صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني




[ocr errors]

tain, that vast armies issued from this land. that there are few things in Europe to vie
The only region with which Sweden can with the colossal greatness which it exhi-
properly be compared, is North America ; bits: but when we found, upon a closer
a land of wood and iron, with very few in. examination, that, as at Petersburg, the
habitants, " and out of whose hills thou semblances and show of architecture con.
mayest dig brass :” but, like America, it sisted, for the most part, of white-washed
is also, as to society, in a state of infancy. edifices, built either of bricks, or, what is
It has produced a Linnæus, because natu forse, of lath and plaster, not having half
ral history is almost the only study to the durability even of Bernasconi's cement;
which the visible objects of such a region mere wood and mortar, tricked out to look
can be referred : and almost all its men of like Corinthian pillars and stone walls;
letters are still natural historians or che we could but consider such pageantry as
mists. Centuries may elapse before Swe- only one degree removed from the paste-
den will produce a Locke, or a Montes- board and painted scenery of a common
quiet, or a Paley, or a Dugald Stewart; playhouse." pp. 152, 153.
although it may be 'never without a Wal. We could not read this passage
lerius, a Hasselquist, a Thunberg, or a without ruefully considering, what,
Berzelius.pp. 87–88.

then, is to be thought of that street, Dr Clarke was disappointed by the which is destined to be the future view of Trollhätta ; but he takes occa- pride of the British metropolis, whose sion to give the following view of the brick columns are at this moment coSwedish cottages and peasantry. vering with a plaster similar to that

which Dr Clarke thus contemns? “ We examined the interior of many of Still more, what would he think of the cottages of the poor; but in this part those worthy citizens of Edinburgh, of Sweden we never had the satisfaction to who, as soon as their own excellent observe any thing like comfort or cleanli.

In this respect they are certainly in. and substantial freestone begins to asferior to the Danes. A close and filthy sume the tint of age, daub it over room, crowded with pale, swarthy, wretch with a similar coating, which, after ed-looking children, sprawling upon a

the first gloss is worn off, speedily asdirty floor, in the midst of the most power sumes the appearance of dirty plaster, ful stench, were the usual objects that pre- depriving the fabric of all its original sented themselves to our notice. It is solid and imposing character ? therefore marvellous that, in spite of all In proceeding northward, Dr Clarke these obstacles, the Swedish peasants after. saw on the Dal, the river of Dalecarwards attain to a healthy maturity, and lia, a cataract and saw-mill, which he appear characterized by a sturdiness of considers decidedly superior to Trollform, and the most athletic stature. Many hætta. The falls on this river are said of them seem to belong to a race of giants, to be not inferior to those of the with neryes of iron." p. 109.

Rhine. The following is a general Dr Clarke made only a hurried vi- picture of Northern Sweden. sit to Stockholm ; he thus describes

“ Avenues through forests ; extensive the principal architectural objects con- lakes, adorned with islands ; wooden cottained in that city.

tages ; and here and there a few spots of “ The street in which we lodged was

land inclosed for cultivation, where an close to the great square, called the Nore opening among the trees allowed of our dermalm, or North Place; the stately seeing them. Judging from what we had magnificence of which, at first sight, is

already noticed, we considered the North very imposing. One entire side of it is of Sweden as being by much the finest part adorned by the Royal Palace, and a bridge of the country; not only with respect to in front of it, built of granite : another is trious habits, the moral disposition, the

it exhibits, but to the indusoccupied by the Opera House, where

Gus. cleanliness, and the opulence, of the inhatavus the Third was assassinated. Oppo bitants. Upon the borders of the lakes, as site to the Opera House is the Palace of the Princess Royal. In the centre of this

we passed, we saw some gentlemen's scats. area, opposite to the bridge which conducts Being Sunday, the female peasants were to the Royal Palace, is an equestrian statue lying upon the ground, by the water-side, of Gustavus Adolphus, in gilded bronze : reading their Bibles; and when we met of this faces the royal structure, and has an

overtook any of them upon the road, each air of great grandeur. This square may

of them had a Bible in her hands, carefully be considered as affording a concentration wrapped in a clean pocket-handkerchief." of almost every thing worth seeing in pp. 192, 193. Stockholm; and, if we were to judge from But no natural object struck him so external appearance only, we should say, much as the cataract of the Ljusna.

