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metaphysically correct, and when pearance, legitimately deducible consequently they are not only of a from the tenets which they profess. bad species, but also bad of their Mr. Smith himself allows, that in species.

moral science, an hypothesis is not Our meaning will be grievously necessarily false, because “it is liamisconceived, if it shall be suppos- ble to unanswerable objections." ed, that we would dissuade men from “Unanswerable objections” are, we the full exertion of their intellect in apprehend, such as are deduced " dividing the word of truth;" and "by plain and fair reasoning from hardly less so, if we shall be under- sound premises;" for if the premises stood to enjoin a total abstinence be false, or the reasoning fallacious, from philosophical speculations, pro- the objections, that is, the inferences, perly so called, on religious subjects. cannot beunanswerable; and ifinfer: Such speculations may be useful, in ences so deduced are not to be rethe same manner as discourses on garded, then it follows, that we may, the evidences of Christianity are " by plain and fair reasoning," dehighly useful,—to repel sceptical duce certain consequences from objection, or assist the weakness of sound premises, which yet are not a sincere but hesitating mind. But obligatory on our faith and ubefor the production of the latter ef- dience.fect, there is anotherandan indispen- Neither can, we approve of the sable requisite, we mean that con- manner in which this author speaks, ten!edness of the understanding (if it when he seems to suppose that the may be so called), that submission to moral attributes of the Deity could the will of the Eternal Being, that never have been fully displayed, reposing upon his own merciful unless sin had entered the world. declarations and promises, that hu- Now that sin has entered the world, mility, in short that practical devo- an occasion has certainly been of tion, with which a fondness for meta- fered for the further display of the physical theology is not inconsistent, character of God, partly through the but to which it does by no means contrast between sin and infinite invariably lead.

holiness, partly through the pardon Here we may express our dissent of sin by infinite mercy. from Mr. Smith, when he asserts, know so little of the modes in which that “whatever consequences we Infinite Wisdom can display his atdiscover by plain and fair reasoning tributes, or, which is the same thing, from sound premises, (whether the can impress a clear idea and a lively process of reasoning be long or short, admiration of them on the hearts of abstruse or self-evident, difficult or his creatures, that it seems as indeeasy,) are as really truths, and are as fensible on this ground, as it is on obligatory on our faith and obedi- many other grounds unsafe, and we ence, as the clear scriptural positi- will add, mischievous, to argue for. ons from which they are deduced.” the necessity, or even the expe. Not only is this canon liable to mis- diency of the existence of sin. application (for in " long" and espe. Still less can we acquiesce in such pecially in " difficule” processes of a position as this of Dr. Williams; reasoning, the danger of mistake in- Either the huppiness of the creature is creases in joint proportion to the not the chief end of creation, or the length and the difficulty); but we permission of sin is an act of injustice. presume it to be fundamentally un. Even supposing (which we are. inisue, in cases, at least, where the clined to doubt) that the reasoning matters reasoned about, are above which leads us to this dilemma is reason. We have always understood “plain and fair,” yet who can afa that the majority of moderate Calvi- firm that a little more knowledge nists, avowedly stop short of some than is allowed to us in this impere. positions which yet are, to all ap- fect state, might not supply us with CHRIST. OBSERVER, No. 51.


But we

an alternative? We wish too that Dr. Williams, as it respects the necessary Dr. Williams, while maintaining tendency of all created nature to nihility. the doctrine of predestination, had

In a popular sense, indeed, it may perbeen more explicit in affirming laps be said (though the proposition win (what we have no doubt he believes) mind') that w brat sprang out of nothing at

he found to fill the ear rather than the the real willingness of God to receive, the pleasure of another, must again become without exception, every


nothing when left to itself ; and, for the descendant of Adam into his favour, sake of shortening the discussion, we were on the terms of the new covenant. willing to concede thus much. Those who hold the doctrine in ques- at the same time confess that we do not tion, should surely never inculcateit, quite understand the position that created without thus guarding it against one beings tend to nihility, and we leave it to our of the worst abuses of which it is readers to judge whether there be much capable*

more meaning in saying that " what is

tends not to be," than in saying that “what * The preceding sheet was printed off be- is not tends to be ;or, in other words, fore we perceived that we had expressed whether a tendency to annihilation in that ourselves, at p. 177, col. 2, in language which exists, be at all more concrivable, which may be construed into an admission than a tendency to become ea istent is that of the truth of the doctrine maintained by which exists not.

