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trines to the pleasure of a capricious multitude, to apply ; for he who wishes to obtain an income as a be continually affecting a style and manner neither | preacher, has then to try to propitiate the directory natural to him nor agreeable to his judgment, to live instead of a congregation, and the temptation to sacri. in constant bondage to tyrannical and insolent direc-fice his independence and his conscience remains. tors, are circumstances so mortifying not only to the There is no way of obtaining emancipation from pride of the human heart but to the virtuous love of this subjection, no way of avoiding this temptation, independency, that they are rarely submitted to with- but by a system in which the Christian ministry is out a sacrifice of principle and a depravation of cha- absolutely free. racter ;-at least it may be pronounced, that a mi- But the ill effects of thus paying preachers are not nistry so degraded would soon fall into the lowest i confined to those who preach. The habitual conhands; for it would be found impossible to engage sciousness that the preacher is paid, and the notion men of worth and ability in so precarious and humi- which some men take no pains to separate from this liating a profession.*

consciousness, that he preaches because he is paid, To much of this it is a sufficient answer, that the have a powerful tendency to diminish the influence predictions are contradicted by the fact. Of those of his exhortations, and the general effect of his lateachers who are supported by voluntary subscrip- bours. The vulgarly irreligious think, or pretend tions, it is not true that their eloquence resembles the to think, that it is a sufficient excuse for disregarding exhibition of a player who is computing the profits these labours to say, They are a matter of courseof his theatre; for the fact is, that a very large pro- preachers must say something, because it is their portion of them assiduously devote themselves from trade. And it is more than to be feared tbat nobetter motives to the religious benefit of their flocks: tions, the same in kind however different in extent, -it is not true that the office is rarely undertaken operate upon a large proportion of the community. without what can be called a depravation of charac- It is not probable that it should be otherwise ; and ter; for the character, both religious and moral, of thus it is that a continual deduction is made by the those teachers who are voluntarily paid, is at least i hearer from the preacher's disinterestedness or sioas exemplary as that of those who are paid by pro-cerity, and a continual deduction therefore from the vision of the state :-it is not true that the office falls effect of his labours. into the lowest hands, and that it is impossible to How seldom can such a pastor say, with full deengage men of worth and ability in the profession, monstration of sincerity, "I seek not yours, but because very many of such men are actually engaged you.” The flock may indeed be, and happily it often in it.

is, his first and greatest motive to exertion; but the But although the statements of the Archdeacon demonstrative evidence that it is so, can only be are not wholly true, they are true in part. Preach- afforded by those whose ministrations are absolutely ing will become a mode of begging. When a congre- free. The deduction which is thus made from the gation wants a preacher, and we see a man get into practical influence of the labours of stipended the pulpit expressly and confessedly to show how he preachers, is the same in kind (though differing in can preach, in order that the hearers may consider how amount) as that which is made from a pleader's ad. they like him, and when one object of his thus doing is dresses in court. He pleads because he is paid for confessedly to obtain an income, there is reason—not pleading. Who does not perceive, that is an able certainly for speaking of him as a beggar--but for man came forward and pleaded in a cause withont a believing that the dignity and freedom of the gospel retainer, and simply from the desire that justice are sacrificed.-- Thoughts perpetually solicited to the should be awarded, he would be listened to with reflection how he may increase his subscription. Sup- much more of confidence, and that his arguments posing this to be the language of exaggeration, sup- would have much more weigbt, than if the same words posing the increase of his subscription to be his sub- were uttered by a barrister who was fee'd ? A simiordinate concern, yet still it is his concern, and being lar deduction is made from the writings of paid his concern,

it is his temptation. It is to be feared, ministers, especially if they advocate their own par. that by the influence of this temptation his sincerity ticular faith. “He is interested evidence," says the and his independence may be impaired, that the con- reader—he has got a retainer, and of course argues sideration of what his hearers wish rather than of what for his client; and thus arguments that may be inhe thinks they need, may prompt him to sacrifice his vincible, and facts that may be incontrovertibly true, conscience to his profit, and to add or to deduct lose some portion of their effect, even upon virtuous something from the counsel of God. Such temp- men,