[ocr errors]

“ We were in the midst of a gloomy some of the houses in Upland so laden forest ; but, all at once, the dark scenery with masses of stone, that the inhabitants of the surrounding woods opened upon seemed liable to dangerous accidents, if any such a view of the Ljusna, as no pen can of them should happen to fall, or if the describe : it burst upon us, in all its ter- roof were to yield to so much pressure, rific grandeur; the whole tide collected when it becomes old and rotten. Confrom all its tributary lakes and rivers, structed in this manner, each farmer has a throughout its course from the Norwegian house for his hay, another for his corn, a Alps, in one vast torrent, clamorously and third for his pigs, a fourth for his poultry, impetuously foaming and rushing to the a fifth for his goats, a sixth for his sheep, Bothnian Gulf. A bridge, constructed a seventh for his cows, an eighth for his of whole trunks of fir-trees, divested only horses, and so for the rest of his stock. of their bark, stretched across this furious We saw no dwellings of poor persons: the torrent, to the distance of one hundred peasants appeared to be all farmers, or to yards ; presenting one of the most pictur- be members of some one family holding esque objects imaginable. Above this bridge, land in cultivation. Every dwelling has, the river is a quarter of a mile broad ; and by the side of it, a lofty ensign of the cligrowing wider as it reccdes from the eye of mate, in a high conspicuous rack for drya person here placed, it is distantly divided ing the unripened corn. These machines by promontories, projecting from its sides make a great figure all over the country, until they almost meet, and covered with as they are close to every house ; and tall trees; thereby forming straits which sometimes there are two or three or tour of connect it with other seeming lakes, equal. them to one dwelling, which are seen at a ly beautiful, beyond them; and which ap- distance, and announce to the traveller the pear more remotely terminated by a ridge proportion of arable land in the occupation of mountains, closing the prospect. But, of the landholder whose dwelling he apin this amazing spectacle, all is freshness proaches. In this part of Sweden, bread and animation ; the utmost liveliness, and is baked only twice in the whole year; but light, and elegance, exhibited by the dis. in many other parts of the country only tant sheets of water, combined with all the once ; when a sufficient quantity for twelve energy and tremendous force of the Cata. months' consumption is prepared in the ract, making the bridge, upon which the form of biscuits, which are spitted upon spectator stands, shake under his feet, as if rods, and thus placed beneath the roof of it were rocked by an earthquake.” pp. 194, every house ; the biscuits being ranged in 195.

rows over the heads of the inhabitants, A more humble but useful object down as they are wanted.” pp. 200, 201.

who, as they sit at their meals, take them of contemplation was presented by the farin-houses in this part of Sweden. In approaching the head of the

Gulf of Bothnia, both the country and “ They are literally log-houses ; consisting of the mere timber laid together nearly people became wilder. The following as it has been felled ; being roughly hewn is a scene on the Lulea. with an axe, the only tool used in build “ From every eminence, the eye suring, and without a nail in any part of veyed a vast extent of woodland, so thickly them. Every man is his own carpenter set with pines, that their tops, in many a and builder ; working without saw, plane, waving line of uninterrupted verdure, were chisel, nails, or hammer. Many new hou. dimly seen through mists, like those of ses had been constructed here: we saw one Italy, softening without obscuring the diswhich was building. The trunks of trees tant objects. In our road, we met with a are piled longitudinally, and fitted at the group of wood-nymphs, the real Dryades corners by a sort of dove-tail work. All and Öreades of these forests and mountains, these buildings, viewed from a little dis. wild as the daughters of Phoroneus and tance, resemble piles of timber heaped for Hecate. They wore scarlet vests with short exportation. Every man's premises con- petticoats; their legs and feet being naked, stitute, of themselves, a little village, sur. and their hair floating in the wind. In rounding a square court, the entrance to their hands they carried a sort of trumpet, which is by a gateway. The owner has a six feet in length, which in this country is separate house for every thing belonging named a lure : it is used, in the forests, to to him; with such facility and speed are call the cattle, and to drive away bears and these houses built. Moss alone is used in wolves. The sound of one of the lures, caulking the interstices between the trunks being full and clear, is heard for miles. of trees, where they do not fit close, to keep We offered these girls a trifle, to give us a out the wind and winter frost. As a cover- specimen of their performance upon one of ing for the roof, they lay on, first, the bark them, the workmanship of which might of birch-trees, pressed down by poles pla- have passed for a specimen, brought from ced transversely, and kept in their places the South Seas, of the ingenuity of savaby large stones laid upon them. We saw ges: it consisted of splinters of wood,

