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and murder; and that man should imagine they were deserving honour by the massacre of each other, merely to flatter ambition with a new title, is, perhaps, as infcrutable a mystery as any that has perplexed reason, and as gross an absurdity as any that has disgraced it. It is not, indeed, so much to punish vice, as to prevent misery, that I wish to see it always branded with infamy, for even the successes of vice terminate in the anguish of disappointment. To ALEXANDER, the fruit of all his conquests was tears; and whoever goes about to gratify intemperate wishes, will labour to as little purpose, as he who should attempt to fill a fieve: with water.

I was accidentally led to pursue my subject in this train, by the fight of an historical chart, in which the rise, the progress, the declension, and duration of empire, are represented by the arrangement of different colours ; and in which, not only extent but duration . is rendered a senfible object. The Grecian empire, which is distinguished by a deep red, is a long but narrow line; because, though AZ OXANder marked the world with bis colour from Macedonia to Egypt, yet the colours peculiar to the hereditary potentates whom he dispossessed, again took place upon his death: and. indeed, the question, whose name thall be conne&ted with a particular country as its king, is, to those who hazard life in the decision, as trifling, as whether a.. {mall spot in a chart shall be stained with red or yellow, That man should be permitted to decide such questions by means fo dreadful, is a reflection under which he only can rejoice, who believes that GOD ONLY REIGNS; and can appropriate the promise, that ALL THINGS SHALL WORK TOGETHER FOR GOOD. :

On CHASTITY..

[Guardian, No. 45.1:

I DON'T know that I have been more intimately I moved with pity in my whole life, than when I was reading a letter from a young woman, not yet

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nineteen,

nineteen, in which there are these lamentable words; Alas, -whither shall I fly? he has deceived, ruined, “ and left me.” The circumstances of her story are only chose ordinary ones, that her lover was a man of greater fortune than the could expect would address to her upon honourable terms; but the said to herself, " She had wit and beauty, and such charms as often “ captivate so far as to make men forget those meaner “ considerations, and innocent freedoms were not to " be denied: A gentleman of condition is not to be " fhunned purely for being such ; and they who took 4 notice of it, did it only out of malice, because they " were not used by him with the same distinction." But I would have young women, who are orphans, or unguarded with powerful alliances, consider with horsor the insolence of wealth : Fortune does in a great ineasure denominate what is vice and virtue; or if it does not go fo far, innocence is helpless, and oppres. fion unpunished without its affiftance; for this reason it is, that I would strictly recommend to my young females not to dally with men whose circumstances can support them against their falfhood, and have the palfion of a bale felf-interested world on their side, which infead of avenging the cause of an abused woman, will proclaim her dishonour; while the person injured is thunned like a pestilence, he who did the wrong fees no difference in the reception he meets with, nor is he the less welcome to the rest of the sex, who are fill within the pale of honour and innocence.

Wbat makes this circumstance the more lamentable, is, that it frequently falls upon those who have greatest merit and understanding. Gentleness of disposition and taste of polite conversation, I have often known Snares toward vice in some, whilft fullenness and disrelith of any thing that was agreeable have been the only defences of virtue in others. I have my unhappy correspondent's letter before me; and she says she is sure he is so much a gentleman, and he has that natural softness, that if he reads any thing moving on this subject in my paper, it will certainly make him think. Poor Girl!. - Cæsar alhamed! Has not he seen Phar.

falia as

falia ?” Does the poor creature imagine that a scrip of paper, a collection of sentences, and an old man's talk of pleasures which he is past, will have an effect upon him who could go on in a series of falsehood ; let drop ambiguous sentences in her absence, to give her falle hope from the repetition of them by some friend that heard them; that could pass as much time in the pure suit of her, as would have attained some useful art or science ; and that only to attain a short revel of his lenses under a stupor of faith, honour and conscience ? No; the destruction of a well-educated young woman is not accomplished by the criminal, who is guilty of it, in a sudden start of desire; he is not surprised into it by frailty ; but arrives at it by care, skill, and me ditation. It is no small aggravation of the guilt, that it is a thousand times conquered and resisted, even while it is prosecuted. He that waits for fairer occafons, for riper wishes, for the removal of a particular objection, or the conquest of any certain fcruple, has it in his power to obey his conscience, which often calls him, during the intrigue, a villain and a defroyer. There can be nothing faid for such an evil; but that the restraints of shame and ignominy are bro. ken down by the prevalence of custom. I don't, indeed, expect that my precautions will have any great weight with men of mode ; but I know not but they may be some way efficacious on those who have not yet taken their party as to vice and virtue for life; but I know not how it is, but our sex has usurped a certain authority to exclude chastity out of the catalogue of masculine virtues, by which means females adventure all against those who have nothing to lose; and they have nothing but empty fighs, tears and reproaches against those who reduced them to real forrow and infamy. But as I am now talking to the world yet untainted, I will venture to recommend chastity as the noblest male qualification.

