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necessary to endeavour to attain distinct ideas, and and wrong, that that judgment should be in strict to employ those words only which convey distinct accordance with the Moral Law. Some men's conideas to other men.

The first section of the present sciences dictate that which the Moral Law does not chapter will accordingly be devoted to some brief enjoin ; and this law enjoins some points which are observations respecting the Conscience, its nature, not enforced by every man's conscience. This is and its authority; by which it is hoped the reader precisely the result which, from the nature of the will see sufficient reason to distinguish its dictates case, it is reasonable to expect. Of these judgments from that higher guidance, respecting which it is the respecting what is right, with which the sense of object of the present chapter to enquire.

obligation becomes from time to time connected, For a kindred purpose, it appears requisite to offer some are induced by the instructions or example of a short review of popular and philosophical opinions

some by our own reflection or enquiry; respecting a Moral Sense. These opinions will be some perhaps from the written law of revelation; found to have been frequently expressed in great and some, as we have cause to conclude, from the indistinctness and ambiguity of language. The pur- direct intimations of the Divine Will. pose of the writer in referring to these opinions, is It is manifest that if the sense of obligation is to enquire whether they do not generally involve a sometimes connected with subjects that are proposed recognition-obscurely perhaps, but still a recogni- to us merely by the instruction of others, or if the tion-of the principle, that God communicates his connexion results from the power of association and will to the mind. If they do this, and if they do it habit, or from the fallible investigations of our own without design or consciousness, no trifling testimony minds—that sense of obligation will be connected, in is afforded to the truth of the principle: for how different individuals, with different subjects. So should this principle thus secretly recommend itself that it may sometimes happen that a man can say, I to the minds of men, except by the influence of its conscientiously think I ought to do a certain action, own evidence ?

and yet that his neighbour can say, I conscientiously think the contrary. “ With respect to particular actions, opinion determines whether they are good or ill; and Conscience approves or disapproves, in consequence of this determination, whether it be in

favour of truth or falsehood.”. CONSCIENCE, ITS NATURE AND AUTHORITY.

Such considerations enable us to account for the

diversity of the dictates of the conscience in indivi. In the attempt to attach distinct notions to the duals respectively. A person is brought up amongst term “ Conscience,” we have to request the reader Catholics, and is taught from his childhood that flesh not to estimate the accuracy of our observations by ought not to be eaten in Lent. The arguments of the notions which he may have habitually connected those around him, or perhaps their authority, satisfy with the word. Our disquisition is not about terms him that what he is taught is truth. The sense of but truths. If the observations are in themselves obligation thus becomes connected with a refusal to just, our principal object is attained. The secondary eat flesh in Lent; and thenceforth he says that the object, that of connecting truth with appropriate abstinence is dictated by his conscience. A Proterms, is only so far attainable by a writer, as shall testant youth is taught the contrary. Argument or be attained by an uniform employment of words in authority satisfies him that flesh may lawfully be determinate senses in his own practice.

eaten every day in the year. His sense of obligaMen possess notions of right and wrong; they tion therefore is not connected with the abstinence; possess a belief that, under given circumstances, and thenceforth he says that eating flesh in Lent they ought to do one thing or to forbear another. does not violate his conscience. And so of a multiThis belief I would call a conscientious belief. And tude of other questions. when such a belief exists in a man's mind in refe- When therefore a person says, my conscience rence to a number of actions, I would call the sum dictates to me that I ought to perform such an acor aggregate of his notions respecting what is right tion, he means-or in the use of such language he and wrong, his Conscience.

ought to mean that the sense of obligation which To possess notions of right and wrong in human subsists in his mind, is connected with that action; conduct-to be convinced that we ought to do or to that, so far as his judgment is enlightened, it is a forbear an action-implies and supposes a sense of requisition of the law of God. obligation existent in the mind. A man who feels But not all our opinions respecting morality and that it is wrong for him to do a thing, possesses a religion are derived from education or reasoning. songe of obligation to refrain. Into the origin of He who finds in Scripture the precept, “ Thou shalt this sense of obligation, or how it is induced into the love thy neighbour as thyself,” derives an opinion mind, we do not enquire : it is sufficient for our pur- respecting the duty of loving others from the dispose that it exists; and there is no reason to doubt covery of this expression of the Will of God. His that its existence is consequent of the will of God. sense of obligation is connected with benevolence