We must


level, accompanied by a moderate share ex REVIEW OF FOSTER'S ESSAYS.

elegance and of correctness, are requisite A PASSAGE in our review of Foster's tu even the lowest form of what can be Essays (No. for February, p. 113) deemed good writing by cultivated and cri

tical readers. It must have either these has been objected to as liable to mis

combined qualities, or an extraordinary conception and abuse. The passage

measure of one of them: superlatively is this: " This letter closes with

strong sense will denominate a performance some severe but just strictures on the excellent, or at least able, writing, in the great body of evangelical authors.”

absence of all the graces, and notwithSuch a sweeping and indiscriminate standing a considerable degree of incorrecta censure, it is said with great justice, ness. Below this pitch of siogle or of comought not to have been passed on a bined quality, a book cannot in a literary large and most valuable body of view please, though its subject were the men, without a very distinct speci- most interesting upon earth; and for acfication of the particular grounds of ceptance, therefore, the subject is unfortuthe censure. Feeling the full force of nate in coming to those persons in that

book: a disgusting cup will seem to spoil this remark, we are anxious to em

the finest element which can be conveyed brace the first opportunity of obvi

in it, though that were the nectar of in. ating the effect of our incantion, by mortality. inserting the whole of the strictures

“ Now, in this view, I suppose it will be in question, as they appear in Mi. acknowledged, that the evange!ical cause Foster's work. They are as follows: has not on the whole been happy in its thought, in language too grovelling to be the case of a false alarm of thunder, where called style. Now only suppose a man a sober man, that is not apt to startle at who has been conversant and enchanted sounds, looks out to see whether it be not with the works of eloquence, refined taste, the rumbling of a cart. or strong reason, to become an enquirer “ A principal device in the fabrication of after evangelical truth, and in the outset to this style is, to multiply epithets, dry epimcet with a number of books of this class: thets, laid on the outside, and into which in what light would the religion of Christ noue of the vitality of the sentiment is inevitably appear to him, if he did not find found to circulate. You may amuse yoursome happier delineations of it?

I'now advance a step further, and ob. prodigious list of authors. A number of serve, that the large quantity of bad wri- them have displayed a high order of excel. ting, (bad in a more comprehensive sense lence; but one regrets, as to a much greater than in reference to the dialect alone), number, that they did not revere the digunder which the evangelical theology has nity of their religion too much to beset and been buried, bas contributed to render its suifocate it with superfluous offerings. To principles less welcome to persons of ac. you I do not need to expatiate on the chacomplished mental habits.-Recollect, I racter of the collective Christian library, am not undertaking to justify their feelings, It will have been obvious to you that a great but merely explaining them.

many books form the perfect vulgar of “ The proofs of an intellect superior in pious authorship, an assemblage of the most some small degree at least to the coinmon subordinate materials that can be called

