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sistent practical lessons of virtue in their parents' | the medium between perfect purity and utter depraparlours, must see much that is contrary elsewhere; vation. Nevertheless, he must at some period mix in and we must, if we can, so rectify the moral percep- society with almost all sorts of men, and therefore tions and invigorate the moral dispositions, that the be must be prepared for it. Very young children mind shall effectually resist the insinuation of evil. should be excluded if possible from all unfit associ

Religion is the basis of Morality: He that would ation, because they acquire habits before they posimpart moral knowledge must begin by imparting a sess a sufficiency of counteracting principle. But if knowledge of God. We are not advocates of formal

a parent has, within his own house, sufficiently eninstruction-of lesson learning-in moral any more deavoured to confirm and invigorate the moral chathan in intellectual education. Not that we affirm racter of his child, it were worse than fruitless to it is undesirable to make a young person commit to endeavour to retain him in the seclusion of a monk. memory maxims of religious truth and moral duty. He should feel the necessity and acquire the power These things may be right, but they are not the of resisting temptation, by being subjected, gradually really efficient means of forming the moral character subjected, to that temptation which must one day of the young. These maxims should recommend them- be presented to him. In the endlessly diversified selves to the judgment and affections, and this can circunstances of families, no suggestion of prudence hardly be hoped whilst they are presented only in a will be applicable to all; but if a parent is conscious didactic and insulated form to the mind. It is one that the moral tendency of his domestic associations of the characteristics of the times, that there is a is good, it will probably be wise to send his children prodigious increase of books that are calculated to to day-schools rather than to send them wholly from benefit whilst they delight the young. These are his family. Schools, as moral instruments, contain eifective instruments in teaching morality. A sim- much both of good and evil : perhaps no means will ple narrative, (of facts if it be possible,) in which in- be more effectual in securing much of the good and tegrity of principle and purity of conduct are re. avoiding much of the evil, than that of allowing his commended to the affections as well as to the judg- children to spend their evenings and early mornings ment — without affectation, or improbabilities, or at home. factitious sentiment, is likely to effect substantial In ruminating upon Moral Education, we cannot, good. And if these associations are judiciously re- at least in this age of reading, disregard the influnewed, the good is likely to be permanent as well as ence of books. That a young person should not substantial. It is not a light task to write such read every book is plain. No discrimination can be books, nor to select them. Authors colour their attempted here; but it may be observed that the pictures too highly. They must indeed interest the best species of discrimination is that which is supyoung, or they will not be read with pleasure : but plied by a rectified condition of the mind itself. the anxiety to give interest is too great, and the The best species of prohibition is not that which a effects may be expected to diminish as the narrative parent pronounces, but that which is pronounced by recedes from congeniality to the actual condition of purified tastes and inclinations in the mind of the mankind.

young. Not that the parent or tutor can expect A judicious parent will often find that the moral that all or many of his children will adequately make culture of his child may be promoted without seem- this judicious discrimination ; but if he cannot do ing to have the object in view. There are many every thing he can do much.

There are many peropportunities which present themselves for associ. sons whom a contemptible or vicious book disgusts, ating virtue with his affections—for throwing in notwithstanding the fascinations which it may conamongst the accumulating mass of mental habits, tain. This disgust is the result of education in a principles of rectitude which shall pervade and me- large sense; and some portion of this disgust and of liorate the whole.

