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a sexton, habited like themselves, walked more like a mole-hill than any habitation about with a long and stout pole, with of men, in the midst of some forest, or which he continued to strike the floor; and upon the summit of some mountain, hare if this did not rouse them, he drove it for. bours a few wretched pigmies, cut off from cibly against their ribs, or suffered it to fall all communion with society ; whose dwarfwith all its weight upon their sculls.” pp. ish stature, and smoke-dried aspect, scarce. 392, 393.
ly admits of their being recognised as in. “ As we accompanied the Minister to tellectual beings created in the image of his house, we ventured to ask the reason
pp. 450, 451. of the very loud tone of voice he had used 6. After all that has been urged, it in preaching. He said he was aware that should be admitted, that the summer seait must appear extraordinary to a stran son is not that in which it is best to visit ger ; but that if he were to address the Lapland; although it be indispensable to. Leplanders in a lower key, they would con- wards many purposes of scientific research, sider him as a feeble and impotent mis. Winter is the festival time of all the inha. sionary, wholly unfit for his office, and bitants of these Northern latitudes. It is Fould never come to church : that the me. then that the Laplanders may be said to rit and abilities of the preacher are always Ay upon the wings of the wind. In this estimated, both among the Colonists and season, so congenial to his habits, his spi. Lapps, by the strength and power of his rits are more elevated ; a constant inter. Foice.” pp. 393, 394.
course prevails among the nomade and The balloon did not meet with all held : provisions are more abundant, and
agricultural families ; all the fairs are the success that had been anticipated, more easily kept and conveyed ; none of a paper kite proving a much more at the evils of which travellers most complain tractive object.
are then felt; the perpetual darkness, in Dr Clarke did not proceed farther which the whole region is said to be shrowd. north than Enontekis, but returned ed, has been strongly misrepresented and southwards towards Finland. At the exaggerated ; the absence of the sun's rays junction of the Aunis with the Kiemi, is greatly compensated by serene and cloudhe considers himself as passing a se
less skies, in which all the other luminaries cond time the boundary of the Frigid of heaven shine with a degree of lustre un
known in other latitudes; and, among Zone, and gives the following general these, the Aurora Borealis, added to the view of the scenery which it pre- effect of reflection from a surface of glittersents:
ing snow, produce a degree of light, of " A moment's retrospect upon the ge
which persons can have no idea who have neral condition of the Arctic regions will
not witnessed a Lapland winter.” pp. 452,
453. shew whether we had reasonable cause of regret, in the consciousness that we should
The scenery seen by our author in never again return thither. It is true, as crossing the country from Sundswall Linnæus said of this country, that it is the to the frontier of Norway, is describland of peace ; but it is the peace of an un- ed by him as equal to any in Europe. broken solitude, into which, if man pre. Of a lake near Bergsiö, he says, sumes to penetrate, his first interrogations are answered by the howling of wolves and “ There is nothing in the Vale of Kesbears; and, at every step he takes, the wick superior to the scenery here. At this stings of venomous insects inflict excrucia- time, every thing conspired to render our ting torments. When he looks around views of it the more delightful ;--the busy him, a wide and trackless forest extends in labours of harvest ; the crimson splendour every direction; in which there is a cha- of the sun, setting behind the distant racter of sameness so little varied, that dul- mountains ; the melodies of the peasants' ness rather than peace may be said to reign pipes ; the deeper and more-resounding with supreme dominion. Many a weary tones of the lure; " and all that echoed league is passed without meeting a single to the song of Even;" gave life, and spianimal. The quadrupeds, excepting beasts rit, and gladness, to the scenery; making of prey, are seen only near the solitary it altogether enchanting. The musical dwellings. Birds are few in number, ex. sounds which we heard proceeded from a cepting upon the rivers ; wbere aquatic simple instrument, like the old English flute fowls, during one short season of the year, now out of use in our country-the pipe of find an unmolested retreat, in which to the Alpine shepherds : it is common in the hatch and rear their offspring. With the 'valleys of Helsingland, and seems to chaexception of the few colonial familice set- racterize a livelier race of men than the in. tled in little farms, widely dispersed along habitants of the more northern provinces. the banks of the rivers, the human race We slept in great comfort at Bergsiö ; may be considered as amongst the greatest and the next day we passed a series of the rarities of the country. A single tent, finest landscapes the eye ever beheld ; com
bining all the charms of agriculture with Italy from Switzerland. Many of their the most majestic features of uncultivated tops were resplendent with beds of snow, Dature ;-sloping hop-grounds, rich in. which remains unmelted throughout the closures, farms, cottages, cattle, amidst the year, but did not exhibit the splendour and grandeur and magnificence of lakes and brilliancy of the snow-clad summits of the mountains.” pp. 547, 548.