and a large portion upon the bad, because the tation necessarily exists; and it were only to exhibit preacher is paid. If, as is sometimes the case, "the ignorance of the motives of human conduct to deny amount of the salary given is regulated very precisely that it will sometimes prevail. - To live in constant by the frequency of the ministry required," bondage to insolent and tyrannical directors. It is a bearer may possibly allow the reflection, The not necessary to suppose that directors will be tyran- peacher will get half a guinea for the sermon he is nical or insolent, nor by consequence to suppose that going to preach—it is almost impossible that the the preacher is in a state of constant bondage. But dignity of the Christian ministry should not be reif they be not tyrants and he a slave, they may be duced, as well as that the influence of his exhortamasters and he a servant: a servant in a sense far tions should not be diminished. “ It is however different from that in which the Christian minister is more desirable,” says Milton, "for example to be, required to be a servant of the Church--in a sense and for the preventing of offence or suspicion, as which implies an undue subserviency of his ministra- well as more noble and honourable in itself, and contions to the will of men, and which is incompatible ducive to our more complete glorying in God, to renwith the obligation to have no master but Cbrist. der an unpaid service to the church, in this as well

Other modes of voluntary payment may be and as in all other instances ; and, after the example of perhaps they are adopted, but the effect will not be our Lord, to minister and serve gratuitously.' essentially different. Subscriptions may be collected Some ministers expend all the income which they from a number of congregations and thrown into a derive from their office in acts of beneficence. To common fund, which fund may be appropriated by these we may safely appeal for confirmation of these a directory or con(erence : but the objections still remarks. Do you not find that the consciousness,

-80 that

• Mor. and Poi. Phil. B. 6, c. 10.

• Christian Doctrine; p 484.

in the minds of your hearers, that you gain nothing | displayed with greater effulgence. When the Great by your labour, greatly inor eases its influence upon Parent of all shall thus turn his favour towards his them? Do you not find that the listen to you with people; when He shall supply them with teachers more confidence and regard, and more willingly ad- exclusively of his own appointment, it will be permit the truths which you inculcate and conform to ceived that the ordinary present state of the the advices which you impart? If these things be Christian ministry is adapted only to the twilight of so-and who will dispute it ?-how great must be the Christian day; and some of those who now faiththe aggregate obstruction which pecuniary remuner- fully labour

this hour of twilight will be amongst ation oproses to the influence of religion in the the first to rejoice in the greater glory of the world.

noon.

PATRIOTISM.

But indeed it is not practicable to the writer to illustrate the whole of what he conceives to be the truth upon this subject, without a brief advertence to the qualifications of the minister of the gospel :

CHAPTER XVII. because, if his view of these qualifications be just, the stipulation for such and such exercise of the ministry, and such and such payment is impossible. If it is “ admitted that the ministry of the gospel is Patriotism as it is viewed by Christianity-A Patriotism which the work of the Lord, that it can be rightly exer- is opposed to general benignity-Patriotism not the soldier's

motive. cised only in virtue of his appointment,” and only when "a necessity is laid upon the minister to preach the gospel,”-it is manifest, that he cannot engage

We are presented with a beautiful subject of before hand to preach when others desire it. It is contemplation, when we discover that the principles

which Christianity advances upor. its own authority, manifest, that “ the compact which binds the min

are recommended and enforced by their practical ister to preach on the condition that his hearers shall pay him for his preaching, assumes the character of adaptation to the condition and the wants of man.

With such a subject I think we are presented in the absolute inconsistency with the spirituality of the Christian religion."

case of Patriotism.