In most men—perhaps in all—the sense of obli- towards others in consequence of this discovery; or, gation refers, with greater or less distinctness, to in other words, his understanding has been informed the will of a superior being. The impression, how- by the Moral Law, and a new duty is added to those ever obscure, is, in general, fundamentally this: I which are dictated by his conscience. Thus it is must do so or so, because God requires it.

that Scripture, by informing the judgment, extends It is found that this sense of obligation is some- the jurisdiction of conscience; and it is hence, in times connected, in the minds of separate individuals, part, that in those who seriously study the Scripwith different actions. One man thinks he ought to tures, the conscience appears so much more vigilant do a thing from which another thinks he ought to and operative than in many who do not possess, or forbear. Upon the great questions of morality do not regard them. Many of the mistakes which there is indeed, in general, a congruity of human education introduces, many of the fallacies to which judgment; yet subjects do arise respecting which our own speculations lead us, are corrected by this

one man's conscience dictates an act different from law. In the case of our Catholic, if a reference to alte that which is dictated by another's. It is not therefore essential to a conscientious judgment of right

• Adventurer; No. 91. Iris

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Scripture should convince him that the judgment he | he recognizes the doctrine which has just been adhas formed respecting abstinence from flesh is not vanced, that our judgments are enlightened by superfounded on the Law of God, the sense of obligation human agency. “ The way to our future happiness becomes detached from its subject ; and thenceforth must be left, at last, to the impressions made up his conscience ceases to dictate that he should ab- every man's belief and conscience either by natural stain from flesh in Lent. Yet Scripture does not or supernatural arguments and means." *--- Accord. decide every question respecting human duty, and ingly there appears no reason to doubt that some in some instances individuals judge differently of will stand convicted in the sight of the Omniscier: the decisions which Scripture gives. This, again, Judge, for actions which his Moral Law has not feroccasions some diversity in the dictates of the bidden; and that some may be uncondemned for Conscience; it occasions the sense of obligation to actions which that law does not allow. The distidebecome connected with dissimilar, and possibly in- tion bere is the same as that to which we have be. compatible, actions.

fore had occasion to allude, between the desert e But another portion of men's judgments respect- the agent and the quality of the act. Of this dis ing moral affairs is derived from immediate intima- tinction an illustration is contained in Isaiah x. It tions of the Divine Will. (This we must be allowed was the divine will that a certain specific course of for the present to assume.) These intimations in- action should be pursued in punishing the Israelites form sometimes the judgment; correct its mistakes; For the performance of this, the king of Assyris and increase and give distinctness to our knowledge was employed :-“ I will give him a charge to take --thus operating, as the Scriptures operate, to con- the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them nect the sense of obligation more accurately with down like the mire of the streets.” This charge the those actions which are conformable with the Will Assyrian monarch fulfilled; he did the will of God; of God. It does not, however, follow, by any sort but then his intention was criminal ; he “ meant Dog of necessity, that this higher instruction must cor- so:" and therefore, when the “ whole work” is rect all the mistakes of the judgment; that because performed, " I will punish," says the Almighty, it imparts some light, that light must be perfect day; « the fruit of the stout beart of the king of Assyri, that because it communicates some moral or reli- and the glory of his high looks." gious truth, it must communicate all the truths of But it was said that these principles respecting religion and morality. Nor, again, does it follow the authority of Conscience were recognized in that individuals must each receive the same access Scripture. One believeth that he mar eat all of knowledge. It is evidently as possible that it things: another who is weak eateth herbs. One should be communicated in different degrees to dif- man esteemeth one day above another : another ferent individuals, as that it should be communicated esteemeth every day alike." Here, then, are dir. at all. For which plain reasons we are still to ex- ferences, nay, contrarieties of conscientious judgpect, what in fact we find, that although the judgments. And what are the parties directed severally ment receives light from a superhuman intelligence, to do ?—" Let every man be fully persuaded in his the degree of that light varies in individuals; and own mind;" that is, let the full persuasion of his that the sense of obligation is connected with fewer own mind be every man's rule of action. The situasubjects, and attended with less accuracy, in the tion of these parties was, that one perceived the truth minds of some men than of others.