Helvetian barrier.” pp. 58), 582. The grandest spectacle of all was The following are the first observathat presented by the lake called the tions made by our author on entering Ran Sion.
the Norwegian territory. “ This magnificent piece of water, in observing a change for the better as to
“ We experienced an agreeable surprise through which flows the whole current of the Ljusdal, is one of the finest lakes in accommodations, immediately upon our Europe ; and it is far beyond any other, leaving Sweden. The cleanliness of the in the surprising combination which it ex. cottages on the Norwegian side of these hibits, of rural scenery with the sublimer resemblance to English customs and lan
mountains was very remarkable ; and the objects of Nature. Mountains, islands,
guage, wbich we had remarked in the bays, promontories, broken shores, towering forests, hanging woods, sloping fields, mountainous parts of Sweden, was bere cottages and farm-houses, with all the flood
more striking than ever. Everything we of waters, light, and life about it, make it, of England. Polished pewter dishes and
saw called to mind “ the good old times" perhaps, the grandest and most perfect association of the kind existing." p. 569.
earthenware plates, set in rows along the
walls ; rows of brown mugs for beer; bur. Our author was not less delighted nished kettles and saucepans ; bright woodwhen he approached the confines of en benches, bedsteads, chairs and tables, Norway.
bleached with frequent scowering ; pails
and ladles, white as the milk they were to “ Having ascended a mountain, as we contain. And besides this, a great imtraversed its summit, we commanded, to- provement in the condition of the natives ; wards the south, a valley of such extent better clothes, better bread, and many even and beauty, spreading wide below us, as it of the luxuries of life. The Swedish peawill be difficult to describe. The opposite sants who visit these parts buy of the inmountains were many leagues distant; habitants some of the last, such as brandy and from the heights, over which we pas, and tobacco ; which, fortunately for the sed, the most immense forests descended natives of Herjeadalen, they have not at in one prodigious sweep of woodland, with home. A striking difference is also dis. towering trees o'er trees, down into the cernible between the inhabitants of the two profoundest recesses of this valley; where, countries. The Norwegians are a smaller amidst the tufted groves, appeared the glit. race of men ; the athletic and gigantic statering surface of intervening waters; and ture characteristic of the northern Sæedes beyond rose, as boldly as it fell from the no longer appears. There is also a differspot where we viewed it, the same suc ence of dress and manner : Instead of a cession of unbroken primeval vegetation ; hat or skull-cap, the Norwegian wears a -woods, tenanted only by wolves and red or blue woollen night-cap, or else a bears and wandering elks, and all the sa cap shaped like that of an English jockey: vage animals of these vast wildernesses, and, instead of strings in his shoes, enorreaching up the sides of all the distant mous brass buckles, covering almost the mountains, whose summits, black and whole of the upper part of the foot ; innaked, as if casting off the cumbrous load stead of open hearths for fire-places, the of timber which veiled their sides and ba- less cheerful and unpleasant stove appears ses, shone clear in æther, or were concealed in every chamber; instead of woollen within their caps of clouds. Descending counterpanes, lined with woollen fleece or from this magnificent prospect, another rein-deer skins, the beds in Norway are equally striking was presented. The south- covered with bags, stuffed with the down western extremity of a lake, called the of the Eyder duck.” pp. 598, 599. Funnesdal Sion, appeared in a profound abyss of woods, locked by mountains : be. The farm-houses and farmers are yond this piece of water, and high above