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to black choler, frees the mind, mends manners,”' &c. Jacobus de Dondis, in his Catalogue of Simples, hath Amber Greece, os in corde cervi, the bone in a Stag's heart, a Monocerot's horn, Bezoars stone - (of which elsewhere), it is found in the belly of a little beast in the East Indies, brought into Europe by Hollanders and our country-men Merchants. Renodeus cap. 22. lib. 3. de ment. med. saith he saw two of these beasts alive, in the Castle of the Lord of Vitry at Coubert.

Lapis Lazuli and Armenus, because they purge, shall be men.

Lapin their placef thus much 15 lib. 1. de Te

Mine hilaration writers, arengst the pred those

Of the rest in brief thus much I will add out of Cardan, Renodeus cap. 23. lib. 3. Rondoletius lib. 1. de Testat. c. 15. &c. "e That almost all Jewels and pretious stones have excellent vertues to pacifie the affections of the mind, for which cause rich men so much covet to have them: and those smaller Unions which are found in shells amongst the Persians and Indians, by the consent of all writers, are very cordial, and most part avail to the exhilaration of the heart.

Minerals. Most men say as much of Gold, and some other Minerals, as these have done of pretious stones. Erastus still maintains the opposite part. Disput. in Paracelsum. cap. 4. fol. 196. he confesseth of gold, " & that it makes the heart merry, but in no other sense but as it is in a miser's chest:" at mihi plaudo simulac nummos contemplor in arcá, as he said in the Poet, it so revives the spirits, and is an excellent receit against Melancholy,

* for Gold in Phpsick is a cordial,

Therefore he loved Bold in special. Aurum potabile", he discommends and inveighs against it, by reason of the corrosive waters which are used in it: Which argument our Dr. Guin urgeth against D. Antonius. Erastus. concludes their Philosophical stones and potable gold, &c. “ to be no better than poyson,” a meer imposture, a non Ens; dig'd out of that broody hill belike this goodly golden stone is, ubi nascetur ridiculus mus. Paracelsus and his Chymistical fol. lowers, as so many Promethei, will fetch fire from heaven, will cure all manner of diseases with Minerals, accounting

• Longis mceroribus feliciter mcdetur, deliquiis, &c.; d Sec. 5. Memb. 1.' . Subs. 5. Gestamen lapidum & gemmarum maximum fert auxilium & juvaa men; unde qui dites sunt gemmas secum ferre student. Margaritæ & Unia ones quæ à conchis & piscibus apud Persas & Indos, valde cordiales sunt, &c . & Aurum lætitiam generat, non in corde, sed in arcâ virorum. * Chaucer. Aurum non aurum. Noxium ob aquas rodentes.

Ep. ad Monavium. Metallica omnia in universum quovismodo parata, nec tutò nec commode intra corpus sumi.

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them the only Physick, on the other side. * Paracelsus calls Galen, Hippocrates, and all their adherents, infants, idiots, Sophisters, &c. Apagesis istos qui Vulcanius istas Metamorphoses sugillunt, inscitive soboles, supine pertinaciæ alumnos, &c. not worthy the name of Physitians, for want of these remedies ; and brags that by them he can make a man live 160. yeers, or to the world's end, with their † Alexipharmacums, Panaceas, Mummia's, unguentuin Armarium, and such Magnetical cures, Lampas vitæ & mortis, Balneum Diana, Balsanum, Electrum Magico-physicum, Amuleta Martialia, &c. What will not he and his followers effect? He brags moreover that he was primus medicorum, and did more famous cures than all the Physitians in Europe besides, “ fa drop of his preparations should go farther than a drain, or ounce of theirs," those loathsome and fulsome filthy potions, Heteroclitical pills (so he cals thein) horse medicines, ad quorum aspectum Cyclops Polyphenius exhorresceret. And though some condemn their skill, and Magnetical cures as tending to Magical superstition, witchery, charms, &c. yet they admire, stiffy vindicate nevertheless, and infinitely prefer them. But these are both in extreams, the middle sort approve of Minerals, though not in so high a degree. Lemnius lib. 3. cap. 6. de occult. nat. mir. commends Gold inwardly, and outwardly used, as in Rings, excellent good in medicines ; and such mixtures as are made for melancholy men, saith Wecker, antid. spec. lib. 1. to whom Renodeus subscribes, lib. 2. cap. 2. Ficinus lib. 2. cap. 19. Fernel. meth. med. lib. 5. cap. 21. de Cardiacis, Daniel Sennertus lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 9. Audernacus, Libavius, Quercetanus, Oswaldus Crollius, Euvonymus, Rubeus, and Mattiolus in the fourth book of his Epistles, Andreas à Blawen epist. ad Matthiolum, as commended and formerly used by Avicenna, Arnoldus, and many others: * Matthiolus in the same place approves of potable gold, Mercury, with many such Chymical confections, and goes so far in approbation of them, that he holds “ino man can be an excellent Physitian that hath not some skill in Chymistical distillations, and that Chronick diseases can hardly be cured without mineral medicines :" Look for Antimony ainong purgers.