the discrimination which results from it, may be inAs the mind acquires an increased capacity of duced into the mind of a boy by having made him judging, I would offer to the young person a sound familiar with superior productions. He who is acexhibition, if such can be found, of the Principles of customed to good society, feels little temptation to Morality. He should know, with as great distinct- join in the vociferations of an alehouse. ness as possible, not only his duty but the reasons of And here it appears necessary to advert to the it. It has very unfortunately happened that those moral tendency of studying, without selection, the who have professed to deliver the principles of mora- ancient classics. If there are objections to the study lity, have commonly intermingled error with truth, resulting from this tendency, they are to be superor have set out with propositions fundamentally un- added to those which were stated in the last chapter sound. These books effect, it is probable, more on intellectual grounds; and both united will preinjury than benefit. Their truths, for they contain sent motives to hesitation on the part of a parent truths, are frequently deduced from fallacious pre- which he cannot, with any propriety, disregard. The mises—from premises from which it is equally easy mode in which the writings of the Greek and Latin to deduce errors. The fallacies of the Moral Phi- authors operate, is not an ordinary mode. We do losophy of Paley are now in part detected by the not approach them as we approach ordinary books, public: there was a time whon his opinions were but with a sort of habitual admiration, which makes regarded as more nearly oracular than now; and at their influence, wbatever be its nature, peculiarly that time and up to the present time, the book has strong. That admiration would be powerful alike effectually confused the moral notions of multitudes for good or for evil. Whether the tendency be of readers. If the reader thinks that the Principles good or evil, the admiration will make it great. which have been proposed in the present Essays are Now, previous to enquiring what the positive ill just, he might derive some assistance from them in tendency of these writings is what is not their tenconducting the moral education of his elder children. dency? They are Pagan books for Christian chil

There is negative as well as positive Education, dren. They neither inculcate Christianity, por some things to avoid, as well as some to do. Of the Christian dispositions, nor the love of Christianity. things which are to be avoided, the most obvious is But their tendency is not negative merely. They unfit society for the young. If a boy mixes without do inculcate that which is adverse to Christianity restraint in whatever society he pleases, his educa- and to Christian dispositions. They set up, as extion will in general be practically bad ; because the alted virtues, that which our own religion never world in general is bad : its moral condition is below countenanced, if it has not specifically condemned,

If we


They censure as faults dispositions which our own opposing influences though he cannot wholly dereligion enjoins, or dispositions so similar that the stroy it. young will not discriminate between them.

Finally, the mode in which Intellectual Education, enthusiastically admire these works, who will pre. | generally, is acquired, may be made either an auzi. tend that we shall not admire the moral qualities liary of Moral Education or the contrary. A young which they applaud ? Who will pretend that the person may store his mind with literature and science, mind of a young person accurately adjusts his admi- and together, with the acquisition, either corrupt his ration to those subjects only which Christianity principles, or amend and invigorate them. The approves ! No: we admire them as a whole; not world is so abundantly supplied with the means of perhaps every sentence or every sentiment, but we knowledge—there are so many paths to the desired admire their general spirit and character. In a temple, that we may choose our own and yet arrive word, we admire that which our own religion teaches at it. He that thinks he cannot possess sufficient us not to imitate. And what makes the effect the knowledge without plucking fruit of unballowed more intense is, that we do this at the period of life trees, surely does not know how boundless is the when we are every day acquiring our moral notions. | variety and number of those which bear wholesome We mingle them up with our early associations re- fruit. He cannot indeed know every thing without specting right and wrong-with associations which studying the bad ; which, however, is no more to be commonly extend their influence over the remainder recommended in literature than in life. A man of life. *