upon the subject, and the other did not ; that in one With respect to the authority which properly be the sense of obligation was connected with an acculongs to Conscience as a director of individual rate, in the other with an inaccurate, opinion. Thus, conduct, it appears manifest, alike from reason and again :-“ I know, and am persuaded by the Lord from Scripture, that it is great. When a man be- | Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself;" lieves, upon due deliberation, that a certain action is therefore, absolutely speaking. it is lawful to eat all right, that action is right to him. And this is true, things; " but to him that esteemeth any thing to be whether the action be or be not required of mankind unclean, to him it is unclean." The question is not, by the Moral Law. * The fact that in his mind the whether his judgment was correct, but what that sense of obligation attaches to the act, and that he judgment actually was. To the doubter, the unhas duly deliberated upon the accuracy of his judg- cleanness, that is, the sin of eating, was certain. ment, makes the dictate of his Conscience upon that though the act was right. Again:

“ All things subject an authoritative dictate. The individual is indeed are pure; but it is evil for that man who to be held guilty if he violates his Conscience—if he eateth with offence.” And, again, as a general does one thing, whilst his sense of obligation is di- rule : “ He that doubteth is condemned if he fai, rected to its contrary. Nor, if his judgment should because he eateth not of faith; for whatsoever is not not be accurately informed, if his sense of obligation of faith is sin.”+ should not be connected with a proper subject, is the And here we possess a sufficient answer to those guilt of violating his Conscience taken away. Were who affect to make light of the authority of Conit otherwise, a person might be held virtuous for science, and exclaim, “ Every man pleads his conacting in opposition to his apprehensions of duty; scientious opinions, and that he is bound in conscience or guilty, for doing what he believed to be right to do this or that; and yet his neighbour makes the “ It is happy for us that our title to the character same plea and urges the same obligation to do just of virtuous beings, depends not upon the justness of the contrary. But what then? These persons' our opinions or the constant objective rectitude of judgments differed : that we might expect, for they all we do, but upon the conformity of our actions to are fallible ; but their sense of obligation was, in the sincere convictions of our minds.”+ Dr Fur- / each case, really attached to its subject, and was in neaux says,

“ To secure the favour of God and the each case authoritative. rewards of true religion, we must follow our own One observation remains; that although a man consciences and judgments according to the best light ought to make his conduct conform to his conscience, we can attain.”ť And I am especially disposed to yet he may sometimes justly be held criminal for add the testimony of Sir William Temple, because the errors of his opinion. Men often judge amiss

respecting their duties in consequence of their own • “By Conscience all men are restrained from intentional faults: some take little pains to ascertain the truth; {]]—it infallibly directs us to avoid guilt, but is not intendet to secure us from error."--Advent. No. 91. + Dr Prico. Essay on Toleration, p. 8.

• Works : v, I. p. 55. f-1740. + Rom. xiv,

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some voluntarily exclude knowledge; and most men divine reason; whether considered as a sentiment would possess more accurate perceptions of the of the understanding, or as a perception of the Moral Law if they sufficiently endeavoured to obtain heart, or, which seems the truth, as including both."* them. And, therefore, although a man may not be Is it not remarkable that for a faculty

so well punished for a given act which he ignorantly sup- known “over the world,” even a name has not been poses to be lawful, he may be punished for that found, and that a Christian bishop accumulates a ignorance in which his supposition originates. Which multiplicity of ambiguous epithets to explain his consideration may perhaps account for the expres- meaning? Bishop Butler says again of Conscience, sion, that he who ignorantly failed to do his master's “ To preside and govern, from the very economy will “ shall be beaten with few stripes.” There is and constitution of man, belongs to it. This faculty a degree of wickedness, to the agents of which God was placed within to be our proper governor, to at length "sends strong delusion" that they may direct and regulate all undue principles, passions, “ believe a lie." In this state of strong delusion and motives of action. It carries its own authority they perhaps may, without violating any sense of with it, that it is our natural guide, the guide asobligation, do many wicked actions. The principles signed us by the Author of our nature.” Would it which have been here delivered would lead us to have been unreasonable to conclude, that there was suppose that the punishment which awaits such men at least some connexion between this reprover of will have respect rather to that intensity of wicked- “all undue principles, passions, and motives,” and ness of which delusion was the consequence, than to that law of which the New Testament speaks, " All those particular acts which they might ignorantly things that are reproved are made manifest by the commit under the influence of the delusion itself. light ?" + This observation is offered to the reader because Blair says, “ Conscience is felt to act as the delesome writers have obscured the present subject by gate of an invisible Ruler;"-" Conscience is the speculating upon the moral deserts of those despe- guide, or the enlightening or directing principle of rately bad men, who occasionally have committed our conduct."! In this instance, as in many others, atrocious acts under the notion that they were doing Conscience appears to be used in an indeterminate right.