self by taking a great number of the words “ There is another large class of Chris. out of each page, and finding that the sense tian books which hear the marks of learn- is neither more nor less for your having ing, correctness, and a disciplined under cleared the composition of these epithets standing, and by a general propriety leave of chalk, of various colours, with which the but little to be censured, but which display tame thoughts had submitted to be rubbed no invention, no prominence of thought, over in order to be made fine. por living vigour of expression : all is flat “ Under the denomination of mock-elo. and dry as a plain of sand. It is perhaps quence may also be placed the mode of the fifteen hundredth iteration of common- writing which endeavours to excite the pasplaces, the listless attention to which is sions, not by presenting striking ideas of hardly an action of the mind; you seem to the object of passion, but by the appear. understand it all, and mechanically assent, ance of an emphatical enunciation of the while you are thinking of something else. writer's own feelings concerning it. You Surrounded by a rich immeasurable world are not made to perceire how the thing itof possible varieties of reflection and illus- self has the inost interesting clains on your tration, the author seems doomed to tread heart; but you are required to be affected over again the narrow space of ground long in mere sympathy with the author, who since trodden to dust, and in all his move- attempts your feelings by frequent excla. ments appears clothed in sheets of lead. mations, and perhaps by an incessant ap

" There is a smaller class that might be plication to his fellow-mortals, or to their called mock-eloquent writers. These saw Redeemer, of all the appellations and epithe effect of brilliant language in those thets of possion, and sometimes of a kind works of eloquence and poetry where it of passion not appropriate to the object. was dictated and animated by energy of To this last great Object especially such thought, and wished, perhaps very justly, forms of expression are occasionally apthat Christianity might not want any of the plied, as must revolt a man, who feels that recommendations, except vice, that have he cannot meet the same being at once on assisted to make the paganism of ancient

terms of adoration and of caressing equality. and modern genius so fascinating to per

" It would be going beyond my purpose, sons of polished and literary taste.

But to carry my remarks finm the literary meunfortunately they forgot that eloquence rits, to the moral and theological characresides essentially in the thought, and that teristics, of Christian books; else a very no language can make that eloquent which strange account could be given of the injuwill not be so in the plainest tords that could

jies which the Gospel has suffered from its clearly erpress the sense. Or probably they friends. You might often meet with a syssincerely mistook their own thoughts for tematic writer, in whose hands the whole vigorous and snblime, as soon as they had wealth and variety and magnificence of reclad them in that gaudy verbosity with

velation shrink into a meagre list of doctriwhich it was easy, after having read verse nal points, and who will let no verse in the enough, to invest the most common and bible say a syllable till it has placed itself spiritless conceptions. But what is the ef- under one of them. You may meet with a fect? Real eloquence strikes on your mind Christian polemic who seems to value the with irresistible force, and leaves you not arguments for evangelical truth as an asthe possibility of asking or thinking whether sassin values his darger, and for the same it be eloquence; but the sounding sentences reason; with a discanter on the invisible of these writers excite you first to a doubt- world who makes you think of a popish fal attention to a language that seems cathedral, and from the vulgarity of whose threateniag to move or astonish you, with- illuminations you are excessively glad to out actually doing it; from this you proceed escape into the solcmn twilight of faith; or to a curious observance of the manner in with a grim zealot for a theory of the Diwhich it is managed; and end, not long vine Attributes which seems to delight ia aster, in flat disgust. It is somewhat like representing the Deity as a dreadful king

of furies, whose dominion is overshadowed are a great many of them into which an with vengeance, whose music is the yell of intelligent Christian cannot look without revictims, and whose angels are transformed joicing that they were not the books, or not into a legion of fiery dragons.

alone the books, from which he received “ It is quite unnecessary to say that the his impressions of the glory of his religion. list of excellent Christian writers would be There are many which nothing would invery cousiderable. But as to the vast mass duce him, even though be do not materially of books that would, by the consenting ad- differ froin them in the leading articles of judgment of almost all men of liberal culti- his belief, to put into the hands of an inration, remain after this deduction, one quiring young person ; which he would be cannot help deploring the effect which they sorry and ashamed to see on the table of must have had on unknown thousands of an infidel; aud some of which he regrets to readers. It would seem beyond all dispute think may still contribute to keep down the or question that books which, though even standard of religious taste, if I may so exasserting the essential truths of Christiani- press it, among the public instructors of ty, yet utterly preclude the full impression mankind. On the whole, it would appear, of its character, which exhibit its claims on that a profound yeneration for Christianity admiration and affection with insipid feeble- would induce the wish that, after a judicious ness of sentiment, or which cramp its siin- selcction of books had been made, the ple majesty into an artificial form at once Christians also had their Caliph Omar, and distorted and mean, must be seriously pre- their general Amrou. (p. 1734–183.) judicial to the infuence of this sacred sub- These strictures, the reader will re: ject, though it be admitted that many collect, are applicable, not to the ma. of them have sometimes imparted a jority of evangelical authors of any measure of instruction and a measure of particular religious communion, but consolation. This they might do, and yet to the majority of the collective boconvey very contracted and inadequate ideas of the subject at the same time. There dy of evangelical authors of all de



