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posed plan than she would at first in visits either altogether needless, have thought possible.
or else often prolonged to an excesMy classical readers will long sive length, merely for want of ago have recognised my having taken something to do. for my model, a practice which It cannot, I trust, be necessary prerailed among some of the rheto- for me to endeavour to enforce poricians of antiquity, of having cer- sitions at once so important and so tain common places, orloci, to which manifest. Let any one consider they might resort for matter, :;. how large and important a share treating all subjects. I am well in the division of human duties, aware there is no teaching wisdom belongs to the female sex. This, by rules; yet I must also declare, is a subject on which my mind that much experience has convinced lores to dilate. It is obvious that me, that by having before our eyes, the entire education of their own whilst we are perusing any author, sex, and the instilling into the minds the several heads or considerations of ours the earliest principles of con. in relation to which the contents of duct,and (pardon the expression) the his pages may probably be viewed most influential also, is commonly with most advantage, we shall be devolved on the ladies. Their's enabled to form a far better judg- it is to render religious and moral ment of the merits of his work, as truths more engaging and impreswell as to derive far more benefit sive, by the superior delicacy and from it than by reading it in the tenderness with which they are laid common method. We shall espe- down and enforced.— Their's, to apcially be often led to discover com- ply precepts and develope chamissions and deficiencies which we racters, with more than manly accushould not otherwise have perceiv- racy of discernment, and felicity of ed, and many reflections will occur illustration.—Their's, in almost eveto our minds which might other- ry state of life, to alleviate the wise have escaped us. In short, pains of sickness, to sooth the lanwhatever we peruse will be read guor of convalescence, to infuse into with a larger comprehension, with the cup of social intercourse its a more discriminating judgment, choicest sweets and most exquisite. and above all, with a more accurate relish--Their's, to cheer the fatigues observance of its manifold bearings and calm the turmoil of an over and relations.
busy, and to enliven the monotonous Whatever apologies may justly uniformity of a too vacant solitary be due forthe very imperfect manner life. Surely any thing which has in which I have executed my inten- for its object the better enabling of tion, none, I trust, will be required them to fulfil all these endearing of for the intention itself. My object fices well deserves attention.
1 has been to enable my female friends will therefore only add, that the to read to greater advantage than duty which I have been now rethey coinmonly do at present.--You, commending often finds itself abunSir, lam persuaded, need not to be dantly rewarded in this life, in the reminded, that the cultivation of the way most congenial and most graunderstanding, and the storing of tifying to the female beart, by the the mind with useful knowledge and cheerful animation of a domestic and sound principles, constitute a very social circle, by the increased esimportant branch of Christian duty. teem, admiration, and affection of And I cannot but hope that if in- the husband, the parent, or the creasing attention were paid to its child;--of those, whose approbation discharge, much of that time might and love arc dearest to every virbe employed not only more profita- tuous woman, and come the closest bly, but also more agreeably, which to her heart. is now wasted in trifling occupa
I am, &c. tions, or frivolous conversation, and
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. arrested by the operation of cer
anarchy, were not its fatal progress Anong many other writers, who, tain checks derived from different as appears to me, without sutiicient
These checks are of two consideration, have given their kinds, the preventive and the posicountenance to the system of General tive. Expediency, is found the name of Of the positive kind are civil peMr. Malthus. This system has at nalties and retaliation. first sight, a very captivating aspect, Retaliation is a powerful check and seeins to be calculated to make upon the independent and licentious a large accession of happiness to so- spirit of the system of general exciety. For what can more directly pediency. If one man, under the and powerfully contribute to that authority of his own view of public end, than for each individual to pro- good, feels himself justified in any pose to himself the happiness of the invasion upon the person or properwhole as the supreme motive of his ty of his neighbour, his neighbour actions. To one, however, who car- feels himself equally justified, not ries forward his view to comsequen- only in resisting the aggression, but ces, at no considerable distance, in being, when the opportunity or the general adoption of this princi- temptation presents itself, himself ple will appear in quite a different the aggressor. The liberty of the light, as requiring rather to be re- system is equal to all, and no one has pressed than encouraged.
more right to use it than another. The doctrine of general expedi- Hence proceed those fatal discords eney constitutes, in reality, every and that treachery, which render man his own supreme law.giver. human lite a constant scene of disFor when it is asked, who is to be tress, danger, and apprehension; the judge of the general experiency and powerfully enforcethe necessity proposed as the rule of human ac- of adopting in common some extertion: it is answered, every man for nal laws, which shall control the himself. There can be little doubt, private decisions even of general therefore, that this system, however expediency, and give to each indi. broad at the basis, when it is brought vidual, if not some degree of posito its due height, will, like the tive security, some knowledge of Egyptian pyrainids, terininate in a the sources of his danger. point; and that the general good The laws of human society have will only be another name for our likewise provided the sanction of own. And when the ultimate ap- civil penalties for the purpose of repeal is to a man's own conscience, it straining a disposition, which, in may readily be inferred, that he has its indulgence, presses with so much sufficient interest in that court to force against the limits of all social gain a judicial sentence in his fa- institutions. These inculcate upon vour. When such a plea for the the self constituted judge of his exercise of private interest is ob- own duty, with a practical and irtained, and when it is rendered sa- resistible effect, the salutary admocred by the conceit of duty, what nition, that there is a judge of his excesses may not deluge the world! duty, at least as a member of socieWhat contempt of justice, what per- ty, greater than himself: and that petration of iniquity may not be ex- if he persists in disregarding that pected!