Conscience is not an enlightening principle,

but a principle which is enlightened. It is not a leLet us then, when we direct our serious enquiry to gislator, but a repository of statutes. Yet the the Immediate Communication of the Divine Will, reader will perceive the fundamental truth, that carefully distinguish that Communication from the man is in fact illuminated, and illuminated by an indictates of the conscience. They are separate and visible Ruler. In the thirteenth sermon there is an distinct considerations. It is obvious that those posi- expression more distinct : “ God has invested Contions which some persons advance ;–“ Conscience science with authority to promulgate his laws.” It is our infallible guide,"—“ Conscience is the voice of is obvious that the Divine Being must have commuthe Deity," &c., are wholly improper and inadmis. nicated his laws, before they could have been prosible. The term may indeed have been employed mulgated by Conscience. In accordance with which synonymously for the voice of God: but this ought the author says in another place, “ Under the tuition never to be done. It is to induce confusion of lan- of God let us put ourselves.”—“ A Heavenly Conguage respecting a subject which ought always to be ductor vouchsafes his aid.”—“Divine light descends distinctly exhibited; and the necessity for avoiding to guide our steps."$ It were to be wished that ambiguity is so much the greater, as the conse- such sentiments were not obscured by propositions quences of that ambiguity are more serious: it is like these : “ A sense of right and wrong in conduct, obvious that, on these subjects, inaccuracy of lan- or of moral good and evil, belongs to human nature.” guage gives rise to serious error of opinion.

“ Such sentiments are coeval with human nature; for they are the remains of a law which was origi

nally written in our heart."'|| REVIEW OF OPINIONS RESPECTING A MORAL SENSE.

I do not know whether the reader will be able to The purpose for which this brief review is offered perceive with distinctness the ideas of Lord Bacon to the reader, is explained in very few words. It is and of Dr Rush in the following quotations, but I to enquire, by a reference to the written opinions of think he will perceive that they involve a recognimany persons, whether they do not agree in assert- tion--obscure and indeterminate, but still a recoging that our Creator communicates some portions of nition--of the doctrine, that the Deity communicates his Moral Law immediately to the human mind. his laws to the minds of men, Dr Rush says, “ It These opinions are frequently delivered, as the reader would seem as if the Supreme Being had preserved will presently discover, in great ambiguity of lan- the Moral Faculty in man from the ruins of his fall, guage; but in the midst of this ambiguity there on purpose to guide him back again to paradise ; and appears to exist one pervading truth-a truth in at the same time had constituted the Conscience, testimony to which these opinions are not the less both in man and fallen spirits, a kind of royalty in satisfactory because, in some instances, the testimony his moral empire, on purpose to show his property in is undesigned. The reader is requested to observe, all intelligent creatures, and their original resemas he passes on, whether many of the difficulties blance to himself.” And Lord Bacon says, The which enquirers have found or made, are not solved | light of nature not only shines upon the human mind by the supposition of a divine communication, and through the medium of a rational faculty, but by an wbether they can be solved by any other.

internal instinct aocording to the law of conscience, “ The Author of nature has much better furnished which is a sparkle of the purity of man's first estate.” .us for a virtuous conduct than our moralists seem to “ The faculties of our minds are so formed by naimagine, by almost as quick and powerful instruc- ture, that as soon as we begin to reason, we may tions as we have for the preservation of our bodies.”* also begin, in some measure, to distinguish good from

" It is manifest, great part of common language evil.”—“ We prefer virtue to vice on account of the and of common behaviour over the world, is formed seeds planted in us." | upon the supposition of a moral faculty, whether The following is not the less worthy notice becalled conscience, moral reason, moral sense, or

• Bishop Butler: Enquiry on Virtue. + Eph. . 13. • Dr Ilutchebon : Enquiry concerning Moral Good and Evil. Sermons $ Sermon 7.' | Sermon 13. Jolan Le Clerc.