“ Christianity does not encourage particular Freely ye have received, freely give. When we contemplate a Christian minister who illustrates, both

patriotism in opposition to general benignity.”* in his commission and in his practice, this language The duties of the subject of one state would often

If it did, it would not be adapted for the world. of bis Lord; who teaches, advises, reproves, with be in opposition to those of the subject of another, the authority and affection of a commissioned teacher;

and men might inflict evil or misery upon neighbour who fears not to displease his hearers, and desires not to receive their reward ; who is under no temp- tianity is designed to benefit

, not a community, but

nations in conforming to the Christian law. Chris. tation to withhold, and does not withhold, any portion of that counsel which he thinks God designs for

the world. The promotion of the interests of one his church ;—when we contemplate such a man, we

community by injuring another—that is, “patriotism may feel somewhat of thankfulness and of joy ;-of in opposition to general benignity,"-—it utterly rethankfulness and joy that the Universal Parent'thus jects as wrong; and in doing this, it does that which enables his creatures to labour for the good of one

in a system of such wisdom and benevolence we

should expect.-" The love of our country,” says another, in that same spirit in which he cares for

Adam Smith,“ them and blesses them himself.

seems not to be derived from the

love of mankind." + I censure not, either in word or in thought, him who, in sincerity of mind, accepts remuneration for

I do not mean to say that the word patriotism is

to be found in the New Testament, or that it conhis labours in the church. It may not be incon

tains any disquisitions respecting the proper extent sistent with the dispensations of Providence, that

of the love of our country-but I say that the uni. in the present imperfect condition of the Christian family, imperfect principles respecting the ministry versality of benevolence which Christianity inculshould be permitted to prevail : nor is it to be

cates, both in its essential character and in its prequestioned that some of those who do receive re.

cepts, is imcompatible with that patriotism which

would benefit our own community at the expense of muneration, are fulfilling their proper allotments in the universal church. But this does not evince that general benevolence. Patriotism, as it is often adwe should not anticipate the arrival, and promote vocated, is a low and selfish principle, a principle the extension, of a more perfect state. It does not

wholly unworthy of that enlightened and expanded evince that a higher allotment may not await their philanthropy which religion proposes.

Nevertheless Christianity appears not to successors—that days of greater purity and brightness may not arrive ;—of purity, when every motive world," and of paying no more regard to our own

courage the doctrine of being a “ citizen of the of the Christian minister shall be simply Christian; community than to every other. and of brightness, when the light of truth shall be

And why? Be

cause such a doctrine is not rational; because it * I would venture to suggest to some of those to whom opposes the exercise of natural and virtuous feelings; these considerations are offered, whether the notion that a and because, if it were attempted to be reduced to preacher is a sine qua non of the exercise of public worship, is

practice, it may be feared that it would destroy connot taken up without sutficient consideration of the principles which it involves. If, “where two or three are gathered to. finod benignity without effecting a counterbalancing gether in the name" of Christ, there He, the minister of the amount of universal philanthropy. This preference sanctuary, is “in the midst of them," it surely cannot be ne.

of our own nation is indicated in that strong language cessary to the exercises of such worship, that another preacher should be there. Surely, too, it derogates something from the

of Paul, “I could wish that myself were accursed excellence something from the glory of the Christian dispen- from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according sation, to assume that, if a number of Christians should be so

to the flesh, who are Israelites.” And a similar situated as to be without a preacher, there the public worship of God cannot be performed. This may often happen in remote places, in voyages or the like: and I have sometimes • Bishop Watson. been impressed with the importance of these considerations + Theo. Mor. Sent. The limitation with which this opinion when I have heard a person say, " is absent, and there. should be regarded, we shall presently propose. fore there will be no divine service this morning."

1 Rom. ix. 3.

enthe war.

sentiment is inculcated by the admonition--" As we whom both the motives and the actions are perni. have, therefore, opportunity, let us do good unto all cious or impure. The most vulgar and unfounded men, especially unto them who are of the household talk of patriotism is that which relates to the agents of faith." + In another place the same sentimeut is of military operations. In general, the patriotism is applicd to more private life ;—“If any provide not of a kind which Christianity condemns; because it is for his own, and especially for those of his own house,” in opposition to general benignity.” It does more he hath denied the faith.”+