bound together by a close and firm texture “ Of a town so little known as Tornea, of withy. They would not comply with one would wish to convey an accurate idea our request ; fearing, from our offer of by description. It consists of two princi. payment, that we wished to purchase their pal streets, nearly half an English mile in lures, which they were unwilling to part length. The houses are all of wood. with : and upon our urging the request, After what has been said of its civilized with an offer more money, they all external aspect, it ought only to be conbounded away, quickly disappearing a. sidered as less barbarous, in its appearance, mongst the trees. Presently, when we than the generality of towns in the north of thought we had lost them, a very beautiful Sweden. It must not be inferred, that girl of the party made her appearance, there is the slightest similitude between from a thick forest, upon the projecting this place and one of the towns in England. point of a rock; where, being safe from If it were possible to transport the reader, all chance of approach on our part, she now engaged in perusing this description, gave to the lure its full power,

into the midst of Tornea, the first impres. c And blew a blast so loud and dread,

sion upon his mind would be, that he was Were ne'er prophetic sounds so full of and piles of timber, heaped by the water

surrounded by a number of faggot-stacks, woe."

side for exportation, rather than inhabited They have also a shorter kind of trumpet, houses.” p. 279. which is more musical, about two feet in *6 The number of inhabitants amounts length, made in the same manner; and to six or seven hundred; the aggregate of from which they sometimes produce very persons in about 120 families. Yet it is! pleasing tones : but in the immense forests an unusual thing to see any body in the of Angermanland, and in many parts of streets : and this deserted appearance, adthe provinces bordering upon the northern ded to the grass growing in them, makes shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the lnre is Tornea look as if the place were abandon. six feet in length. We afterwards bought ed, and had not been inhabited for half a some of these instruments, and sent them century." p. 281. to England." pp. 255, 256.

In this part of Sweden steam baths Soon after he arrived at Tornea, and appear to be universal. gives a view of the aspect of this Arc “ There is not a village, nor indeed a tic city.

dwelling, without a steam-bath ; in which

the inhabitants of both sexes assemble to“ The river Tornea was now in sight : gether, in a state of perfect nudity, for the and as we approached its banks, the town purpose of bathing, at least once in every appeared upon the opposite side. To our week ; and oftener, if any illness occur great surprise, we saw houses of two stories, among them. These steam-baths are all with saslied windows, and painted palisades alike: they consist of a small hut, contain. in front. The principal objects, however, ing a furnace for heating stones red hot, were the two churches, and a number of upon which boiling water is thrown ; and crazy windmills. Boats, like large canoes, a kind of shelf, with a ladder conducting with paddles, were passing to and fro, in to it, upon which the bathers extend themgreat number : more distant, toward the selves, in a degree of temperature such as mouth of the river, we saw some large ves. the natives of southern countries could not sels lying at anchor, with two and with endure for an instant : here they have three masts. The harbour is yet farther their bodies rubbed with birch boughs dipdistant towards the Gulf, seven British ped in hot water ; an office which is always miles from the town; and here vessels performed by the females of each family, principally have their station, as the river and generally by the younger females." is too shallow to admit ships of burden p. 294. close to Tornea, which is situate upon a peninsula, frequently made an island by

He afterwards mentions, the inundation of the isthmus. This was

“ This night we reached Korpikyla : the case when we arrived ; the water being, not being able to find a human being, we on either side of it, a quarter of a mile began to suspect that the place was desertbroad. “ We crossed over to the pier-head, and where to look for the people, opened the

ed; when our boatmen, knowing better found it covered with barrels of tar, lying door of one of the little steam-baths, for all ready for exportation. Passing into the the world like a cow-house, and out rushstreets of the town, we were surprised to ed men, women, and children, stark-naked, find them covered with long grass, as if with dripping locks and scorched skins, the place were uninhabited : nor was our and began rolling about upon the grass." wonder diminished, when we were given to understand that this grass was reserved for mowing.” pp. 274, 275.

