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of the fore-head, nose and ears is good. They cominonly set cupping-glasses on the parties shoulders, having first scarified the place, they apply horse-leeches on the head, and in all melancholy diseases, whether essential or accidental, they cause the Hæmrods to be opened, having the eleventh Aphorison of the 6. book of Hippocrates for their ground and warrant, which saith, “ that in melancholy and mad men, the varicous tumour or hemorroides appearing doth heal the same.” Valescus prescribes blood-letting in all three kinds, whom Salust. Salvian' follows, “y If the blood abound, which is discerned by the fulness of the veins, his precedent diet, the parties laughter, age, &c. begin with the median or middle vein of the arm : if the blood be ruddy and clear, stop it, but if black in the spring time, or a good season, or thick, let it run, according to the parties strength : and some eight or twelve dayes after, open the head vein, and the veins in the forehead, or provoke it out of the nostrils, or cupping glasses, &c.” Trallianus allows of this, " z If there have been any suppression or stopping of blood at nose, or hemrods, or women's moneths, then to open a vein in the head or about the ankles." Yet he doth hardly approve of this course, if inelancholy be sited in the head alone, or in any other dotage, “ * except it priinarily proceed from blood, or that the malady be increased by it; for blood-letting refrigerates and dries up, except the body be very full of blood, and a kind of ruddiness in the face.” Therefore I conclude with Areteus, “ b before you let blood, deliberate of it," and well consider all circumstances belonging to it.
Preparatives and Purgers.
AFTER blood-letting we must proceed to other medicines ;
first prepare, and then purge, Augee stabulum purgare, make the body clean before we hope to do any good. Gualter Bruel would have a practitioner begin first' with a
Si sanguis abundet, quod scitur ex venarum repletione, victus ratione præcedente, risu ægri, ætate & aliis, Tundatur mediana; & si sanguis apparet clarus & ruber, supprimatur; aut si vere, si niger aut crassus permittatur fuere pro viribus ægri, dein post 8. vel 12. diem aperiatur cephalica partis magis afu fectæ, & vena frontis, aut sanguis provocetur setis per nares, &c. 2 Si quibus consuetæ suæ suppressæ sunt menses, &c. talo secarc oportet, aut vena frontis si sanguis peccet cerebro. Nisi ortum ducat à sanguine, ne morbus inde augeatur ; phlebotomia refrigerat & exiccat, nisi corpus sit valde sanguineum, rubicundum. Cum sanguinem detrahere oportct, deliberatione indiget. Aseteys lib.7.c.5.
Clister of his, which he prescribes before blood-letting: the common sort, -as Mercurialis, Montaltus cap. 30. &c. proceed froin lenitives to preparatives, and so to purgers. Lenitives are well known, Electuarium lenitivum, Diaphenicum, Diucatholicon, Sc. Preparatives are usually Syrups of Borage, Bu. glosse, Apples, Funitory, Thyme and Epitayme, with double as much of the same decoction or distilled water, or of the waters of Buglosse, Bawm, Hops, Endive, Scolopendry, Fumitory, &c. or these sod in whey, which must le reiterated and used for many dayes together. Purges come last, " which must not be used at all, if the malady may be otherwise helpedl," because they weaken nature and dry so much ; anl in giving of them, “ć we must begin with the gentlest first.” Somne forhid all hot medicines, as Alexander, and Salvianus, &c. Ne insaniores inde fiant, Hot medicines increase the disease “dby drying too much." Purge downward rather then upward, use potions rather then pills, and when you begin Physick, persevere and continue in a course ; for as one observes, e movere & non educere in omnibus malum est; To stir up the humour (as one purge commonly doth) and not to prosecute, doth more harm then good. They must continue in a course of Physick, yet not so that they tire and oppress nature, danda quies nature, they must now and then remit, and let nature have some rest. The most gentle purges to begin with, are
Sena, Cassia, Epithyme, Myrabolanes, Catholicon: If these prevail not, we may proceed to stronger, as the confection of Hamech, Pil. Indæ, Fumitoriæ, de Assaieret, of Lapis Armenus and Lazuli, Diasena. Or if pills be too dry; : some prescribe both Hellebors in the last place, amongst the rest Areteus, “ " because this disease will resist a gentle medicine." Laurentius and Hercules de Saxoniâ would have Antimony tried last, “ if the * party be strong, and it warily given." i Trincavelius prefers Hierologodium, to whom Francis Alexander in his Apol. rad. 5. subscribes, a very good medicine they account it. But Crato in a counsell of his, for the Duke of Bavaria's Chancellour, wholly rejects it.