afterwards described. all other summits, towered the precipitous ridges of the Norwegian Alps, giving to “ Farms in great number appeared on this mountain barrier between the two all sides, affording, by the variety and sincountries a character of grandeur which is gwarities of their situation, the most beaunot exhibited by the same range in any tiful objects. We passed many elegant other part of it, or by any other mountain country-seats. The outsides of all of them scenery in Swcden ; although, after all, it were painted red; they had sashed wincannot be compared with the Alps dividing dows, and the frames of the windows were
painted green. The form and neatness of point of picturesque beauty, the Bay of these rural retreats shewed their owners to Trönjem does not yield to the Bay of possess a good deal of taste : they were ge. Naples. It is everywhere land-locked by nerally oblong buildings, consisting of one mountains, which resemble, as to their floor. But the farm houses afforded the height and distance from the eye, those most interesting sight to us. If any one which surround the Bay of Naples ; Vesuwishes to see what English farmers once rius alone excepted. The Castel del' Uovo, were, and how they fared, he should visit so distinguished a feature of the Neapolitan Norway. Immense families all sitting Bay, is eclipsed by the appearance of the down together at one table, from the high- isle and fortress of Munkholm, opposite est to the lowest. If but a bit of butter be the town of Tröniem. Up and down, in called for, in one of these houses, a mass every direction near the town, appear the is brought forth weighing six or eight villas of the merchants; and riding at anpounds; and so highly ornamented, being chor in the bay, ships of all burden, and turned out of moulds, with the shape of boats passing and repassing. Among cathedrals set off with Gothic spires, and these, the boats of the natives are distin various other devices, that, according to the guished by the peculiarity of their conlanguage of our English farmers' wives, we struction, because they are always rigged should deem it almost a pity to cut it.' with a large square sail, and have a single Throughout this part of Norway, the fa- mast : in these vessels they venture to any mily plate of butter seemed to be the state- part of the coast. The town itself is forti. dish of the house." p. 620.
fied, and the works are in the best condi. “ We entered one of the largest farm- tion; the ramparts and fosse being coverhouses. Here we found twenty persons, ed with a smooth green turf, kept in the all members of one family, assembled at finest order. the same table, eating their favourite har. " This city, once the capital of Norway, vest-pudding, out of large wooden bowls. and residence of her Kings, by no means This pudding is made of barley, and ser. corresponds, in its actual appearance, with ved hot. Into this mess, which resembles the accounts published of its diminished what is called hasty-pudding in our farm- state and ruinous appearance. Although houses, they dip their spoons: the spoon, the last town towards the Pole, the tra. being half filled with it, is afterwards dip- yeller viewing it sees nothing but what ped in milk, and with this sauce they eat may remind him of the cities of the south. it . At the head of the table sate the grey. It is of very considerable size : its streets headed patriarch of this numerous family, are wide, well paved, and filled with regu. surrounded by his children and his chil. lar well-built houses, generally plastered dren's children; for among the healthy and and white-washed. There is no part of handsome young persons present, there Copenhagen better built, or neater in its were his sons and their wives, his daugh- aspect, than the streets of Trönijem." pp. ters and their husbands; and many of his 623-625. grand-children ran towards him, clinging to his knees, as being alarmed at our in During a residence of some time, trusion." p. 621.