superior he inust suffer for his teIn truth, the evil of selfish affec. merity. If he stands upon his pritions is of so prolific a nature, that vilege, as a member of the society without any adventitious encourage- incorporated for the promotion of ment, it threatens destruction to general expediency, and makes no every bond of society; and would hesitation to violate the laws of his doubtless terminate in a constant re- country; imprisonment,confiscation, ciprocation of injuries, and absolute corporal inflictions, and death, will
upon the last.
remind him and his associates, that of expediency would suggest. The they are subjects not sovereigns, consequence of this would be, not and that they cannot with impunity an entire abolition of the obnoxious erect one independent and superior system, but such a limitation of it government within the bosom of as would change its nature, and conanother, and, under pretence of obe- vert it eren into an act of obedience dience to the first, pour contempt to the divine law. For there are
evidently cases, in which we are But of all the checks upon that generally required to do good; but principle which reduces the whole the means of doing it most effectucircle of duty to private opinion, ally must be determined by ourand tolerates or rather conimands selves. If the will of God should, whatever that private opinion may through the exercise of inoral resuggest, none can be regarded with straint upon the pride, self-sufficiena greater mixture of the opposite cy, and independence of the corsentiments of hope and despair than rupt mind of man, regain the suprethe preventive one, or moral re- macy, the happiest effects would straint. None with more despair; instantly result; and he who first because by the experience of every returned to his allegiance to God, age of human existence, it has been would afterwards, and as a part of abundantly proved, that nothing that allegiance, become a faithful is more rare than the imposing of and conscientious subject of human restraint upon natural inclination. government; a subject, much more Indeed the adoption of the very to be depended upon, and far more principle under consideration is one useful, than those who pretend to proof of the impatience of moral re- make the general good their sustraint among men.
For not to in- preme object and supreme law. clude those in the censure, whose But should this check fail in its speculations have not been assisted operation, whatever may be the by their inclinations, what is the cause of its failure; should the comcharacter of the greater part of those plicated injuries arising from alterwriters ancient and modern, who nate aggression and retaliation, or have elevated general utility to the the iron force of civil penalties be throne, from which they have ex- insufficient to restrain the inundapelled the divine law? But as on the tion of iniquity which would be let one hand, and forthe reasons alleged, in upon society, were every man to there is no principle less to be de- consider himself as his own lord; gipended upon than moral restraint; gantic, inevitable anarchy stalks in 80, on the other, if it could be put the rear, and after haring afflicted in practice, there is none which the rebellious race with every spewould justify more sanguine expec. cies of misery, consigns them to tations, For if men would reflect, final and irretrieveable destruction. that it is impossible that beings so
A. 2. ignorant, so short-sighted, so much exposed to various errors, as the hu. man race evidently are, should be
HYMN. able to discover what is the greatest For we have not an high priest which cannot possible happiness of the intellectual be touched with the feeling of our infirsystem, or even of the human, and mities: but was in all points tempted like that they should be the supreme
as ice are, yet without sin. Heb. iv. 15. arbiters of their own duty, and that when gathering clouds around Iview, sometimes in opposition to the de. And days are dark and friends are few, clared and known will of God; they On him I lean, who not in vain, would perceive the necessity of an
Experienc'd every human pain: absolute submission to that will in He feels my grief, allays my fears,
And counts and treasures np my tears*. every possible case, and even in opposition to what their own views
* l'salms, lvj..
If aught should tempt my soul to stray counts the number thirteen around a
favourite sister of Frederic, almost as And do the sin* I would not do;
much a philosopher, and endowed Still he who fell temptation's power
with almost as strong an intellect as Shall guard me in that dangerous hour.
himself, is the dupe of fortune telIf wounded love my bosom swell,
lers. And full half the court are beDeceiv'd by those I priz'd too well ;
lievers in the story of the woman all He shall his pitying aid bestow,
in white, who appeared in one of the Whe felt on earth severer woe,
apartments of the palace, holding in At once betray’d, denied, or fled,
her hand a large broom, with which By those who shar'd bis daily bread.
any When sorrowing o'er some stone I bend,
member of the royal family was to Which covers all that was a friend,
die in the course of the year."
Vol. 1. p. 388.