Our author now proceeded north

p. 296.

ed us

into Lapland, along the banks of the threw open the door of the tent : it was full Tornea, whose scenery he thus de of inmates, about seven persons in all, two scribes :

men and two women, besides children.

We presented them with the two offerings is The groves by the water-side are de. most likely to ensure a welcome ; namely, lightful: a rude and devious path, always

brandy and tobacco; the women swallowdoubtful, and often altogether indistinct,

ing the former as greedily as the men, overshaded by foliage impenetrable to the

who, as it is well known, will almost part rays of the sun, now winding among rocks,

with life itself for the gratification of dramnow along the brink of a cataract, conduct drinking. We now seated ourselves with

them in their tent. They had dark hair

and tawny skins, but there was no appear. O'er many a wilder sweeter sod ance of filthiness. Their shirts were made

Than Fancy's feet have ever trod. of leather; their scull-caps, either of wool. In these woods, when removed from the len cloth, or of black plush ; their shoes, noise of the cataracts, there is sometimes a seldom worn in summer, were of the same stillness which is quite awful ; it is the un

nature as the lobkas of the Russians, made broken silence of Nature left entirely to of matted birch-bark. The outer garments herself : if it be interrupted, it is only so

of men and women resembled a Capuchin's by the humming of the mosquitos, or the

cowl, fastened round the waist with a sash. piping of the beccasine, or the murmur of This outer covering is only worn when the wind. Man seems to be an intruder,

they are abroad; and then they carry profor the first time, into the midst of soli

visions in the large pouch which the botudes that have never been trodden by any

som affords : this is, moreover, their sumhuman foot : the very path which he pure

mer dress.” pp. 349, 350. sues has not been traced by the footsteps

“ About fifty yards from the tent were of men, but of animals.” pp. 323, 324.

the rein-deer, in their inclosures, running

about, and apparently tame : when we enProceeding farther north, along the tered the inclosure, they came and stood banks of the Muonio, he observes,

by us.

The males were separated from

the females. These inclosures consisted of “ If we could have ascended a moun- the trunks of fir-trees, laid horizontally tain, or climbed to any height above that one upon another, without being stripped of the trees, we had every reason to believe of their branches. In the centre of each that we should have beheld the sun above inclosure there was a fire burning, to keep . the horizon at midnight: we found after the flies and mosquitos from the cattle. vards that this was true, and that, want. When we first entered, our little dog put ing such an elevation, we missed the sight about fifty of the rein-deer to flight: they of the midnight orb, although its beams scampered off into the forest, and as quick. were visible, shining at every hour of the ly returned ; which enabled us to judge of night upon the tops of the trees. A sud- the astonishing speed with which they traden diminution of temperature was sensibly vel, exceeding that of any animal we had felt in the middle of the night, as contrast ever seen : they darted between the trees ed with the heat of the day: but in other like arrows, and over deep bogs with such respects, there was little difference.” p. 341. velocity as not to sink through the yielding The following is the description of vaulted upon the back of one of them, ha

surface. The boy, who had conducted us, the first view obtained of a Lapland ving a reindeer skin for his saddle, and tugurium :

two sieves by way of stirrups. When it is “ There appeared, in the midst of the necessary to catch any of these animals, it forest, a hill, the only approach to which is done merely by throwing a cord over was through a swamp up to our knees in their horns. Some of the females were water. Upon the top of this hill stood a

milked ; and the women presented us with single tent of the Laplanders, constructed the milk, warm : it was thick, and sweet as before described. By the side of it,

as cream ; we thought we had never tasted hanging to dry, were cakes of cheese, new

any thing more delicious : but it is rather ly made ; and hard by, penned within se

difficult of digestion, and apt to cause head. veral folds, two or three hundred rein-der; ache in persons unaccustomed to it, unless whose grunting, as we drew near to them, it be mixed with water.” pp. 354, 355. exactly resembled that of so many hogs. On the general aspect of the counThe Lapland boy had before requested try upon the Muonio, Dr Clarke cuthat we would allow liim to run forward, riously remarks, and advertise his father of our coming, that he might, as he literally expressed it, be “ Here we may be said to contemplate dressed to receive us : but we forbade it, the boundary of Pigmy Land. Pigmæan desiring to see his family in their usual cattle browze the dwindled forest ; a pigmy state of living. We now advanced, and race, in their tiny barks, pass from island

to island, like little adventurous rovers in height; his hair, straight and dark, upon some fairy 'sea ; while, in the still hung scantily down the sides of his lean region, hardly any other sound is heard, and swarthy face : his eyes were almost excepting those of murmuring waters, sunk in his head. His wife, with a shri. humming insects, or piping birds." pp. velled skin, and a complexion of one uni358, 359.