Dr Clarke had an opportunity of
making observations on the manners The first town at which Dr Clarke of the people. arrived was Trönýem, the same which appears in our maps under the name 66 The inhabitants are not less distinof Drontheim. It is thus described : guished by their politeness than by their
hospitality. Their houses are thrown open “ Having ascended a steep eminence, to strangers in the most generous manner ; and turning suddenly round the corner of a but upon entering them, a degree of elerock, the glorious prospect of the City of gance is apparent, both in their furniture Tronjem, covering a peninsula in the fin. and in the form and disposition of their est bay the eye ever beheld, appeared far apartments, not seen in any of the Swedish below us. Its rising spires and white glit- towns, excepting Stockholm. Their custering edifices immediately reminded the toms are, to rise with the sun, when they author of the city and beautiful Bay of take a small breakfast; and at nine they Naples, to which it is somewhat similar. have a kind of luncheon, which they call In the latter, the grandeur of Vesuvius, Duel. At twelve or one, they dine: the the cliffs and hanging vineyards of Sorren. dinner is followed by coffee : and in the to, the shining heights and shores of Capri, evening they drink tea and play at cards ; with all the orange-groves of Baia, the when punch is always served. About ten rocks and caverns of Posilipo, possess, be. they usually sup, but do not go early to sides their natural beauties, a variety of bed. The lower order of people, in sum. local attractions, which, for the delights mer, sit up the whole night, and take no they afford, place them above every thing sleep for a considerable length of time. else in Europe : but, considered only in Sunday is, in fact, their sleeping day : if VOL. V.
they do not go to church, they spend the herdsmen above. Journeying through greater part of the sabbath in sleep; and Wales, the appearance of sheep feeding in in winter they amply repay themselves for mountain pastures is a pleasing but no unany privation of their hours of repose du- usual sight ; and in Switzerland, the exhi. ring summer.
bition of farms stationed in alpine solitudes * The two countries of Denmark and delights the traveller by the singularity and Norway, although united, were held to. pleasantness of the prospect : but in Nor. gether by no common tie ;--almost as way the impression is not that of pleasure nuch hatred existing between a Dane and it is a mixed sensation of amazement a Norwegian, as between a Norwegian and of terror." pp. 719, 720. and a Swede. Their national Song, so ex
After such copious extracts, any pressive of patriotic feeling, and of the longing which all the Norwegians enter- farther observations would, we pretain of an emancipation, was heard with sume, be superfluous.
The noble rapture, and resounded in every society, scenery of these countries is illustrated from one extremity of the country to the by a number of interesting designs, other ; being the oftener sung, because it beautifully etched by Miss L. Byrne. had been prohibited by the Court of Den. There are maps of the south of Swemark. In the room under the apart. den, and of some districts of Lapland. ments in which we lodged, an evening We do not exactly know why there club was regularly held ; where a large should not be one of the north of Sweparty being always assembled, we used to den. We observe that this is the first hear this national air chaunted with a de section of a new part of Dr Clarke's gree of enthusiasm, emphasis, and pas. sion, greater than we ever remembered to Travels. We know not into what have been called forth by the national songs region of the world we are next to of any country, if we except our sacred follow hiin; but we feel assured that anthem, “ God save the King." A great we shall do so with pleasure and innumber of the inhabitants speak the Eng. Struction. lish language; and, as it is so nearly al. lied to their own, they learn it with ease and expedition; many words, and even whole sentences, being the same in both.' pp. 627–630. In his journey southwards, Dr
Those who purchase this pamphlet Clarke had a full opportunity of ob- in the hope of perusing Thoughts serving the Norwegian scenery. He on Trial by Jury in Civil Cases in says, • it is the peculiar characteristic Scotland,” will be miserably disapof the Norwegian mountains, to com- pointed. It is merely a defence, unbine the grandeur of Alpine scenery limited and unqualified, of what has with the dark solemnity of the groves generally been called the Jury Court of Sweden, and the luxuriant softness job. There is no studding of the dry of the vales of Italy.” He afterwards argument with reflections; there is observes,
no relief whatever; it is special plead
ing throughout; and this is the more “ Throughout the Passage of the Doure. remarkable, inasmuch as the author field there is no want of inhabitants. The
can obviously write well, having the mountains are people from their bascs power, we should think, if he had bad quite up to their summits; farm-houses the disposition, to invest his subject being everywhere visible, standing on little with some degree of interest. As it is, sloping terraces, above precipices so naked however, he has made out a better that they exhibit scarcely a mark of any defence of the new Jury Court bill vegetable produce; excepting where the pine and the birch occasionally sprout from than many, who have attended little fissures in the rocks. In looking up these to the whole bearings of the case, precipices, if a spot appear not absolutely would have thought it susceptible of perpendicular, there may be seen a goat, but here again he has lost the hold and sometimes even a cow, browzing, in which it was in his power to take of places where it seems to be impossible that the public, by defending the weak they should move without being dashed to parts of his cause as strenuously, and atoms. Indeed, it sometimes happens that with the same air of complacency, as the latter is altogether unable to quit the the strong; and to this he has added place to which it has ventured ; and, in such cases, a peasant is let down, with ropes, to the spot, who fastens them about the animal, and both are drawn up by Edinburgh, 1819. Constable and Co.