cannot know all the varieties of human society withA very able Essay, which obtained the Norrisian out taking up his abode with felons and cannibals. Medal at Cambridge for 1825, forcibly illustrates II. But, in reality, the second division of Moral these propositions ; and the illustration is so much Education is the more important of the two-tha the more valuable, because it appears to have been supply of motives to adhere to what is right. Oar undesigned. The title is, “ No valid argument can great deficiency is not in knowledge but in obebe drawn from the incredulity of the Heathen Phi- dience. Of the offences which an individual comlosophers against the truth of the Christian reli- mits against the Moral Law, the great majority are giou."| The object of the work is to show, by a committed in the consciousness that he is doing wrong. reference to their writings, that the general system Moral Education therefore should be directed, not of their opinions, feelings, prejudices, principles, and so much to informing the young what they ought to conduct, was utterly incongruous with Christianity; do, as to inducing those moral dispositions and prinand that, in consequence of these principles, &c., ciples which will make them adhere to what they they actually did reject the religion. This is shown know to be right. with great clearness of evidence; it is shown that a The human mind, of itself, is in a state something class of men, who thought and wrote as these Phi- like that of men in a state of nature, where separate losophers thought and wrote, would be extremely and conflicting desires and motives are not restrained indisposed to adopt the religion and morality which by any acknowledged head. Government, as it is Christ had introduced. Now, this appears to me to necessary to society, is necessary in the individual be conclusive of the question as to the present ten. mind. To the internal community of the heart the dency of their writings. If the principles and pre- great question is, Who shall be the legislator judices of these persons indisposed them to the Who shall regulate and restrain the passions and acceptance of Christianity, those prejudices and prin- affections ? Who shall command and direct the ciples will indispose the man who admires and im- conduct ?- To these questions the breast of every bibes them in the present day. Not that they will man supplies him with an answer. He knows, benow produce the effect in the same degree. We are cause he feels, that there is a rightful legislator in now surrounded with many other media by which his own heart: he knows, because he feels, that he opinions and principles are induced, and these are ought to obey it. frequently influenced by the spirit of Christianity. By whatever designation the reader may think it The study and the admiration of these writings may fit to indicate this legislator, whether he calls it the not therefore be expected to make men absolutely law written in the heart, or moral sense, or moral reject Christianity, but to indispose them, in a instinct, or conscience, we arrive at one practical greater or less degree, for the hearty acceptance of truth at last ; that to the moral legislation which Christian principles as their rules of conduct. does actually subsist in the human mind, it is right

Propositions have been made to supply young that the individual should conform his conduct. persons with selected ancient authors, or perhaps The great point then is, to induce him to do this with editions in which exceptionable passages are - to induce him, when inclination and this law are expunged. I do not think that this will greatly at variance, to sacrifice the inclination to the law: avail. It is not, I think, the broad indecencies of and for this purpose it appears proper, first to imOvid, nor any other insulated class of sentiments or press him with a high, that is, with an accurate estidescriptions, that effects the great mischief; it is the mate of the authority of the law itself. We have pervading spirit and tenor of the whole-a spirit and seen that this law embraces an actual expression of tenor from which Christianity is not only excluded, the Will of God; and we have seen that, even although but which is actually and greatly adverse to Chris- the conscience may not always be adequately entianity. There is indeed one considerable benefit lightened, it nevertheless constitutes to the individual that is likely to result from such a selection, and from an authoritative law. It is to the conscientious expunging particular passages. Boys in ordinary internal apprehension of rectitude that we should schools do not learn enough of the classics to acquire conform our conduct. Such appears to be the Will much of their general moral spirit, but they ac- of God. quire enough to be influenced, and injuriously in- It should therefore be especially inculcated, that fluenced, by being familiar with licentious language; the dictate of conscience is never to be sacrificed; and, at any rate, he essentially subserves the that whatever may be the consequences of conforming interests of morality, who diminishes the power of to it, they are to be ventured. Obedience is to be

unconditional-no questions about the utility of the • " All education which inculcates Christian Opinions with Pagan Tastes, awakens conscience but to tamper with it."

law-no computations of the consequences of obeSchimmelpenninck : Biblical Fragments.

dience—no presuming upon the lenity of the divine # By James Amiraux Jeremie.

government. “ It is important so to regulate the

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understanding and imagination of the young, that | There is one consequence attendant upon this they may be prepared to obey, even where they habitual reference to the internal law, which is do not see the reasons of the commands of God.” highly beneficial to the moral character. It leads * We should certainly endeavour, where we can, to us to fulfil the wise instruction of antiquity, Know show them the reasons of the divine commands, and thyself. It makes us look within ourselves; it this more and more as their understandings gain brings us acquainted with the little and busy world strength; but let it be obvious to them that we do that is within us, with its many inhabitants and their ourselves consider it as quite sufficient if God has dispositions, and with their tendencies to evil or to commanded us to do or to avoid any thing." good. This is valuable knowledge; and knowledge

