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person could be, in a country and in an age when that virtue was " unknown. He was a sound sleeper, and used to say, that nothing “had either prevented his sleeping, or awakened him out of his “ sleep, during the whole course of his life, except the death of “ my father Gustavús, and the loss of the battle of Nordingue. “ He has often told the that, when he went to bed, he put off his «i cares with his cloaths, and let them both go to rest till the next

morning. In other respects, he was ambitious but honest, incor6 ruptible, and a little too slow and phlegmatic."

As we proceeded to the College of Botany and its garderis, it was singular' to see the professors of philosophy booted. Every thing in Sweden is performed in boots: as soon as a child can walk he is booted; perhaps the cheapness of leather may be the cause of this. The college was erected under the auspices of the late king, with his accustomed taste and magnificence. Monsieur Aftzelius, professor of chemistry, and who presides over the cabinet of mineralogies, attended us with great politeness. This gentleman has lately returned to Sweden from a very interesting and perilous investigation of the natural history of the interior of Africa, and has enriched the department over which he ably presides, with several rare and precious objects, which he brought from that country. His mineral collection is much esteemed, but I confess my inability to describe it.

Amongst other matters, the conversation turned upon the authenticity of many of Mungo Parke's marvellous stories; upon which the Professor assured us, that he believed his relation to be perfectly true, and declared, that in that distant and unfrequented region he had himself met with many extraordinary objects and occurrences, which it required great courage to relate. I have, since my return to England, seen some beautiful drawings made upon the spot, descriptive of the manners, and particularly of the rural economy of the interior Africans, by a highly ingenious and enterprising artist; Samuel Daniell, esq. which fully confirm the observation of the learned Professor, and might, from their concurring and convincing testimony, abate the force of his apprehensions. Upon the subject of abolishing the slave-trade, the Professor made a remark, which, flowing from local knowledge and long intercourse, strongly impressed my mind: he deprecated

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any other than a gradual abolition, for which the minds of the negroes should be prepared; and declared, in a very emphatic manner, his perfect conviction that a violent emancipation would only shock and endanger this great cause of humanity.

Although unacquainted with botany, I was much gratified by seeing one of the rooms, in which there were some beautiful and flourishing date and plane trees, bedded in fine mould, and several rare plants from the South Sea islands, growing against a green treillage that ran on all sides of the apartment, which was formed into walks, and had a very agreeable effect.

Amongst the curiosities in this room, I did not fail to pay my respects to a venerable parrot, which we were assured had ex. ceeded his hundreth year: he displayed the marks of great antiquity, part of his plumage was entirely gone, and there was a very visible appearance of feebleness both in his eyes and in his beak; but he is still likely to see several years more roll over his tufted head. The warmth of the room affords the temperature of native climate to the plants ; it was gratifying to see art thus supporting nature in a bleak and hostile climate. ? The hot-house, which is just finished, is a magnificent hall, supported by doric pillars, and which, when finished, will be warmed by fourteen stoves and nine flues, concealed in the columns. There were no plants here at this time. The room for the museum is also not yet completed; the design is excellent. The lecture-room is very capacious and handsome, and opens into that part of the garden which is finished and ready for the students, under a portico, of pestum columns. The plants in this garden are arranged agreeable to the plan and classification of Linneus, and afford, no doubt, a rich mental banquet for the erudite herbalist. The library of the university is not now thought deserving of the high reputation which was once affixed to it: it is divided into three apartments, the first is dedicated to belles-lettres, history, and natural history; the second is miscellaneous, and was presented to the university by the late King; and the third is confined to theology, jurisprudence, and medicine. This library has been augmented at various times by the literary collections of those countries which have bowed to the Swedish sword. The librarian, who had lived some years with Sir Joseph Banks in that capacity, shewed us a very


precious manuscript of a Gothic translation of the four gospels, supposed to have been made in the fourth century, upon vellum, richly illuminated with large silver and some golden letters, which have been made by the brush: the former are faded, but the latter are in excellent preservation. This book formed a part of the literary pillage of Prague, in 1648, and was sent to Christina by count Konigsmark; from that princess it was pilfered by a Dutchman, upon whose death it was purchased for 2501. by some good patriotic Swede, and presented to the university.