harm to another country than good to our own. In All this is perfectly consonant with reason and I truth, the merit often consists in the harm that is with nature. Since the helpless and those who need done to another country, with but little pretensions assistance must obtain it somewhere, where can they to benefiting our own. These agents therefore, if so rationally look for it, where shall they look for it they were patriotic at all, would commonly be so in at all, except from those with whom they are con- an unchristian sense. And as to their being influ. nected in society! If these do not exercise be- | enced by patriotism as a motive, the notion is ordi. nignity towards them, who will ? And as to the narily quite a fiction. When a Frenchman is sent dictate of nature, it is a law of nature that a man with ten thousand others into Spain, or a Spaniard shall provide for his own. He is prompted to do with an army into France, he probably is so far this by the impulse of nature. Who, indeed, shall from acting the patriot that he does not know whesupport, and cherish, and protect a child if hiss ther his country would not be more benefited by parents do not ? That speculative philosophy is throwing down his arms; nor probably does he know vain which would supplant these dictates by doctrines about what the two nations are quarrelling. Men of general philanthropy. It cannot be applicable to do not enter armies because they love their counhuman affairs until there is an alteration in the hu- tries, but because they want a living, or are pleased man constitution. Not only religion therefore, but with a military life: and when they have entered, reason and nature, reject that philosophy which they do not fight because they love their country, teaches that no man should prefer or aid another but because fighting is their business. At the very because he is his countryman, his neighbour, or his moment of fighting, the nation at home is perhaps child :-for even this, the philosophy has taught us; divided in opinion as to the propriety of carrying ou and we have been seriously told that, in pursuance

One party maintains that the war is beneof general philanthropy, we ought not to cherish | ficial, and one that it is ruining the nation. But the or support our own offspring in preference to other soldier, for whatever he fights, and whether really children. The effect of these doctrines, if they were i in promotion of his country's good, or in opposition reduced to practice, would be, not to diffuso univer- i to it, is secure of his praise. sal benevolence, but to contract or destroy the All this is sufficiently deceptive and absurd: the charities of men for their families, their neighbours, delusion would be ridiculous if the topic were not and their country. It is an idle system of philo- too grave for ridicule. It forms one amongst the sophy which sets out with extinguishing those prin- many fictions by which the reputation of military ciples of human nature which the Creator has im- affairs is kept up. Why such fictions are needful to planted for wise and good ends. He that shall so the purpose, it may be wise for the reader to enfar succeed in practising this philosophy as to look quire. I suppose the cause is, that truth and reality with indifference upon his parent, his wife, and his would not serve the purposes of military reputation, son, will not often be found with much zeal to ex- and therefore that recourse is had to pleasant ficercise kindness and benevolence to the world at tions. This may, however, have been done without large.

a distinct consciousness, on the part of the inventors, Christianity rejects alike the extravagance of of the delusions which they spread. I do not wholly Patriotism and the extravagance of seeming philan- coincide with the writer who says,-“ The love of thropy. Its precepts are addressed to us as men our country is one of those specious illusions which with human constitutions, and as men in society. have been invented by impostors in order to render But to cherish and support my own child rather the multitude the blind instruments of their crooked than others; to do good to my neighbours rather designs."* The love of our country is a virtuous than to strangers; to benefit my own country rather motive of action. The “ specious illusion" consists than another nation, does not imply that we may in- in calling that love of our country” which ought to jure other nations, or strangers, or their children, in be called by a far other name. As to those who have order to do good to our own. Here is the point thus misnamed human motives and actions, I know for discrimination-a point which vulgar patriotism not whether they have often been such wily imposand vulgar philosophy have alike overlooked. tors. The probable supposition is, that they have

The proper mode in which Patriotism should be frequently been duped themselves. He whom ambi. exercised, is that which does not necessarily respect tion urged on to conquest, tried to persuade himself, other nations. He is the truest who benefits and perhaps did persuade himself, that he was actu. his own country without diminishing the welfare of ated by the love of his country. He persuaded, another. For which reason, those who induce im- | also, his followers in arms; and they, no doubt, were provements in the administration of justice, in the sufficiently willing to hope that they were inmaxims of governing, in the political constitution of fluenced by such a motive. But, in whatever madthe state-or those who extend and rectify the edu- ner the fiction originated, a fiction it assuredly cation, or in any other manner amend the moral or is; and the circumstance that it is still industri. social condition of a people, possess incomparably ously imposed upon the world, is no inconsiderable higher claims to the praise of patriotism than multi- evidence that the system which it is employed to tudes of those who receive it from the popular voice. encourage, would shrink from the eye of virtue and