I finde a vast Chaos of medicines, a confusion of receipts and magistrals, amungst writers, appropriated to this disease; some of the chiefest I will rehearse. + To be Sea-sick first is very
« A lenioribus auspicandum. (Valescus, Piso, Bruel) rariusq; mcdicamentis purgantibus utendum, ni sit opus : « Quia corpus exiccant, morbum augent. • Guianerius Tract. 15. c. 6. Piso. & Rhasis, sæpe valent ex Hellcboro.
Lib. 7. Exiguis medicamentis morbus non obsequitur. * Modo caute detur & robustis. i Consil. 10. 1. 1. + Plin. 1. 31. c. 6. Navigationes ob vomitionem prosunt plurimis morbis capitis, & omnibus ob quæ Helleboru bibitur. Idem Dioscorides, lib. 5. cap. 13. Aviceona tertia imprimis.
good at seasonall times. Helleborismus Matthioli, with which he vants and boasts he did so many several cures,'"* I never gave it (saith he) but after once or twice, by the help of God, they were happily cured.” The manner of making it he sets down at large in his third book of Epist. to George Hankshius a Physitian. Gualter Bruel, and Heurnius, make mention of it with great approbation ; so doth Skenkius in his memorable curcs, and experimentall medicines, cen. 6. obser. 37. That famous Helleborisme of Montanus, which he so often repeats in his consultations and counsels, as 28. pro melan. sacerdote, & consil. 148. pro Hypocondriaco, and cracks, “ in to be a most soveraign remedy for all melancholy persons, which he. hath often given without offence, and found by long experience. and observation to be such.”
Quercetan prefers a Syrupe of Hellebor in his Spagirica Pharmac. and Hellebors Extract cap. 5. of his invention like. wise (“ a most safe medicine, " and not unfit to be given children") before all remedies whatsoever.
Paracelsus, in his book of black Hellebor, admits this medicine, but as it is prepared by him. “• It is most certain (saith he) that the vertue of this herb is great, and admirable in effect, and little differing from Balm it self; and he that knowes weil how to make use of it, hath more art then all their books contain, or all the Doctors in Germany can shew."
Ælianus Montaltus in his exquisite work de morb. capitis cap. 31. de mel. sets a special receipt of Hellebor of his own, which in his practice “p he fortunately used; because it is but short I will set it down."
“R Syrupe de pomis 3 ij, aquæ borag. Z iiij,
6 vel 8. gr. manè factâ collaturâ exhibe.” Other receipts of the same to this purpose you shall finde in him. Valescus admires pulvis Hali, and Jason Pratensis after hiin: the confection of which our new London Pharmacopæa hath lately revived. “ 9 Put case (saith he) all other medicines fail,
Nunquam dedimus, quin ex una aut altera assumptione, Deo juvante, fue. rint ad salu:em restituti. in Lib. 2. Inter composita purgantia melancholiam. • Longo experimento à se observatum esse, melancholicos sine offensa egre. giè curandos valere. Idcm responsione ad Aubertum, vcratrum nigrum, alias timidum & periculosum vini spiritu etiam & olco commodum sic usui rcdditur ut etiam pueris tuto administrari possit. Certum est hujus herbæ virtutem maximam & mirabilem esse, parumq; distare à balsamo. Et qui norit eo recte uti, plus habet artis quam tota scribentium cohors aut omncs Doctores in Germapia. Quo fcliciter nisus sum. Hoc posilo quod aliæ medicina non valeant, ista tunc Dei misericordiâ valebit, & est medicina coronata, quæ secreuissimè tencatur.
with whicha : Pinetus his Rubeus hisia
by the help of God this alone shall do it, and 'tis a crowned medicine which must be kept in secret."
"R Epithymi semunc. lapidis Lazuli, agarici ana 3 ij,
Scammonii, 3i, Chariophillorum numero. 20. pulverisentur . Ommia, & ipsius pulveris scrup. 4. singulis septimanis assumat.”