* In parag. Stultissimus pilus occipitis mci plus scit, quam omnes vestri doefores, & calceorum meorum annuli doctiores sunt quam vester Galenus & Avicenna, barba mça plus experta est quam vestræ omnes Academiæ. + Vide Ernestum Burgralium cdit. Franaker, 8. 1611, Crollius and others. Plus proficiet gutta mea, quam tot eorû drachmæ & unciæ. « Nonnulli huic supra modum indulgent, usum etsi non adeo magnum, non tamen abjiciendum censeo. Ausim dicere neminem medicum excellentem qui non in hac distilla. tione chymica sit versatus. Morbi Chronici devinci citra metallica vix possing, aut ubi sanguis corrumpitur.


SUBSECT. V. Compound Alteratives; censure of Compounds, and mixt


DLINY, lib. 24. c. 1. bitterly taxeth all compound medicines. 1 "* Men's knavery, imposture, and captious wits have invented these shops, in which every man's life is set to sale : and by and by came in those compositions and inexplicable mixtures, far fetcht out of India and Arabia ; a medicine for a botch must he had as farre as the Red Sea.” And 'tis not without cause which he saith; for out of question they are much to - blame in their compositions, whilst they make infinite variety of mixtures, as Fuchsius notes. “They think they get themselves great credit, excel others, and to be more learned then the rest, because they make many variations ; but he accounts them fools, and whilst they brag of their skill, and think to get themselves a name, they become ridiculous, bewray their ignorance and error.” A few simples well prepared and understood, are better than such an heap of nonsense con. fused compounds, which are in Apothecaries shops ordinarily sold. “ in which many vain, superfluous, corrupt, exolete things out of date are to be had (saith Cornarius); a company of barbarous names given to Syrrops, Julips, an unnecessary company of mixt medicines ;“ rudis indigestaque moles. Many times (as Agrippa taxeth) there is by this means “p more danger from the medicine then from the disease," when they put together they know not what, or leave it to an illiterate Apothecary to be made, they cause death and horror for health. Those old Physitians had no such mixtures ; a simple potion of Hellebor in Hippocrates time, was the ordinary purge; and at this day, saith Mat. Riccius, in that flourishing Commonwealth of China, “Their Physitians give precepts quite oppo. site to ours, not unhappy in their Physick: they use altogether

* Fraudes hominum & ingeniorum capturæ, officinas invenêre istas, in quibus sua cuiq; venalis promittitur vita; statim compositiones & mixturæ inexplicabiles ex Arabia & India, wiceri parvo medicina à rubro mari importatur. a Arnoldus Aphor. 15. Fallax medicus qui potens mederi simplicibus, composita dolosè aut frustra quærit. Lib. i. Sect. 1 cap. 8. Duin infinita medicamenta miscent, laudem sibi comparare student, & in hoc studio alter alterum superare conatur, dum quisq; quo plura miscuerit, eo se doctioremi putet, inde fit ut suam prodant inscitiam, dum ostentant peritiam, & se ridiculos exhibcant, &c. Multo plus periculi à medicamento quam à morbo, &c. 'Expedit in Sinas lib. 1. c. 5. Præcepta medici dant nostris diversa, in medendo non infelices, pharmacis utuntur simplicibus, Herbis, radicibus, &c. tola carum medicina nostra herbariæ præceptis continctur, nullus ludus hujus artis, quisq; privatus à quolibet magistro eruditur. H3