Obedience to this internal legislator is not, like for want of which, it may be feared, the virtue of obedience to civil government, enforced. The law many has been wrecked in the hour of tempest. A is promulgated, but the passions and inclinations man's enemies are those of his own household; and can refuse obedience if they will. Penalties and if he does not know their insidiousness and their rewards are indeed annexed; but he who braves the strength, if he does not know upon what to depend penalty, and disregards the reward, may continue to for assistance, nor where is the probable point of violate the law. Obedience therefore must be vo- attack, it is not likely that he will efficiently resist. luntary, and hence the paramount importance, in Such a man is in the situation of the governor of moral education, of habitually subjecting the will. an unprepared and surprised city. He knows not " Parents," says Hartley, “ should labour, from the to whom to apply for effectual help, and finds perearliest dawnings of understanding and desire, to haps that those whom he has loved and trusted are check the growing obstinacy of the will, curb all the first to desert or betray him. He feebly resists, sallies of passion, impress the deepest, most amiable, soon capitulates, and at last scarcely knows why he reverential, and awful impressions of God, a future did not make a successful defence. state, and all sacred things.”—“ Religious persons It is to be regretted that, in the moral education in all periods, who have possessed the light of reve- which commonly obtains, whether formal or incilation, have in a particular manner been sensible dental, there is little that is calculated to produce that the habit of self-control lies at the foundation of this acquaintance with our own minds ; little that moral worth." † There is nothing mean or mean- refers us to ourselves, and much, very much, that spirited in this. It is magnanimous in philosophy calls and sends us away. Of many it is not too as it is right in morals. It is the subjugation of much to say, that they receive almost no moral the lower qualities of our nature to wisdom and to culture. The plant of virtue is suffered to grow as goodness

a tree grows in a forest, and takes its chance of The subjugation of the will to the dictates of a storm or sunshine. This, which is good for oaks Eigher law, must be endeavoured, if we would suc- and pines, is vot good for man. The general atmoceed, almost in infancy and in very little things; sphere around him is infected, and the juices of the from the earliest dawnings, as Hartley says, of un- moral plant are often themselves unhealthy. derstanding and desire. Children must first obey In the nursery, formularies and creeds are taught; their parents, and those who have the care of them. but this does not refer the child to its own mind. The habit of sacrificing the will to another judgment | Indeed, unless a wakeful solicitude is maintained by being thus acquired, the mind is prepared to sacrifice those who teach, the tendency is the reverse. The the will to the judgment pronounced within itself. mind is kept from habits of introversion, even in the Show, in every practicable case, why you cross the offices of religion, by practically directing its atteninclinations of a child. Let obedience be as little tion to the tongue. Many, it is to be feared, imablind as it may be. It is a great failing of some gine that they are giving their children religious parents that they will not descend from the impe- principles, when they are only teaching them religious rative mood, and that they seem to think it a dero- truths." You cannot impart moral education as you gation from their authority to place their orders teach a child to spell. upon any other foundation than their wills. But if From the nursery a boy is sent to school. He the child sees--and children are wonderfully quick- spends six or eight hours of the day in the school. sighted in such things—if the child sees that the room, and the remainder is employed in the sports will is that which governs his parent, how shall he of boyhood. Once, or it may be twice, in the day efficiently learn that the will should not govern him- he repeats a form of prayer, and on one day in the sell?

