotten by good means and just labour pace slowly ; but when they come by the death of others e (as by the course of inheritance, testaments, and the like), they come tumbling upon a man : but it might be applied likewise to Pluto, taking him for the devil : for when riches come from the devil (as by fraud and oppression, and unjust means), they come upon speed. The ways to enrich are many, and most of them foul : parsimony is one of the best, and yet is not innocent; for it withholdeth men from works of liberality and charity. The improvement of the ground is the most natural obtaining of riches; for it is our great mother's blessing, the eartli's; but it is slow; and yet, where men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry, it multiplieth riches exceedingly. I knew a nobleman in England that had the greatest audits of any man in my time, a great grazier, a great sheep-master, a great timber-man, a great collier, a great corn-master, a great lead-man, and so of iron, and a number of the like points of husbandry ; so as the earth seemed a sea to him in respect of the perpetual importation. It was truly observed by one, “ That hiniself came very hardly to a little riches, and very easily to great riches ;" for when a man's stock is come to that, that he can expect the prime of markets,& and overcome those bargains, which for their greatness are few men's money, and be partner in the industries of younger men, he cannot but increase mainly. The gains of ordinary trades and vocations are honest, and furthered by two things, chiefly: by diiigenoe, and by a good name for good and fair dealing ; but the gains of bargains are of a more doubtful nature, when men shall wait upon others' necessity : broke by servants and instruments to draw thein on; put off others cunningly that would be better chapmen, and the like practices, which are crafty and naught; as for the chopping of bargains, when a man buys not to hold, but to sell over again, that commonly grindeth double, both upon the seller and upon
• Pluto being the king of the Infernal regione, or place of departed pirits. ? Rent-roll, or account taken of income. & Wait till prices have risen,