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Harbours, Forts, &c. in the World; accom;

panied by Historical and Geographical I!. PREPARING for the Press: A History of lustrations; the engravings by Mr. LUFFthe Isle of Man; in 2 vols. 8vo.; by Mr. MAN; the literary department by T. HarM. LEE:-A new edition of Harmer's

RAL, Esq. :--The second volume of MeObservations on divers Pussages of Scrip- moirs of the Que

ereen of France ; by her Fostertüre :- Animproved edition of PLANTA'S brother M. WEBBER; with superior engravHistory of the Helvetic Confederacy :--A îngs:-Memoirs of the Rise and Progress of Lise oj Lord Nelson, with splendid Illustra- the Royal Navy, from the Reign of Henry tions of the most remarkable Engagements Vil. to the present Time; 4to. by Mr. in which his Lordship was distinguished; to DERRICK, of the Navy Office:- The Probe published by Mr. Bo WYER, of Pall Mall, derbs of Ali, with a Latin Traaslation and under royal Patronage :—The Life and Writ. Notes, by CORNELIUS VAN WAENER; ings of the late Rev. WM. GRIMSHAW, Vicar edited by Mr. MOUSLEY, of Baliol College ; of Haworth; by Mr. Myles, Author of the in 4to. at the Clarendon Press:-A JourChronological History of the Methodists :- ney through the Countries of Mysore, Cannara, An Almanack of Health; by Dr. BEDDOES: and Malabar; by Francis BUCHANAN, --The Stranger in Ireland, being an Ac- M. D. under the Orders of Marquis Welcount of Travels in that country; in 1 vol. lesley; published uuder the Authority and 40. with elegant engravings; by Mr. Carr. Patronage of the East India Directors; in

In the Press:-A second volume of Ser. 3 vols. 4to, with a Map and Plates :- Letmons, by the Rev. EDWARD COOPER: ters written during a Tour through the Ba. Sermons preuched at the Lecture, founded by tavian Republic and Part of France, with an the Hon. ROBERT BOYLE; by the Rev. Mr. Account of the State of the English impriVAN MILDERT:-A Treulise on Trigono- soned at Verdun; in 2 vols. Svo. by JAMES metry; by Mr. BONNYCASTLE:--The Geo- Forbes, Esq. F. A. S. :-Chironomia; or, graphical Seleclor; consisting of Maps, A Treatise on Rhetorical Delivery; with Charts, and Plans of the principal Cities, above 150 figures; in que large 4to. vol. ;

by the Rev. GILBERT AUSTEN, M. A. of comprising, 1. Instruction in the Elements Woodville, near Dublin :-A Popular Re-, of Euclid, Algebra, and Trigonometry; na futation of the Objections against the Cnco- the most useful properties of the Conic Sec. pox, by W. BLAIR, Esq.

tious, the nature of Logarithms, and the prinEast India College.