That patriotism which is manifested in political, the light of truth. partizanship, is frequently of a very questionable Upon the whole, we shall act both safely and kind. The motives to this partizanship are often wisely in lowering the relative situation of patriotfar other than the love of our country, even when ism in the scale of Christian virtues. It is a virtue ; the measure which a party pursues tends to the but it is far from the greatest or the highest. The country's good; and many are called patriots, of world has given to it an unwarranted elevation-an

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SLAVERY.

concern.

elevation to which it has no pretensions in the view thus seized, does he who chains them together in a
of truth; and if the friends of truth consign it to its suffocating hold practise this benevolence ? When
proper station, it is probable that there will be fewer they have reached another shore, does he who gives
purious pretensions to its praise.

money to the first for his victims--keeps them as
his property-and compels them to labour for his
profit, practise this benevolence ? Would either of
these persons think, if their relative situations were

exchanged with the Africans', that the Africans
CHAPTER XVIII.

used them kindly and justly? No. Then the ques-
tion is decided. Christianity condemns the system;
and no further enquiry about rectitude remains. The

question is as distinctly settled as when a man comRequisitions of Christianity professedly disregarded-Persian

mits a burglary it is distinctly certain that he has law- The slave system a costly iniquity.

violated the law.

But of the flagitiousness of the system in the view at a future day it will probably become a subject of Christianity, its defenders are themselves awareof wonder how it could have happened that upon for they tell us, if not with decency at least with such a subject as Slavery men could have enquired, openness, that Christianity must be excluded from and examined, and debated, year after year; and the enquiry. What does this exclusion imply? Obthat many years actually passed before the minds of viously, that the advocates of slavery are conscious a nation were so fully convinced of its enormity, that Christianity condemns it. They take her away and of their consequent duty to abolish it, as to sup- from the judgment seat, because they know she will press it to the utmost of their power. I say this pronounce a verdict against them.-- Does the reader will probably be a subject of wonder ; because the desire more than this ? Here is the evidence, both question is so simple, that he who simply applies the of enemies and of friends, that the Moral Law of requisitions of the Moral Law finds no time for God condemns the slave system. If, therefore, we reasoning or for doubt. The question, as soon as it are Christians, the question is not merely decided, is proposed, is decided. How, then, it will be asked, but confessedly decided : and what more do we ask ? in future days, could a Christian Legislature argue is, to be sure, a curious thing, that they who and contend, and contend and argue again, and al- affirm they are Christians, will not have their conlow an age to pass without deciding.

duct examined by the Christian Law; and whilst The cause is, that men do not agree as to the rule they baptize their children and kneel at the comof decision-as to the test by which the question munion table, tell us that with one of the greatest should be examined. One talks of the rights to questions of practical morality our religion has no property-one of the interests of merchants-one of safety-one of policy-all which are valid and pro- Two reasons induce the writer to confine himself, per considerations; but they are not the primary upon this subject, to little more than the exhibition consideration. The first question is, Is Slavery of fundamental principles ;—first, that the details of right? Is it consistent with the Moral Law ? This the Slavery question are already laid, in unnumbered question is, in practice, postponed to others, even by publications, before the public; and, secondly, that some who theoretically acknowledge its primary he does not think it will long remain, at least in this claim; and when to the indistinct principles of these country, a subject for discussion. That the system is added the want of principle in others, it is easy to will, so far as the British government is concerned, account for the delay and opposition with which the at no distant period be abolished, appears nearly ceradvocate of simple rectitude is met.