It is methinks very unreasonable that the difficulty of attaining all other good habits is what makes them honourable, but in this case the very attempt is hecome ridiculous. But in spite of all the raillery of the

world,

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world, truth is still truth, and will have beauties in separable from it. I thould upon this occasion bring examples of heroic chastity, were I not afraid of having my paper thrown away by the modish part of the town, who go no farther, at beft, than the mere absence of ill, and are contented to be rather irreproachable than praise-worthy : In this particular, a gentleanan in the court of Cyrus, reported to his majesty the charms and beauty of Panthea, and ended his fanegyrick by telling him, that since he was at leisure he would carry him to visit her, but that prince, who is a very great man to this day, answered the pimp, because he was a man of quality, without roughness, and said with a smile, “ If I should visit her upon 46 your introduction now I have leisure, I don't know “ but I might go again upon her own invitation, when “ I ought to be better employed." But when I caft about all the instances which I have met with in all my reading, I find not one so generous, fo honest, and fo noble as that of Joseph in holy writ: When his mas. ter had trusted him so unreservedly, (to speak it in the emphatical manner of the Scripture) “ He knew not ought he had save the bread which he did eat,” he was so unhappy as to appear irresistibly beautiful to his mistress ; but when this shameless woman proceeds to solicit him, how gallant is his answer ? « Behold " my master wotteth not what is with me in the “ house, and hath committed all that he hath to my “ hand, there is none greater in the house than 1, " neither hath he kept back any thing from me but " thee, because thou art his wife.” The same argument, which a base mind would have made to its self for committing the evil, was to this brave man the greatest motive for forbearing it, that he could do it with impunity ; the malice and fallhood of the disappointed woman naturally arose on that occasion, and there is but a short step from the practice of virtue to the hatred of it. It would therefore be worth seria ous consideration in both sexes, and the matter is of importance enough to them, to ask themselves whether they would change lightness of heart, indolence of

mind, chearful meals, untroubled Numbers, and gentle dispositions, for a constant pruriency which shuts out all things that are great or indifferent, clouds the imagination with infenfibility and prejudice to all manner of delight, but that which is common to all creatures that extend their species. - A loose behaviour, and an inattention to every thing that is serious, flowing from some degree of this petulancy, is obfervable in the generality of the youth of both sexes in this age. It is the one common face of most public meetings, and breaks in upon the fobriety, , I won't say severity, that we ought to exercise in churches. The pert boys and flippant girls are buc faint followers of those in the same inclinations at: more advanced years. I know not who can oblige: them to mend their manners; all that I pretend to, is to enter my protest that they are neither fine gentle. men nor fine ladies for this behaviour.. As for the portraitures which I would propose, as the images of: agreeable men and women, if they are not imitated or regarded, I can only answer, , as I remember Mr. Dryden. did on the like occasion, when a young fel.. low, just come from the play of Cleomenes, told him in raillery against the continency of his principal cha racter. If I had been alone with a lady I should not have passed my time like your Spartan; “ That may “ be," answered the bard with a very grave face; " but give me leave to tell you, Sir, you are no hero.”

On natural and fantastical Pleasures.

[Guardian, No 49.]

TT is of great use to consider the pleasures which I conftitute human happiness, as they are diftinguished into natural and fantastical. Natural plea. sures I call those, which not depending on the fashion and caprice of any particular age or nation, are suited to human nature in general, and were intended by providence as rewards for che using our faculties agree

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