THOUGHTS ON TRIAL BY JURY IN
CIVIL CASES IN SCOTLAND.
a deeper injury, by bringing character der of attending to the views and in aid of facts and arguments, instead feelings of the other classes of society. of leaving facts and arguments to sup Here, then, is positive good ; and port and defend character. Nothing we see no positive evil of a character tends more to shake public confidence more serious than that with which we in public men, than to rest the de- were previously familiar. Jury trial unfence of any part of their conduct on questionably condenses as it were intheir reputation. And the reason is to a focus, the anxieties, labours, and obvious. For let the character of such responsibilities, which were formerly functionaries be what it may, nobody scattered over a wide surface; and will dare publicly to call it in ques- hence the prejudice of many profestion. The judges and the clerks of sional men against it. Having fewer the Jury Court might be habitually opportunities of covering their blunthe very scoru of all the classes of ders, they are afraid of appearing to practitioners, and yet, in answer to more disadvantage in the eyes of their any one who should sound their clients; but this
, as it quickens atpraise, not a syllable of disapproba- tention, must be favourable on the tion would be given to the public. No whole; and though more errors may one would assert of any functionary be detected, there is every reason to that he was peeyish, splenetic, con- think that fewer of them will be comceited, and obstinate. And thus, we mitted. Even although it were nethink, it is fortunate for all the func- cessary to concede that the summary tionaries of this new court, that they nature of jury trial may subject parare known to the public otherwise, ties to some risks not incidental to than by the lavished praise of this the old system, there is ample comanonymous pamphleteer. The only pensation in the expedition, the more legitimate and judicious praise of complete expiscation of facts, and, public men, is to shew how their we are inclined to think, the necesa conduct has benefited their country: sarily more awakened, and, therefore,
We heartily concur with our author, more valuable consideration of each however, in bis opinion that Scotland case that takes place under the new. is mightily indebted to those public The expence, also, we should fain characters who have conferred upon hope, will be less on the whole, us the boon of jury trial in civil though it bulks more when disbursed causes; but not, we conceive, upon for the most part in a duy, than when the same grounds. One of the great- scattered over winter and summer est advantages of the measure, per- sessions, and even years. The exa haps, is, that it has set afloat another pence, however, will depend much on system which was so expensive, dila- the regulations which shall be estatory, and uncertain, that it is impos- blished under authority of the new sible for us to rest ultimately in a Those made under the first worse situation than we were. We were certainly burdensome. Parties are by no means sure that jury trial were bandied from one court to ana has been introduced in the best man- other in such a manner, and such ner ; but most of the defects may pro- fees exacted at every step, as if bably be accounted for by the guard- the rules of court had been made for ed or timid spirit in which the altera- sake of the fees only, and not for the tions have been made, and the fear furtherance of justice. By sending entertained of alarming long esta- the litigant at once to the Jury Court, blished prejudices so much at once, it is plainly intended by the new law as to endanger the new scheme alto- to lessen expence, and simplify the gether. While great allowances may proceedings. If these objects be ata be made on this score, it must be tended to as they may be in framing the manifest to all that the new system new regulations; and if a suitable rehas a tendency to raise and inspirit muneration be allowed under them for the public at large, as well as to ele- all the trouble necessary and proper vate the character and develope, the in preparing and attending to the talents of our judges. Landholders business of the court, (for the body of and mercantile men will be improved the attornies cannot remain honest or by their more familiar intercourse honourable if much underpaid for with lawyers, and lawyers by the ne- their labour, or if their remuneration eessity they will find themselves un, be arbitrarily reduced,) a great deal of