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cause it is from the pen of Lord Shaftesbury: | distinctions of right and wrong! My answer “ Sense of right and wrong, being as natural to us The Understanding.”_Of every thought, see as natural affection itself, and being a first principle ment, and subject, the Understanding is the natom in our constitution and make, there is no speculation, and ultimate judge.” This is the language of In. opinion, persuasion, or belief, which is capable, im- Price, but he does not seem wholly satisfied with ! mediately or directly, to exclude or destroy it." own definition. He says, “ The truth seems to ', Sentiments such as these are very commonly ex- that in contemplating the actions of moral age pressed; and what do they imply? If sense of right we have both a perception of the understandinggi and wrong is natural to us, it is because He who a feeling of the heart.” And again, “ It is to in created us has placed it in our minds.

The con- tion that we owe our moral ideas." He speaks to clusion too is inevitable, that this sense must indicate of “the virtuous principle," "the inward spring the Divine Law by which right and wrong are dis- virtue;" and says, “Goodness is the power of in eriminated. Now we do not say that these senti- flection, raised to its due seat of direction and son. ments are absolutely just, or that a sense of right reignty in the mind." These various expressin and wrong is strictly "natural" to man, but we say do not appear to represent very distinct notions, bu that the sentiments involve the supposition of some after the “ Understanding” has been stated to be mode of Divine Guidance-some mode in which the the ultimate judge, we are presented with the ides Moral Law of God, or a part of it, is communicated of Conscience, and then we perceive in Dr Price : by him to mankind. And if this be indeed true, it language, that which we find in the language of may surely, with all reason, be asked, why we should many others, " Whatever our Consciences dictate , not assent to the reality of that mode of communi- us, that He, (the Deity,) commands more evide cation, of which, as we shall hereafter see, Christi- and undeniably, than if by a voice from heaven webaníty asserts the existence?

been called upon to do it." “ The first principles of morals are the immediate Dr Watts says that the mind “contains in it to dictates of the moral faculty.”_" By the moral fa- | plain and general principles of morality, not eartculty, or conscience, solely, we have the original con- citly as propositions, but only as native princip ception of right and wrong.”

."__“ It is evident that by which it judges, and cannot but judge, virtue to this principle has, from its nature, authority to direct be fit and vice unfit." + and determine with regard to our conduct; to judge, And Dr Cudworth: “ The anticipations of morsto acquit or condemn, and even to punish; an autho-lity do not spring merely from notional ideas, e rity which belongs to no other principle of the hu- from certain rules or propositions arbitrarily printed man mind.”—“ The Supreme Being has given us upon the soul as upon a book, but from some other this light within to direct our moral conduct.”_" It more inward and vital principle in intellectual beira is the candle of the Lord, set up within us to guide as such, whereby they have a natural determinatio our steps.”+ This is almost the language of Chris- in them to do some things and to avoid others.": tianity,“ That was the true Light, which lighteth Voltaire in his Commentary on Beccaria $ sars every man that cometh into the world.” † I do not “ I call natural laws those which nature dictates, a mean to affirm that the author of the essays speaks all ages, to all men, for the maintenance of that exclusively of the same Divine Guidance as the Justice which she, (say what they will of her,) hati apostle; but surely, if Conscience operates as such a implanted in our hearts." “light within,” as the candle of the Lord,” it can And this law is that innate sense of right and require no reasoning to convince us that it is illu- wrong, of virtue and vice, which every man carries minated from heaven. The indistinctness of no. in his own bosom."-" These impressions, operatir. tions which such language exhibits, appears to arise on the mind of man, bespeak a law written on hai from inaccurate views of the nature of Conscience. heart.”- '-" This ecret sense of right and wrong, fær The writer does not distinguish between the reci. wise purposes so deeply implanted by our Creator pient and the source; between the enlightened prin- on the human mind, has the nature, force, and effet ciple and the enlightening beam. The apostle speaks of a law." || only of the last; the uninspired enquirer speaks, Locke : "" The Divine law, that law which Go? without discrimination, of both ;-and hence the has set to the actions of men, whether promulgated ambiguity.