We were shewn some curiosities, which, in justice to the unis versity of Upsala, I must acknowledge that even those who displayed them were ashamed of, and were better calculated to aug, ment the cabinet of some little, capricious, spoiled princess, wbo was just capable of running alone, than that of a grave and learned body, viz. the slippers of the Virgin Mary, Judas's purse, &c.

In a small room in the library. we saw a large chest, about the size of a bureau bedstead, double locked and sealed, containing the manuscripts of the late King, which he directed should not be opened till fifty years after his decease. Conjecture and expecta tion frequently hover over this case, which will, no doubt, one day unfold to Sweden much interesting memoir, and literary treasure. Here we were shewn some Icelandic manuscripts, said to be upwards of eight hundred years old, and several Lapland tracts. How wonderful, that literature should have lived, and even smiled, in regions which the sun rarely warms!

In one of the mineralogical collections, separate from that of M. Aftzelius, we were much gratified by seeing some transparent agates containing flies, elastic sand-stones, incombustible purses of asbestos, a mineral found in the iron mines of Danmora, some beautiful chrystals and many other rarities, which were displayed and explained with the greatest perspicuity and urbanity. The students amount to about one thousand, lodge, and board themselves according to their finances and inclinations in the town: in general they wear a black gown without sleeves.

By an unaccountable mistake we omitted to bring with us some detters of introduction to the university, which were offered to us

at Stockholm; but upon a professor, who happened to be in the cathedral at the same time with ourselves, observing that we were Englishmen, he, in the politest manner, enabled us to see what was most worthy of our attention. Our omission, and professor Aftzelius's imperfect knowledge of the English language, produced a momentary embarrassment : How dare you," said he, making a low bow,“ come here without letters of introduction ?” What he meant is obvious, from the politeness with which he received us. The professor will not be angry, I am sure ; and the following whimsical error will completely keep him in countenance; it was related by the brave and venerable Prince de Ligne, whom I had the pleasure of meeting at Mr. Jackson's, our ambassador at Berlin, of an Englishman who had been introduced to him, and who was vehemently anxious to make himself master of the French language. It was the custom with this gentleman, for the purpose of restraining as much as possible the blunders which he was perpetually committing, always in conversation to speak each sentence in English first, and then to translate it into French. One day he called upon the Prince, who is a very active man, although far advanced in years, and finding him on his couch, and wishing to rally him on the occasion, thus began : “My prince, Mon prince

I am glad to see you, je suis charmé de vous voir-On your

couch, dans votre accouchement that is, instead of' on your so“pha,' in your lying in."

The revenues of this university, the first in the north of Europe, are rather narrow; fortunate would it be for this learned institution if it were more the fashion to commit the sons of gentlemen and noblemen to its care ; nothing but such patronage is wanting to expand its energies; genius and learning having made this spot their favourite residence. The attentions that we received there,

and which our own forgetfulness rendered accidental, have left a • lasting impression upon my mind of the respect which is paid to Englishmen.

It is by quitting it that we are able best to appreciate the value of our country ; every Englishman who leaves it from honourable motives, becomes a subordinate representative of it, and ought to revolt at tarnishing a name which is every where honoured.

The population of Sweden, including Finland, is rapidly encreasing; it is at present ascertained to exceed three millions. The revenues of Sweden arise from the poll-tax, about one shil

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ling and three-pence each person, with certain exceptions; royal demesnes, windows, horses, equipages, supernumerary servants, watches, tobacco, snuff, duties on exports and imports and distilled spirits, on mines and forges, part of the great tythes, deductions from salaries, pensions and places, and monopoly of saltpetre. The herring fishery is said to be much on the decline. We found every thing, except cloth, very cheap in Sweden:

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