roots, hearbs, and simples in their medicines, and all their Physick in a manner is comprehended in a herbal: no science, no schoole, no art, no degree, but like a trade, every man in private is instructed of his Master.” * Cardan cracks that he can cure all diseases with water alone, as Hippocrates of old did most infirmities with one medicine. Let the best of our rational Physitians demonstrate and give a sufficient reason for those intricate mixtures, why just so many simples in Mithridate or Treacle, why such and such quantity; may they not be reduced to half or a quarter? Frustra fit per plura (as the saying is) quod fieri potest per pauciora ; 300 simples in a julip, potion, or a little pill, to what end or purpose? I know not what ·Alkindus, Capivaccius, Montagna, and Simon Eitover, the best of them all and most rational have said in this kind; but neither he, they, nor any one of them, gives his reader, to my judgement, that satisfaction which he ought; why such, so many simples? Rog. Bacon hath taxed many errors in his tract de graduationibus, explained some things, but not cleared. Mercurialis in his book do composit. medicin. gives instance in Hamech, and Philonium Romanum, which Hamech an Arabian, and Philonius a Roman, long since composed, but crassè as the rest. If they be so exact, as by him it seems they were, and those mixtures so perfect, why doth Fernelius alter the one, and why is the other obsolete? Cardan taxeth Galen for presuming out of his ambition to correct Theriachum Andromachi, and we as justly may carp at all the rest. Galen's medicines are now exploded and rejected; what Nicholas Meripsa, Mesue, Celsus, Scribanius, Actuarius, &c. writ of old, are most part contemned. Mellichius, Cordus, Wecker, Querecetan, Rhenodeus, the Venetian, Florentine states have their several receipts, and Magistrals: They of Noremberge have theirs, and Augustana Pharmacopæa, peculiar medicines to the meridian of the City: London hers, every city, town, almost every private man hath his own mixtures, compositions, receipts, magistrals, precepts, as if he scorned ántiquity, and all others in respect of himself. But each man must correct and alter to shew his skill, every opinionative fellow must maintain his own paradox, be it what it will; Delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi: they dote, and in the mean time the poor patients pay for their new experiments, the Commonalty rue it.

Thus others object, thus I may conceive out of the weakness of my apprehension ; but to say truth, there is no such fault, no such ambition, no novelty, or ostentation, as some

Lib. de Aqua.

Opusc. de Dos.
Opusc. de Dos.

Subtil. cap. de scicntiis.

• suppose,

suppose ; but as one answers, this of compound medicines, “ is a most noble and profitable invention found out, and brought into Physick with great judgement, wisdome, counsel and discretion.” Mixt diseases must have mixt remedies, and such simples are commonly mixt as have reference to the part affected, some to qualify, the rest to comfort, some one part, some another. Cardan and Brassavola both huld that Nullum simplex medicamentum sine noxá, no simple medicine is without hurt or offence ; and although Hippocrates, Erasistratus, Diocles of old, in the infancy of this art, were content with ordinary simples : yet now, saith * “ Ætius, necessity compelleth to seek for new remedies, and to make compounds of simples, as well to correct their harıms if cold, dry, hot, thick, thin, insipid, noysome to smell, to make them savory to the palat, pleasant to taste and take, and to preserve them for continuance, by admixtion of sugar, hony, to mako them last muneths and yeares for several uses." In such cases, compound medicines may be approved, and Arnoldus in his 18. Aphorisme, doth allow of it. “y If simples cannot, necessity compels us to use compounds ;” so for receits and magistrals, dies diem docet, one day teacheth another, and they are as so many words or phrases, Que nunc sunt in honore vocabula si volet usus, Ebbe and flow with the season, and as wits vary, so they may be infinitely varied.

“ Quisq; suum placitum quo capiatur habet.” Every man as he likes, so many men so many minds, and yet all tending to good purpose, though not the same way, As arts and sciences, so Physick is still perfected amongst the rest; Horæ musarum nutrices, and experience teacheth us every day ? many things which our predecessors knew not of. Nature is not effate, as he saith, or so lavish, to bestow all her gifts upon an age, but hath reserved some for posterity, to shew her power, that she is still the same, and not old or con, sumed. Birds and beasts can cure themselves by nature, * na. ture usu ea plerumq; cognoscunt, quæ homines vir longo labore & doctrina assequuntur, but men must use much labour and industry to find it out: But I digresse.

Compound medicines are inwardly taken, or outwardly ap

• Quærcctan. pharmacop. restitut. cap. 2. Nobilissimum & utilissimum inventum summa cum necessitate adinventum & introductum. Cap. 25. Tetrabib. 4. ser. 2. Necessitas nunc cogit aliquando noxia quærere remedia, & ex simplicibus compositas facere, tum ad saporem, odorem, palati gratiam, ad correctionem simplicium, tum ad futuros usus, conservationem, &c.

Cum simplicia non possunt necessitas cogit ad composita. • Lips. Epist. # Thcod. Podromus Amor. lib. 9.

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