to them by the light of nature or the voice of revelaDr Beattie appears to maintain the same general | tion, is the measure of sin and duty. That God principle, the same essential truth, under other has given a rule whereby men should govern therphraseology. Common sense, he says, is "that selves, I think there is nobody so brutish as in power of the mind which perceives truth or commands deny.”] The reader should remark, that revelative belief by an instantaneous, instinctive, and irresis- / and“ the light of nature are bere represented i tible impulse, neither derived from education nor being jointly and equally the law of God. from habit, but from nature.”—“Every man may “ Actions, then, instead of being tried by the eter find the evidence of moral science in his own breast." nal standard of right and wrong, on which the uns An“ instinctive” perception of truth derived from phisticated heart unerringly pronounces, were judgesi nature, must necessarily be tantamount to a power by the rules of a pernicious casuistry."** This may of perception imparted by the Deity. “ Whatsoever not be absolutely true; but there must be some nature does, God does,” says Seneca : and Dr Beat- truth which it is like, or such a proposition would no tie himself explains his own meaning—“ The dic- be advanced. Who ever thought of attributing to tates of nature, that is, the voice of God.”$ We the unsophisticated heart the power of unerrings have no concern with the justness of Beattie's philo- | pronouncing on questions of prudence? Yet ques. sophy, intellectual or moral, but the reader will per- tions of right and wrong are not, in their own natur, ceive the recognition of the truth, or of something more easily solved than those of prudence. like the truth, to which we have so often referred. “ What is the power within us that perceives the

• Review of Principal Questions in Morals.

+ Philosophical Essays. • Charactorsstics.

| Eternal and Immutable Morality. + Dr Reid : Essays on the Powers of the Human Mind, Essay Š Crimes and Punishments, Com. c. 14. 3. c. 8. &c.

Dr Shepherd's Discourse on Future Existence.

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Essay, b. 2, c. 28. Š Essay on Truth.

** Dr Southey: Book of the Church, c. IV.

John I. 9.



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Boys do not listen to sermons. They need not system, he holds other language : “ Conscience, our F be told what is right ; like men, they all know their own Conscience, is to be our guide in all things.” duty sufficiently; the grand difficulty is to practise “ It is through the whisperings of Conscience that

Neither may this be true; and it is not true. the Spirit speaks. If men are wilfully deaf to their But upon what species of knowledge would any Consciences they cannot hear the Spirit. If, hear

writer think of affirming that boys need not be in- ing, if being compelled to hear the remonstrances of 7 structed, except upon the single species, the know- Conscience, they nevertheless decide and resolve and

ledge of duty ? And how should they know this with- determine to go against them, then they grieve, then out instruction, unless their Creator has taught they defy, then they do despite to, the Spirit of them!

God.” “ Is it superstition? Is it not on the conDr Rush exhibits the same views in a more deter- trary a just and reasonable piety to implore of God minate form: “Happily for the human race, the inti- the guidance of his Holy Spirit, wben we have any

mations of duty and the road to happiness are not thing of great importance to decide upon or under. : left to the slow operations or doubtful inductions of take ?"_“ It being confessed that we cannot ordi

It is worthy of notice, that while second narily distinguish, at the time, the suggestions of the thoughts are best in matters of judgment, first Spirit from the operations of our minds, it may be thoughts are always to be preferred in matters that asked, How are we to listen to them? The answer relate to morality.”+

is, by attending, universally, to the admonitions Adam Smith : “ It is altogether absurd and un- within us. The tendency of these quotations to intelligible, to suppose that the first perceptions of enforce our general argument, is plain and powerful. right and wrong can be derived from reason. These But the reader should notice here another and a first perceptions cannot be the object of reason, but very interesting consideration. Paley says, Our of immediate sense and feeling." “ Though man own Conscience is to be our guide in all things."has been rendered the immediate judge of mankind, We are to attend universally to the admonitions an appeal lies from his sentence to a much higher