ciples of Fluxions; 2. Lectures on Mecba. The plan of this establishinent compre- nics, Hydrostatics, Optics, and Astronomy; hends à School, into which boys may be illustrated by Experiments, and rendered admitted at an early age ; and a COLLEGE, subservient to the arts and objects of comfor the reception of Students at the age of

mon life: with some elementary instructions 15, to remain till they are 18. As the School

in Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Natural His will be rendered introductory to the Cel. tory :--Ill. Classical and General Litirai lege, those who shall have passed through ture; comprising, 1. Lectures to explain both Institutions will enjoy the advantage

the Ancient Writers of Greece and Rome, of a uniform system of education, begun in particularly the Historians and Orators; early youth, and continued till their de- 2. Lectures on the Arts of Reasoning and parture for the dutiesoftheir public stations. Composition; and on the “ Belles lettres :: The College is exclusively appropriated to -IV. Law, History, and Polilical Oeconopersons designed for the civil service of the my; comprising, Lectures, 1. On General Company abroad ; the school will be open History, and on the History and Statistics to the public at large.

of Modern Lurope ; 2. On Political Oeco. The Rev. M. H. LUSCOMBE, M. A. is nomy; 3. On General Polity, on the Laws appoir.ted Head Master of the School; to of England, and on the Principles of the wbom each sc' olar is to pay 70 guineas British Constitution. per annum; Whici: sum will include Classi- The College year is divided into Two cal Instruction, French, Wrijng, Arithme

Terms, each consisting of 20 weeks, the sic, Mathematics, Drawing, and Dancing. first beginning Feb. 2, and ending June 19,

The College is to be un ler the direction and the second beginning August 1, and and aninority of a Principal and several ending December 21. In the last week of Professors, according to the following ar- the second Term, Public Examinations will rangement.-Principul; the Rev. Sam. be held; when the students will be arranged HENLEY, D.D.-Professors of Mathematics in four lists according to their merits; 'a and Natural Philosophy; Rev. B. Bridge, copy of which will be inserted in the reM. A. and Rev. W. DEALTRY, M.A.- cords of the Company; and suitable Prizes Professors of Humanity and Philology ; Rev. and Medals will be distributed. E. LEWTON, M. A. and J. H. BATTEN, This plan may be expected eventually Esq. M. A.-Professor of History and Poli- to produce happy effects on the concerns tical Oeconomy; Rev. T. R. MALTHUS, of the Company in the East. The educaM. A.-Professor of General Polity and the tion of persons destined to fill the impor, Lares of England ; E. CHRISTIAN, Esq. tant offices of Magistrates, Ambassadors, M.A.- Professor of Oriental Literature; Provincial Governors, &c. should certainly J. GILCHRIST, Esq. LL. D. To the Cole' be conducted on some such comprehensive lège will be attached a French Master, a plan as the foregoing. The cultivation and Drawing Master, a Fencing Master, and improvement of their intellectual powers other proper Instructors. The annual' should be accompanied with such a course charge to the students in the College will of moral discipline, as may tend to excite, be 100 guincas.

and confirm in them babits of application, The Principal is entrusted with the mo- prudence, forethought, integrity, and jusral and religious instruction of the students, tice. And to render such a system of edux and the more immediate superinteqdence cation fully efficient, it is essential that it of their conduct; and will preach, in con- be founded on the basis, and conducted unjunction with such Professors as are in der the sanction, and in strict conformity Holy Orders, in the College Chapel, and with the spirit, of our holy religion. Properform the other offices of the Established ceeding on these principles, it may reasonChurch.

ably be expected that this Institution, under The Lectures of the Professors are ar. the favour of Providence, will be produce ranged under four beads: 1. Oriental Li

tive, among other bappy effects, of a be. terature; comprising, 1. Instruction in the nign and enlightened policy towards the Rudiments of the Oriental Languages, es- native subjects of British India, tending at pecially the Hindostanee and Persian; once to improve their social and civil con. 2. Lectures to illustrate the History, Cuso' dition, and to diffuse throughout the Eastern toms, and Manners of the People of India: hemisphere the blessed iußuence of Chris." -II. Muthematics and Natural Philosophy ; tian truth,

The Foreign Literary Intelligence is unutoidably postponed.

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