form copper colour, was even more dwarf.

ish than her husband. Her features reIn ascending the Muonio, they came sembled those of the Chinese : high cheekto Enontekis, which forms the capi. bones ; little sore eyes, widely separated tal of a vast extent of these solitary from ench other; a wide mouth ; and a regions. Here they were well received flat nose. Her hair was tressed up, and by Mr Grape, a respectable clergyman, entirely concealed beneath a scull-cap: her of much higher attaininents than teeth black: and between her lips she could have been expected in so se

held a tobacco-pipe, smoking; the tube of cluded a situation. The first subject which was so short, that the kindled weed

threatened to scorch the end of her nose. of deliberation was how to convene a large body of the wandering Lapps ; the human form in appearance, can hardly

A more unsightly female, or with less of and the most likely inethod was judg- be conceived. Indeed, both man and woed to be, to disseminate widely the man, if exhibited in a menagerie of wild intention of launching an air balloon, beasts, might be considered as the long-lost with which Dr Clarke had provided link between man and ape. In the evenhimself. This manæuvre had soon ing of this day, many other of the natives, the desired effect.

Colonists and Laplanders, arrived at the

house, bringing all of them some gift for “ Many of the nomade Lapps began to the Minister. Mr Grape received them arrive with their rein-deer ; and a consider- all in his principal room, giving his hand able number of the agricultural Laplanders to each as he entered. One brought him a were seen upon the lake in front of the bunch of wild-goose quills ; another, a Minister's house, coming in boats towards bundle of dried stock-fish ; a third, a tub the place. They took up their quarters, of butter; a fourth, cheese ; a fifth, rcinas fast as they arrived, in the storehouses, deer tongues ; and so on. After sitting reaching all the way from the church to with him some time in the room, without the water-side. The balloon being finish- uttering a syllable, they took out pieces of ed, it was suspended in the church, and copper coin'; one presenting him with a the hoop and curtain added ; afterwards, it penny; another with twopence ; and so was proved, in the presence of Mr Grape, for the rest. These offerings, to use his own and some of the natives. Among the lat. expression to us, were the “ merces for the ter, the Laplanders, who are the most ti. Priest.” pp. 389—391. mid of the human race, could not be persuaded to regard it without fear, and never The scene at church is not unworwere very well pleased with the contri.

thy of quotation. vance; perhaps attributing the whole to some magical art. As this was the eve of “ When we entered, the congregation the Sabbath, we had it taken down and re was engaged in singing ; the men being moved, that there might be no interruption divided from the women, as we often see of the church service on the following day. them in England ; and the Minister standWe then adjourned to the Minister's dwel. ing alone at the altar. The whole church ling; the throng gradually increasing, un. was crowded, and even the gallery full : til the house, and all the places near it, many of the wild nomade Laplanders being were full; a party of the wild Lapps ha- present, in their strange dresses. The serving stationed themselves in the porch of mon appeared to us the most remarkable the Parsonage. Towards evening, they part of the ceremony. According to the began to find their way into Mr Grape's custom of the country, it was an extemparlour, and into the auljoining bed-rooms; poraneous harangue; but delivered in a in one of which, seeing the author writing tone of voice so elevated, that the worthy his Journal, a Lapp remained peeping over pastor seemed to labour as if he would burst his shoulder, with the utruost gravity and a blood vessel. He continued exerting his silence, for about half an hour ; every now lungs in this manner during one hour and and then making motions with his fingers twenty minutes, as if his audience had been to one of the Lapland women, (his wife,) stationed upon the top of a distant moun. imitating the motion of the author's hand, tain. Afterwards, he was so hoarse he while writing; and both regarding with could hardly articulate another syllable. wonder an employment wholly inexplicable One would have thought it impossible to to them, either as to its use or meaning. doze during a discourse that made our The whole race of Laplanders are pigmies. ears ring; yet some of the Lapps were fast This man was about four feet and a half asleep; and would have snored, but that

« السابقةمتابعة »