tain ; and he is unwilling to fill the pages of a book To him who examines slavery by the standard to of general morality with discussions which, ere many which all questions of human duty should be re- years have passed, may possess no relevance to the ferred, the task of deciding, we say, is short. Whe-affairs of the Christian world. ther it is consistent with the Christian Law for one Yet one remark is offered as to a subordinate man to keep another in bondage without his consent, means of estimating the goodness or badness of a and to compel him to labour for that other's advan. cause-that which consists in referring to the prin. tage, admits of no more doubt than whether two and ciples upon which each party reasons, to the general two make four. It were humiliating, then, to set spirit, to the tone and the temper of the disputants. about the proof that the Slave System is incompa. Now, I am free to confess, that if I had never heard tible with Christianity; because no man questions an argument against Slavery, I should find, in the its incompatability who knows what Christianity is, writings of its defenders, satisfactory evidence that and what it requires. Unhappily, some who can their cause is bad. So true is this, that if at any estimate, with tolerable precision, the duties of mo. time I needed peculiarly to impress myself with the rality upon other subjects, contemplate this through fagitiousness of the system, I should take up the a veil-a veil which habit has suspended before book of a determined advocate. There I find the them, and which is dense enough to intercept the most unequivocal of all testimony against it—that view of the moral features of slavery as they are which is unwittingly furnished by its advocates. presented to others who examine it without an inter- There I find, first, that the fundamental principles vening medium, and with no other light than the of morality are given to the winds ;--that the prolight of truth. To these the best counsel that we per foundation of the reasoning is rejected and ridican offer is, to simplify their reasonings-to recur culed. There I find that the temper and dispositions to first principles; and first principles are few. which are wont to influence the advocate of a good Look, then, at the foundation of all the relative cause, are scarcely to be found; and that those duties of man-Benevolence--Love-that love and which usually characterize a bad one, continually benevolence which is the fulfilling of the Moral appear; and therefore, even setting aside inaccurate Law-that " charity” which prompts to actions of statements and fallacious reasonings, I am assured, kindness, and tenderness, and fellow-feeling, for all from the general character of the defence and conmen. Does he who seizes a person in Guinea, and / duct of the defenders, that the system is radically drags him shrieking to a vessel, practise this bene- | vicious and bad. volence! When three or four hundreds have been The distinctions which are made between the ori

sess.

WAR.

ginal robbery in Africa, and the purchase, the inhe- | respect to temporal affairs, that which is right is ritance, or the “ breeding" of slaves in the colonies, commonly politic; and it ought, therefore, to far. do not at all respect the kind of immorality that nish additional inducements to a fearless conformity attaches to the whole system. They respect nothing of conduct, private and public, to the Moral Law. but the degree.

The man who wounds and robs an. It is quite evident that our slave system will be other on the highway, is a more atrocious offender abolished, and that its supporters will hereafter be than he who plunders a hen-roost ;--but he is not regarded with the same public feelings, as be who more truly an offender, he is not more certainly a was an advocate of the slave trade, is now. How is violator of the law. And so with the slave system. it that legislators or that public men are so indiffeHe who drags a wretched man from his family in rent to their fame? Who would now be willing that Africa, is a more flagitious transgressor than he who biography should record of him— This man defended merely compels the African to labour for his own ad- the slave trade? The time will come when the record vantage; but the transgression, the immorality, is as - This man opposed the abolition of slavery, will real and certain in one case as in the other. He who occasion a great deduction from the public estimate had no right to steal the African can have none to of worth of character. When both these atrocities sell him. From him who is known to have no right are abolished, and but for the page of history for. to sell, another can have no right to buy or to pos- gotten, that page will make a wide difference be

Sale, or gift, or legacy, imparts no right to tween those who aided the abolition, and those who me, because the seller, or giver, or bequeather, had obstructed it. The one will be ranked amongst the none himself. The sufferer has just as valid a claim Howards that are departed, and the other amongst to liberty at my hands as at the hands of the ruffian those who, in ignorance or in guilt, have employed who first dragged him from his home.--Every hour their little day in inflicting misery upon mankind. of every day, the present possessor is guilty of injustice. Nor is the case altered with respect to those who are born on a man's estate. The parents were never the landholder's property, and therefore the child is not. Nay, if the parents had been rightfully slaves, it would not justify me in making slaves of