week he goes to church. There is very little in all The internal law carries with it the voucher of this to make him acquainted with the internal comits own reasonableness. A person does not need to munity; and habit, if nothing else, calls his reflecbe told that it is proper and right to obey that law. The perception of this rectitude and propriety is From school or from college the business of life coincident with the dictates themselves. Let the is begun. It can require no argument to show, that parent, then, very frequently refer his son and his the ordinary pursuits of life have little tendency to daughter to their own minds ; let him teach them direct a man's meditations to the moral condition of to seek for instruction there. There are dangers his own mind, or that they have much tendency to on every hand, and dangers even here. The parent employ them upon other and very different things. must refer them, if it be possible, not merely to Nay, even the offices of public devotion have almost conscience, but to enlightened conscience. He must a tendency to keep the mind without itself. What unite the two branches of Moral Education, and if we say that the self-contemplation which even communicate the knowledge whilst he endeavours natural religion is likely to produce, is obstructed by to induce the practice of morality. Without this, the forms of Christian worship? “ The transitions his children may obey their consciences, and yet be from one office of devotion to another, are contrived, in error, and perhaps in fanaticism. With it, he

like scenes in the drama, to supply the mind with a may hope that their conduct will be both conscien- succession of diversified engagements." * This supply tious, and pure, and right. Nevertheless, an habitual of diversified engagements, whatever may be its reference to the internal law is the great, the pri- value in other respects, has evidently the tendency mary concern; for the great majority of a man's of which we speak. It is not designed to supply, moral perceptions are accordant with Truth. and it does not supply, the opportunity for calmness · Carpenter : Principles of Education,

+ Ibid.

• Paley, p. 3, b. 5, c. 5.

tions away

of recollection. A man must abstract himself from private or a national charge, it is not our present the external service if he would investigate the cha- | business to discuss. It is in this country, at least, racter and dispositions of the inmates of his own left to the voluntary benevolence of individuals, and breast. Even the architecture and decoration of this consideration may apologize for a brief refechurches come in aid of the general tendency. They rence to it here. make the eye an auxiliary of the ear, and both keep It is not long since it was a question whether the the mind at a distance from those concerns which poor should be educated or not. That time is past, are peculiarly its own; from contemplating its own and it may be hoped the time will soon be passed weaknesses and wants; and from applying to God when it shall be a question, To what extent !--that for that peculiar help, which perhaps itself only the time will soon arrive when it will be agreed needs, and which God only can impart. So little that no limit needs to be assigned to the education are the course of education and the subsequent en- of the poor, but that which is assigned by their own gagements of life calculated to foster this great necessities, or which ought to be assigned to the eduauxiliary of moral character. It is difficult, in the cation of all men. There appears no more reason wide world, to foster it as much as is needful. for excluding a poor man from the fields of know. Nothing but wakeful solicitude on the part of the ledge, than for preventing him from using his eyes. parent can be expected sufficiently to direct the mind The mental and the visual powers were alike given within; whilst the general tendency of our associa- to be employed. A man should, indeed, “ shut his tions and habits is to keep it without. Let him, i eyes from seeing evil," but whátever reason there is however, do what he can. The habitual reference for letting him see all that is beautiful, and excellent, to the dictates of conscience may be promcted in the and innocent in nature and in art, there is the same very young mind. This habit, like others, becomes for enabling his mind to expatiate in the fields of strong by exercise. He that is faithful in little knowledge. things is intrusted with more; and this is true in The objections which are urged against this ex. respect of knowledge as in respect of other depart-tended education, are of the same kind as those which ments of the Christian life. Fidelity of obedience were urged against any education. They insist upon is commonly succeeded by increase of light; and every the probability of abuse. It was said, They who act of obedience and every addition to knowledge can write may forge; they who can read may furnishes new and still stronger inducements to per- read what is pernicious. The answer was, or it severe in the same course. Acquaintance with our- might have been— They who can hear, may hear proselves is the inseparable attendant of this course. faneness and learn it; they who can see, may see bad We know the character and dispositions of our own examples and follow them :—but are we therefore to inmates by frequent association with them: and if stop our ears and put out our eyes !-- It is now said, this fidelity to the internal law, and consequent that if you give extended education to the poor, you knowledge of the internal world, be acquired in early will elevate them above their stations ; that a critic life, the parent may reasonably hope that it will never would not drive a wheelbarrow, and that a philosowholly lose its efficiency amidst the bustle and pher would not shoe horses or weave cloth. But anxieties of the world.

