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In that thou seest thy wretched brother die,
Who was the model of thy father's life.
Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair :
In suffering thus thy brother to be Naughter'd,
Thou shew'ft the naked path-way to thy life,
Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee :
That which in mean men we entitle-patience,
Is pale cold cowardice in noble breasts.
What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life,
The best way is—to ’venge my Gloster's death.

Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's substitute,
His deputy annointed in his fight,
Hath caus’d his death : the which if wrongfully,
Let heaven revenge ; for I may never lift
An angry arm against his minister.

Dutch. Where then, alas! may I complain myself?? Gaunt. To heaven, the widow's champion and defence. Dutch. Why then, I will. Farewell, old Gaunt. "hou go'st to Coventry, there to behold Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight: O, fit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's spear, That it may enter butcher Mowbray's brealt! Or, if misfortune miss the first career, Be Mowbray's fins fo heavy in his bosom, That they may break his foaming courser's back, And throw the rider headlong in the lists, A catiff recreant 8 to my cousin Hereford ! Farewell, old Gaunt; thy sometimes brother's wife, With her companion grief must end her life.

7 - may I complain myself?] To complain is commonly a verb neuter, but it is here used as a verb active. Dryden employs the word in the same sense in his Fables. STEEVENS.

So allo Fairfax and other contemporaries of our author. MALONI.

8 A caitiff recreant-] Cairiff originally signified a prisoner; next a Nave, from the condition of prisoners ; then a scoundrel, from the qualities of a Nave.

Ημισυ της αρενς αποαινυλαι δελιον ήμαρ.
In this pallage it partakes of all these significations. Johnson.

I do not believe that cairiff in our language ever signified a prisoner. I take it to be derived, not from caprif, but from cherif, Fr. poor miserable. TYRWHITT.

Gaunt,

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Gaunt. Sifter, farewell: I must to Coventry :
As much good stay with thee, as go with me!
Dutch. Yet one word more ;-Grief boundeth where it

falls,
Not with the empty hollowness, but weight:
I take my leave before I have begun;
For sorrow ends not when it seemeth done.
Commend me to my brother, Edmund York.
Lo, this is all:-Nay, yet depart not so ;
Though this be all, do not so quickly go;
I shall remember more. Bid him-o, what?-
With all good speed at Plafhy visit me.
Alack, and what shall good old York there see,
But empty lodgings, and unfurnish'd walls,
Unpeopled offices, untrodden stones?
And what hear there for welcome, but my groans ?
Therefore commend me; let him not come there,
To seek out sorrow that dwells every where':
Desolate, desolate, will I hence, and die ;
The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye. [Exeunt.

SCENE III.

Gosford-Green near Coventry.
Lifts set out, and a throne. Heralds, &c. attending.

Enter the Lord Marshal? and AUMERLE.
Mar. My lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford arm’d?
Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enter in,

unfurnish'd walls,] In our ancient castles the naked stone walls were only covered with tapestry, or arras, hung upon tenter-hooks, from which it was easily taken down on every removal of the family. See the Preface to the Housebold Book of tbe Fifth Earl of Northumberland, begun in 1512. STEEVENS.

To seek out forrow that dwells every where :] Perhaps the pointing might be reformed without injury to the sense :

let him not come there To seek out forrow :-that dwells every where. WHALLEY. 2 – Lord Marshal] Shakspeare has here committed a Night mistake. The office of Lord Marshal was executed on this occafion by Thomas Holland, Duke of Surrey. Our author hasinadvertently introduced that nobleman as a distinct person from the Masthal, in the present drama. MALONE.

Mar,

Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpet.

Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar’d, and stay For nothing but his majesty's approach. Flourish of trumpets. Enter King RICHARD, who takes

his feat on his throne; GAUNT, and several noblemen, who take their places. A trumpet is founded, and anfwered by another trumpet within. Then enter NorFOLK in armour, preceded by a herald.

K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion
The cause of his arrival here in arms :
Ak him his name; and orderly proceed
To swear him in the justice of his cause.

Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who thou art,
And why thou com't, thus knightly clad in arms:
Against what man thou com'ft, and what thy quarrel:
Speak truly, on thy knighthood, and thy oath!
And so 3 defend thee heaven, and thy valour!

Nor. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk; Who hither come engaged by my oath, (Which, heaven defend, a knight should violate!) Both to defend my loyalty and truth, To God, my king, and my fucceeding iflues, Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me; And, by the grace of God, and this mine arm,

3 And fom] The old copies read-Asso. STEEVENS. Corrected by Mr. Rowe. MALONE. 4 - Norfolk , ] Mr. Edwards, in his MS. notes, observes, both from Matthew Paris and Holinthed, that the duke of Hereford, appellant, entered the lists firit ; and this indeed must have been the regular method of the combat; for the natural order of things requires, that the accuser or challenger should be at the place of appointment first. STEEV.

5 – and my fucceeding ilue, ] Thus the first quarto. The folio reads ---bis fucceeding iffue. The first quarto copy of this play, in 1597, being in general much more correct than the folio, and the quartos of 1603, and 1615, from the latter of which the folio appears to have been printed, I have preferred the elder reading. MALONE.

Mowbray’s issue was, by this accusation in danger of an attainder, and therefore he might come among other reasons for their fake; but the reading of the folio is more just and grammatical. JOHNSON.

TO

To prove him, in defending of myself,
A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven! (He takes his feat.
Trumpet founds. Enter BOLINGBROKE in armour; pre-

ceded by a herald.
K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms,
Both who he is, and why he cometh hither
Thus plated in habiliments of war;
And formally according to our law
Depose him in the justice of his cause.
Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore com'st thou

hither,
Before king Richard, in his royal lifts ?
Against whom comest thou ? and what's thy quarrel ?
Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven!

Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Am I; who ready here do stand in arms,
To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's valour,
In lifts, on Thomas Mowbray duke of Norfolk,
That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous,
To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me;
And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!

Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold,
Or daring-hardy, as to touch the lists;
Except the marshal, and such officers
Appointed to direct these fair designs.

Boling. Lord Marshal, let me kiss my sovereign's hand,
And bow my knee before his majesty :
For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men
That vow a long and weary pilgrimage ;
Then let us take a ceremonious leave,
And loving farewell, of our several friends.

Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your highness, And craves to kiss your hand, and take his leave.

K. Rich. We will descend, and fold him in our arms. Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right, So be thy fortune in this royal fight! Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed, Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.

Boling.

Boling. O, let no noble eye profane a tear For me, if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear: As confident, as is the falcon's flight Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.My loving lord, [to Lord Marsh.] I take my leave of you ;Of you, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle; Not fick, although I have to do with death; But lufty, young, and chearly drawing breath. Lo, as at English feaits, so I regreet The daintieit last, to make the end most sweet: Othou, the earthly authour of my blood, - [to Gaunt, Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate, Doth with a two-fold vigour lift me up To reach at victory above my head, Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers ; And with thy blessings steel my lance's point, That it may enter Mowbray's waxen coat', And furbith new the name of John of Gaunt, Even in the lusty ’haviour of his son.

Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee prosperous ! Be swift like lightning in the execution ; And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, Fall like amazing thunder on the casque Of thy adverse pernicious enemy: Rouze up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live. Boling. Mine innocency', and saint George to thrive!

[He takes his feat. Nor. [rising. ] However heaven, or fortune, cast my lot, There lives, or dies, true to king Richard's throne, A loyal, just, and upright gentleman: Never did captive with a freer heart Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace

6

- waxen coat,] Waxen may mean either soft, and consequently penetrable, or flexible. The brigandines or coats of mail, then in ure, were composed of small pieces of Iteel quilted over one another, and yet so flexible as to accommodate the dress they form, to every motion of the body. Of these many are to be seen in the Tower of London.

STEEVENS. ? - mine innocency-] Old Copies--innocence. Corrected by Mr. Steevens. MALONE,

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