within us. Now he writes a book of moral philosotribunal, to the tribunal of their own Consciences, phy, that is, a book that shall " teach men their to that of the man within the breast, the great judge duty and the reasons of it," and from this book he and arbiter of their conduct.” In some cases in absolutely excludes this law which men should univerwhich censure is violently poured upon us, the judg- sally obey, this law which should be their “guide in ments of the man within, are, however, much shaken all things." in the steadiness and firmness of their decision. “In “ Conscience, Conscience," exclaims Rousseau in such cases, this demigod within the breast appears, his Pensées, “ Divine Instinct, Immortal and Healike the demigods of the poets, though partly of im- venly Voice, sure Guide of a being ignorant and mortal, yet partly, too, of mortal extraction.” Our limited but intelligent and free, infallible Judge of moral faculties “ were set up within us to be the good and evil, by which man is made like unto God!" supreme arbiters of all our actions." “ The rules Here are attributes which, if they be justly assigned, which they prescribe are to be regarded as the com- certainly cannot belong to humanity; or if they do mands and laws of the Deity, promulgated by those belong to humanity, an apostle certainly could not vicegerents which he has thus set up within us.” be accurate when he said that in us, that is in our “ Some questions must be left altogether to the de- flesh,“ dwelleth no good thing." Another observacision of the man within the breast.” And let the tion of Rousseau's is worth transcribing : “ Our reader mark what follows: If we “ listen with dili- own conscience is the most enlightened philosopher. gent and reverential attention to what he suggests There is no need to be acquainted with Tully's to us, his voice will never deceive us. We shall Offices to make a man of probity; and perhaps the stand in no nced of casuistic rules to direct our con- most virtuous woman in the world is the least acduct.” How wonderful that such a man, who uses quainted with the definition of virtue.” almost the language of Scripture, appears not even

“ And I will place within them as a guide, to have thought of the truth-"the Anointing which My Umpire, Conscience; whom if they will near, ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need Light after light, well used, they shall attain." + not that any man teach you!” for he does not appear to have thought of it. He intimates that this vice- This is the language of Milton; and we have thus gerent of God, this undeceiving Teacher to whom his testimony added to the many, that God has placed we are to listen with reverential attention, is some within us an Umpire which shall pronounce His own “ contrivance or mechanism within;" and says that

laws in our hearts. Thus in his “ Christian Docto examine what contrivance or mechanism it is,“ istrine ” more clearly : “ They can lay claim to noa mere matter of philosophical curiosity." I

thing more than human powers, assisted by that spiA matter of philosophical curiosity, Dr Paley ritual illumination which is common to all." I seems to have thought a kindred enquiry to be. He Judge Hale: “ Any man that sincerely and truly discusses the question, whether there is such a thing fears Almighty God, and calls and relies upon

him as a Moral Sense or not; and thus sums up the ar- for his direction, has it'as really as a son has the gument : “ Upon the whole it seems to me, either counsel and direction of his father; and though the that there exist no such instincts as compose what

voice be not audible nor discernible by sense, yet it is called the moral sense, or that they are not now is equally as real as if a man heard a voice saying, to be distinguished from prejudices and habits.”- This is the way, walk in it.” “ This celebrated question therefore becomes, in our

The sentiments of the ancient philosophers, &c., system, a question of pure curiosity; and as such, we should not be forgotten, and the rather because their dismiss it to the determination of those who are more language is frequently much more distinct and satisinquisitive than we are concerned to be, about the factory than that of the refined enquirers of the prenatural history and constitution of the human spe

sent day. cies.” But in another work, a work in which he Marcus Antoninus : “ He who is well disposed did not bind himself to the support of a philosophical will do every thing dictated by the divinity—a par

ticle or portion of Himself, which God has given to • West. Rev. No. 1.

each as a guide and a leader."$- Aristotle : “ The Influence of Physical Causes on the Moral Faculty. Theory of Moral Sent.

• Sermons.

+ Par. Lost, ill. 191. Mor. and Pol. Phil. b. 1, c. 5.

# P. 81.

§ Lib. 5, Sect. 27.


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