these consequences are without the limits of possiUndoubtedly, this most efficient security of moral bility; because the question for a poor man is, whecharacter is not likely fully to operate during the con- ther he shall perform such offices or starve: and tinuance of the present state of society and of its in- surely it will not be pretended that hungry men stitutions. It is I believe true, that the practice of would rather criticise than eat. Science and literamorality is most complete amongst those persons who ture would not solicit a poor man from his labour peculiarly recommend a reference to the internal more irresistibly than ease and pleasure do now; yet law, and whose institutions, religious and social, are in spite of these solicitations what is the fact ! That congruous with the habit of this reference. Their the poor man works for his bread. This is the inhistory exhibits a more unshaken adherence to that evitable result. which they conceived to be right-fewer sacrifices of It is not the positive but the relative amount of conscience to interest or the dread of suffering-less knowledge that elevates a man above his station in of trimming between conflicting motives, more, in a society. It is not because he knows much, but beword, of adherence to rectitude without regard to cause he knows more than his fellows. Educate all, consequences. We have seen that such persons are and none will fancy that he is superior to his neighlikely to form accurate views of rectitude; but whe- bours. Besides, we assign to the possession of know. ther they be accurate or not, does not affect the ledge, effects which are produced rather by habits of value of their moral education as securing fidelity to life. Ease and comparative leisure are commonly the degree of knowledge which they possess. It is attendant upon extensive knowledge, and leisure and of more consequence to adhere steadily to conscience ease disqualify men for the laborious occupations though it may not be perfectly enlightened, than to much more than the knowledge itself. possess perfect knowledge without consistency of There are some collateral advantages of an exobedience. But in reality they who obey most, know tended education of the people, which are of much most; and we say that the general testimony of importance. It has been observed that if the French experience is, that those persons exhibit the most had been an educated people, many of the atrocities unyielding fidelity to the Moral Law whose Moral of their Revolution would never have happened, and Education has peculiarly directed them to the law | I believe it. Furious mobs are composed, not of enwritten in the heart.

lightened but of unenlightened men-of men in whom the passions are dominant over the judgment, because the judgment has not been exercised, and informed,

and habituated to direct the conduct. A factious deCHAPTER XIII.

claimer can much less easily influence a number of men who acquired at school the rudiments of know.

ledge, and who have subsequently devoted their Advantages of extended Education - Infant Schools---Habits of leisure to a Mechanic's Institute, than a multitude enquiry.

who cannot write or read, and who have never pracWHETHER the Education of those who are not tised reasoning and considerate thought. And as able to pay for educating themselves ought to be a I the Education of a People

prevents political evil

, it


effects political good. Despotic rulers well know useful suggestions for the instruction of older children that knowledge is inimical to their power. This may I think be obtained from the systems in Infant simple fact is a sufficient reason, to a good and wise Schools. In a well conducted infant school, children man, to approve knowledge and extend it.

The at- acquire much knowledge, and they acquire it with tention to public institutions and public measures delight. This delight is of extreme importance : which is inseparable from an educated population, is perhaps it may safely be concluded, respecting all a great good. We all know that the human heart is innocent knowledge, that if a child acquired it with such, that the possession of power is commonly at- / pleasure he is well ht. It is worthy observation, tended with a desire to increase it, even in opposition that in the infant system, lesson-learning is nearly to the general weal. It is acknowledged that a or wholly excluded. It is not to be expected that in check is needed, and no check is either so efficient or the time which is devoted professedly to education by so safe as that of a watchful and intelligent public the children of the poor, much extent of knowledge mind: so watchful, that it is prompt to discover and can be acquired; but something may be acquired to expose what is amiss; so intelligent, that it is which is of much more consequence than mere able to form rational judgments respecting the na- school-learning—the love and the habits of enquiry. ture and the means of amendment. In all public in- If education be so conducted that it is a positive stitutions there exists, and it is happy that there does pleasure to a boy to learn, there is little doubt that exist, a sort of vis inertice which habitually resists this love and habit will be induced. Here is the change. This, which is beneficial as a general ten- great advantage of early intellectual culture. The deney, is often injurious from its excess: the state busiest have some leisure, leisure which they may emof public institutions almost throughout the world, ploy ill or well; and that they will employ it well bears sufficient testimony to the truth, that they need may reasonably be expected when knowledge is thus alteration and amendment faster than they receive attractive for its own sake. That this effect is in a it-that the internal resistance of change is greater considerable degree actually produced, is indicated tban is good for man. Unhappily, the ordinary way by the improved character of the books which poor in which a people have endeavoured to amend their men read, and in the prodigious increase in the numinstitutions, has been by some mode of violence. If | ber of those books. The supply and demand are you ask when a nation acquired a greater degree correspondent. Almost every year produces books of freedom, you are referred to some era of revolu- for the labouring classes of a higher intellectual order tion and probably of blood. These are not proper,