To these I may adde Arnoldi vinum Buglossatum, or Borage wine before mentioned, which · Mizaldus calls vinum mirabile, a wonderful wine, and Stockerus vouchsafes to repeat verbatini amongst other receits. Rubeus his compound water out of Savanarola : Pinetus his Balm; Cardan's Pulvis Hyacinthi, with which, in his book de curis admirandis, he boasts that he had cured many melancholy persons in eight dayes, which · Sckenkius puts amongst his observable medicines; Altomarus his Syrupe, with which * he calls God so solemnly to witness, he hath in his kind done many excellent cures, and which Sckenkius cent. 7. observ. 80. inentioneth, Daniel Sennertus lib. 1. part 2. cap. 12. so much coinmends ; Rulandes' admirable water for melancholy, which cent. 2. cup. 96. he names Spiritun vitae aureum, Panacean, what not, and his absolute inedicine of 50 Egges, curat. Empir. cent. 1. cur. 5. to be taken three in a morning, with a powder of his. Faventinus prac. Emper. doubles this num. ber of Egges, and will have 101 to be taken by three and three in like sort, which Salust Salvian approves de re med. lib. 2. c. 1. with some of the same powder, till all be spent, a most excellent remedy for all inelancholy and mad men. « R Epithymi, thymi, ana drachmas duas, sacchari albi unciam
unam, croci grana tria, Cinamomi drachmam unam; misce, fiat
pulvis.” All these yet are nothing to those ? Chymical preparatives of Aqua Chalidonia, quintessence of Hellebor, salts, extracts, distillations, oyles, Aurum potabile, &c. Dr Anthony in his book de auro potab. edit. 1600. is all in all for it. " a And though all the schools of Galenists, with a wicked and unthankful pride and scorn, detest it in their practice, yet in
• Lib. de artif. med. Sect. 3 Optimum remcdium aqua composita Savanarolæ. Sckenkius observ. 31. Donatus ab Altomari. cap. 7. Testor Deum, me multos mclancholicos hujus solius syrupi usu curasse, factå priùs purgationc.
Centuin ova et unum, quolibet mane sumant ová sórbilia, cum sequenci pulverc supra ovum aspers?, et contineant quousq; assumpserint centum et unum, maniacis et melancholicis utilissimum remedium. Quercetan cap. . Phar. Oswadus Crollius.
Cap. 1. Licct tota Gatenistatum schola, mineralia non sinc impio et ingrato fastu à sua practica detestentur ; tamen in gravioribus morbis omni vegetabilium derelicto snbsidio, ad mincralia copsugiunt, licet ea temere, ignaviter, et inutiliter usurpent. Ad finem libri.
more grievous diseases, when their vegetals will do no good," they are compelled to seek the help of minerals, though they “ use them rashly, unprofitably, slackly, and to no purpose.”' Rhenanus, a Dutch Chymnist in his book de Sale è puteo emergente, takes upon him to apologize for Anthony, and sets light by all chat speak against him. But what do I meddle with this great Controversie, which is the subject of many rolumes ? Let Paracelsus, Quercetan, Crollius, and the brethren of the Rosy crosse defend themselves as they may. Crato, Erastus, and the Galenists oppugn. Paracelsus, he brags on the other side, he did more famous cures by this ineans, then all the Galenists in Europe, and calls himself a Monarch; Galen, Hippocrates, infants, illiterate, &c. As Thessalus of old railed against those ancient Asclepiadean writers,“ * he condemns others, insults, triumphs, overcomes all antiquity (saith Galen as if he spake to him) declares himself a conqueror, and crowns his own doings. One drop of their Chymical preparatives shall do inore good then all their fulsome potions." Erastus, and the rest of the Galenists vilifie them on the other side, as Hereticks in Physick; " + Paracelsus did that in Physick, which Luther in Divinity. A drunken rogue he was, a base fellow, a Magitian, he had the divel for his master, divels his familiar companions, and what he did, was done by the help of the Divel.” Thus they contend and raile, and every Mart write books pro and con, & adhuc sub judice lis est ; let them agree as they will, I proceed.
way: In thisvert this tebesin as tending all
Averters. A VERTERS and Purgers must go together, as tending all A to the same purpose, to divert this rebellious humour, and turn it another way. In this range, Clysters and Suppositories challenge a chief place, to draw this humour from the brain and heart, to the inore ignoble parts. Some would have them still used a few dayes between, and those to be made with the boiled seeds of Anise, Fennel, and bastard Saffron, Hops, Thyme, Epithyme, Mallows, Fumitory, Bugloss, Polypody, Sene, Diasene, Hamech, Cassia, Diacatholicon, Hierologodiuin, Oyl of Violets, sweet Almonds, &c. For
* Veteres maledictis incessit, vincit, et contra omncm antiquitatem coronatur, ipseq; à se victor declaratur. Gal. lib. 1. meth. c. 2. Codronchus de sale absynthii. Idem Paracelsus in medicina, quod Lutherus in Theologia. * Disput. in eundem, parte. 1. Magus ebrius, illiteratus, džinonem præceptorein habuit, dæmones familiares, &c.