CHAPTER XIX. their children. No man has a right to make a child a slave, but himself. What are our sentiments upon kindred subjects? What do we think of the justice of the Persian system, by which, when a state offender CAUSES OF WAR.-Want of enquiry. Indifference to human is put to death, his brothers and his children are misery: National irritability : Interest : Secret motives of

Cabinets: Ideas of glory--Foundation of military glory, killed and mutilated too! Or, to come nearer to the

CONSEQUENCES OF WAR.-Destruction of human life: Tars. point, as well as nearer home, what should we say of tion : Moral depravity: Familiarity with plunder : Implicit a law which enacted, that, of every criminal who was

submission to superiors: Resignation of moral agency:

Bondage and degradation-Loan of armies—Effects on the sentenced to labour for life, all the children should

community be sentenced so to labour also ?- And yet, if there LAWFULNESS OF WAR.-Influence of habit-Of appealing to adis any comparison of reasonableness, it seems to be

tiquity-The Christian Scriptures-Subjects of Christ's bene.

diction-Matt. xxvii. 52.- The Apostles and Evangelists in one respect in favour of the culprit. He is con- The Centurion-Cornelius-Silence not a proof of approdemned to slavery for his crimes: the African, for bation-Luke xxi. 36.- John the Baptist-Negative evidence another man's profit.

- Prophecies of the Old Testament–Therequisitions of Chris.

tianity of present obligation-Primitive ChristiansExample That any human being who has not forfeited his and testimony of early Christians-Christian soldiers--Wars liberty by his crimes, has a right to be free—and of the Jews--Duties of individuals and nations Offensiva that whosoever forcibly withholds liberty from an

and defensive war-Wars always aggressive-Paley--War

wholly forbidden. innocent man, robs him of his right and violates the OF THE PROBABLE AND PRACTICAL EFFECTS OF ADRERING TO Moral Law, are truths which no man would dispute THE MORAL LAW IN RESPECT TO WAR,-Quakers in America or doubt, if custom had not obscured our percep

and Ireland-Colonization of Pennsylvania-Unconditional

reliance on Providence-Recapitulation-General Obser tions, or if wickedness did not prompt us to close vations. our eyes.

The whole system is essentially and radically bad: It is one amongst the numerous moral phenomena -Injustice and oppression are its fundamental prin- of the present times, that the enquiry is silently yet ciples. Whatever lenity may be requisite in speak- not slowly spreading in the world—Is War compilo ing of the agent, none should be shown, none should tible with the Christian religion? There was a pebe expressed for the act. I do not affirm or imagine riod when the question was seldom asked, and when that every slaveholder is therefore a wicked man ;- war was regarded almost by every man both as ine. but if he be not, it is only upon the score of igno- vitable and right. That period has certainly passed If he is exempt from the guilt of violating away; and not only individuals but public societies

, the Moral Law, it is only because he does not per- and societies in distant nations, are urging the quesceive what it requires. Let us leave the deserts of tion upon the attention of mankind. The simple the individual to Him who knoweth the heart; of circumstance that it is thus urged contains no irrahis actions, we may speak; and we should speak in tional motive to investigation : for why should men the language of reprobation, disgust, and abhorrence. ask the question if they did not doubt; and how,

Although it could be shown that the slave system after these long ages of prescription, could they is expedient, it would not affect the question, whe- begin to doubt, without a reason? ther it ought to be maintained ?-yet it is remark- It is not unworthy of remark, that whilst disquiable that it is shown to be impolitic as well as bad. sitions are frequently issuing from the press, of which We are not violating the Moral Law because it fills the tendency is to show that war is not compatible our pockets. We injure ourselves by our own trans- with Christianity, few serious attempts are made to gressions. The slave system is a custly iniquity both show that it is. Whether this results from the cir. to the nation and to individual men. It is matter cumstance that no individual peculiarly is interested of great satisfaction that this is known and proved; in the proof-or that there is a secret consciousness and yet it is just what, antecedently to enquiry, we that proof cannot be brought-or that those who should have reason to expect. The truth furnishes may be desirous of defending the custom, rest in one addition to the many evidences, that, even with security that the impotence of its assailants will be

rance.

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