than the last. A journeyman in our days can undercertainly they are not Christian, remedies for the stand and relish a work which would have been like disease. It is becoming an undisputed proposition, Arabic to his grandfather. that no bad institution can permanently stand against Of moral education we say nothing here, except the distinct Opinion of a People. This opinion is that the principles which are applicable to other likely to be universal, and to be intelligent only classes of mankind are obviously applicable to the amongst an enlightened community. Now that re


With respect to the inculcation of peculiar formation of public institutions which results from religious opinions on the children who attend schools public opinion, is the very best in kind, and is likely voluntarily supported, there is manifestly the same to be the best in its mode :-in its kind, because pub- reason for inculcating them in this case as for teachlic opinion is the proper measure of the needed alter- ing them at all. This supposes that the supporters ation; and in its mode, because alterations which of the school are not themselves divided in their reresult from such a cause, are likely to be temperately ligious opinions. If they are, and if the adherents

to no one creed are able to support a school of their It may be feared that some persons object to an own, there appears no ground upon which they can extended education of the people on these very rightly refuse to support a school in which no religrounds which we propose as recommendations ; gious peculiarities are taught. It is better that that they regard the tendency of education to pro- intellectual knowledge, together with imperfect reliduce examination, and, if need be, alteration of esta- | gious principles should be communicated, than that blished institutions, as a reason for withholding it children should remain in darkness. There is indeed from the poor. To these, it is a sufficient answer, some reason to suspect the genuineness of that man's. that if increase of knowledge and habits of investi- philanthropy, who refuses to impart any knowledge gation tend to alter any established institution, it is to his neighbours because he cannot, at the same fit that it should be altered. There appears no time, teach them his own creed. means of avoiding this conclusion, unless it can be shown that increase of knowledge is usually attended with depravation of principle, and that in proportion as the judgment is exercised it decides ainiss. Generally, that intellectnal education is good for

CHAPTER XIV. a poor man which is good for his richer neighbours: in other words, that is good for the poor which is good for man. There may be exceptions to the general rule; but he who is disposed to doubt the fitness of a rich man's education for the poor, will

The Stage --- Religious Amusements - Masquerades — Field

Sports—The Turf-Boxing— Wrestling-Opinions of Pos. do well to consider first whether the rich man's

terity-Popular Amusements needless. education is fit for himself. The children of persons of property can undoubtedly learn much more than It is a remarkable circumstance, that in almost all those of a labourer, and the labourer must select from Christian countries many of the public and popular the rich man's system a part only for his own child. amusements have been regarded as objectionable by But this does not affect the general conclusion. The the more sober and conscientious part of the comparts which he ought to select are precisely those munity. This opinion could scarcely have en parts which are most necessary and beneficial to the general unless it had been just : yet why should a

people prefer amusements of which good men feel Great as have been the improvements in the me- themselves compelled to disapprove? Is it because no thods of conveying knowledge to the poor, there is public recreation can be devised of which the evil is reason to think that they will be yet greater. Some not greater than the good ? or because the inclina




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