THE SLAVE TRADE, APRIL 2, 1792.
“ But now, Sir, I come to Africa, When writhing on the bed of pain,
That is the ground on which I rest, I supplicate for rest in vain ;
and here it is, that I say my Right Still, still my soul shall think of thee,
Honourable Friends do not carry Thy bloody sweat and agony.
their principles to their full extent. And O! when I have safely past
Why ought the Slave Trade to be
INJUSTICE. How much stronger
then is the argument for immediate, Where thou shalt mark my woes no more? than gradual abolition ! By allowing
E.-Y. D. R.
it to continue even for one hour, do
weaken-do not they desert, their
own argument of its injustice? If on
the ground of injustice it ought to INFIDELITY AND CREDULITY.
be abolished at last, why ought it The following extract from Thie- not now? Why is injustice to be bault's original Anecdotes of Frede- suffered to remain for a single hour? ric II. of Prussia, affords a strong From what I hear without doors, it proof of what the Christian Obser- is evident that there is a general conver has more than once affirmed viction entertained of its being far respecting the perfect consistency of from just, and from that very coninfidelity with superstitious terrors. viction of its injustice, some men (See vol. for 1805, p. 618, Note.) have been led, I fear, to the suppo
“ On the same canvas with this sition, that the Slave Trade never philosophical King, Frederic, we could have been permitted to begin, view a Le Metherie, the apostle of but from some strong and irresistiuniversal materialism, making the ble necessity; a necessity, however, sign of the cross if it does but thun- which if it was fancied to exist at der
. Maupertuis, who does not be- first, I have shewn cannot be thought lieve in God, says his pravers every by any man whatever to exist 10w. evening on his knees. D'Argens, a This plea of necessity, thus prestill firmer infidel, shudders it hesumed, and presumed, as I suspect,
from the circumstance of injustice Romans, chap. vii.
itself, has caused a sort of acquies“ The Lord will strengthen him on the bed of languishing ; thou wilt make all bis | Mr. DUNDAS, now Lord Melville, and bed in his sickness." Psalm xli 3.
Mr. ADDINGTUN, now Lord Sidinouth. Christ. Obsery. No. 50.
cence in the continuance of this
can clear our consciences by this evil. Men have been led to general, not to say irreligious and place it among the rank of those impious way of laying aside the necessary evils, which are supposed question. If we reflect at all on this to be the lot of human creatures, subject, we must see that every neand to be permitted to fall upon cessary evil supposes that some some countries or individuals, rather other and greater evil would be inthan upon others, by that Being, curred were it removed : I therefore whose ways are inscrutable to us, desire to ask, what can be that and whose dispensations, it is con- greater evil, which can be stated ceived, we ought not to look into. to overbalance the one in quesThe origin of evil is indeed a sub- tion?-I know of no evil that ever has ject beyond the reach of human existed, nor can imagine any evil to understandings; and the permission erist, worse than the tearing of eighty of it by the Supreme Being, is a THOUSAND PERSONS annually from their subject into which it belongs not to native land, by a combinntion of the us to inquire. But where the evil most civilized nutions, in the most enin question is a moral evil which a lightened quarter of the globe; but more man can scrutinize, and where that especially by thut nation, which calls moral evil has its origin with our herself the most free and the most happy selves, let us not imagine that we of them all.”
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
apprehension that the maintenance DAUBENY'S DISCOURSES, &c. of the obnoxious tenet, however er
roneous, does not necessarily imply (Continued from page 40.)
either weakness or impiety. So AFTER SO much blame, neither nearly allied are the two subjects in founded, we trust, in misconception the arguments which (independent of the author, nor conducted in an of direct scriptural authority) are improper temper, as we have had employed to support them, and occasion to bestow on particular in the difficulties which they inparts of these sermons, we are sin- volve, that the defender of the one cerely glad to return to the far will find he has much the same obmore agreeable duty of dispensing jections to obviate with him who praise and commendation. Sermon defends the other ; and that in so VI. on providence, is able and useful, doing, he is compelled to take, in a and the concluding reflections, such very great degree, the same ground as we should be glad to copy, were which, when occupied by an adverit not necessary for us to be sparing sary, he is apt to consider as unof our extracts. A general reflec. tenable. In the sermon before us, tion, however, suggested by the to. Mr. Daubeny speaks of the divine pic of this discourse, will here find power (p. 147.) as “overruling its proper place. It has often struck the ways of men on some occasions, us with some surprise, that the near and making them minister, even in affinity of the doctrines of predesti- spite of themselves, to the execution of nation and divine providence should God's designs.” Now if any one not have had the effect with such
were to infer from this particular of the opposers of the former doc- phrase, that Mr. Daubeny, in oppotrine as embrace and defend the sition to all that he has so frequently latter, of, at least, softening the as- and so explicitly avowed upon other perity of censure, and inducing an occasions, is an enemy to human