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(if I may so call them) successors, emulators, subjects, or such as they have offended. • Omnisq; potestas impatiens consortis erit:“ They are still suspitious, lest their authority should be diminished," as one observes; and as Comineus hath it, “ u It cannot be expressed what slender causes they have of their grief and suspition, a secret disease, that commonly lurks and breeds in Princes' families.” Sometimes it is for their honour onely, as that of Adrian the Emperor, “ * that killed all his emulators.” Saul envied David; Domi. tian Agricola, because he did excell him, obscure his honour as he thought, eclipse his fame. Juno turned Prætus' daughters into Kine, for that they contended with her for beauty ; * Cy. parissæ King Eteocles children, were envieil of the Goddesses for their excellent good parts, and dancing amongst the rest, saith Constantine, " and for that cause Aung down headlong from heaven, and buried in a pit, but the earth took pity of them, and brought out Cypress trees to preserve their Me. mories." Niobe, Arachne, and Marsias can testife as much. But it is most grievous when it is for a kingdome it self, or matters of commodity, it produceth lamentable effects, especially amongst Tyrants, in despotico Imperio, and such as are more feared than beloved of their subjects, that get and keep their soveraignty by force, and fear. * Quod, civibus tenere te invitis scias, &c. as Phalaris, Dionysius, Periander held theirs. For though fear, cowardise, and jealousie, in Plutarch's opinion, be the common causes of tyranny, as in Nero, Caligula, Tiberius, yet most take them to be symptomes. For “o what slave, what hangman (as Bodine well expresseth this passion, 1. 2. c, 5. de rep.) can so cruelly torture a condemned person, as this fear and suspition ? Fear of death, infamy, torments, are those furies and vultures that vex and disquiet tyrants, and torture them day and night, with perpetuall terrors and affrights, envy, suspition, fear, desire of revenge, and a thousand such disagreeing perturbations, turn and affright the soul out of the hinges of health, and more grievously wound and pierce, than those cruel masters can exasperate and vex their Prentises
1.2.c. what hangin take them of tyrannie, in plut held theirs
•Lucan. Danæus Aphoris. polit. semper metuunt ne corum authoritas minuatur. "Belli Neapol. lib. 5. Dici non potest quam tenues & infire mas causas habent mæroris & suspitionis, & hic est morbus occultus, qui in familiis principum regnat. * Omnes æmulos interfecit. Lamprid. Con. stant, agricult. lib. 10. c. 5, Cyparissæ Eteoclis filæ, saltantes ad æmulationem dearum in puteum demolitæ sunt, sed terra miserata, cupressos inde produxir. * Ovid. Met. Seneca. Quis autem carnifex addictum supplicio crude. lius afficiat, quam metus? Metus inquam mortis, infamiæ cruciatus, sunt üle ultrices furiæ quæ tyrannos exagitant, &c. Multo acerbius sauciant & pungunt, quam crudeles domini servos vinctos fustibus ac tormentis exulcerare pose
or servants, with clubbes, whippes, chaines and tortures. ** Many terrible examples we have in this kinde, amongst the Turks especially, mariy jealous outrages; Selimus killed Kore nutus his youngest brother, five of his Nephews, Mustapha Bassa, and divers others. • Bajazet the second Turk, jealous of the valour and greatness of Acmet Bassa, caused him to be slain. ' Solyman the magnificent murdered his own Son Mustapha ; and 'tis an ordinary thing amongst them, to make away their brothers, or any competitors, at the first comming to the Crown : 'tis all the solemnity they use at their father's funerals. What mad pranks in his jealous fury did Herod of old commit in Jury, when he massacred all the children of a year old ? * Valens the Emperor in Constantinople, when as he left no man alive of quality in his kingdome that had his *name begun with Theo. Theodoti, Theognosti, Theodosii,
Theoduli, &c. They went all to their long home, because a wizard told him that naine should succeed in his Empire. And what furious designs hath "Jo. Basilius, that Muscovian tyrant, practised of late? It is a wonder to read that strange suspicion, which Suetonius reports of Claudius Cæsar, and of Domitian, they were afraid of every man they saw : And which Herodian of Antoninus and Gera, those two -jealous brothers, the one could not endure so much as the other's servants, but made away hiin, his chiefest followers, and all that belonged to him, or were his well-wishers. Máximinus “perceiving himself to be odious to most inen, because he was come to that height of honour out of base beginnings, and suspecting his mean pa. rentage would be objected to him, caused all the Senators that were nobly descended, to be slain in a jealous humour, turned all the servants of Alexander his predecessor out of doores, and slew many of them, because they lamented their master's death, suspecting them to be traitors, for the love they bare to · him.” When Alexander in his fury had made Clitus' his dear
friend to be put to death, and saw now (saith "Curtius) an alienation in his subjects' hearts, none durst talk with him, he began to be jealous of himself, lest they should attempt as much on him, “and said they lived like so many wild beasts
• Lonicerds To, 1. Turc. hist. c. 24. - 4 Jovius vita ejus. Knowles, Busbequms. Sand, fol. 52. * Nicephorus lib. 11. c. 45. Socrates lib. 7. cap. 35. Neque Valens alicui pepercit qui Theo cognominc vocaretur. Alexand. Gaguio Muscov. hist. descrip. c. 5. D. Fletcher, limul omnes ne insidize essent, Herodot. d. 7. Maximinus invisum se senticns, quod ex infimo loco in tantam fortunam venissct moribus ac genere barbarus, metuens ne natalinin obscuritas objicererur, omnes Alexandri præ dccessoris ministros ex aula cjecit, pluribus interfectis quod masti essent ad mortem Alexandri, insid as inde metuens. Lib. 8. tanquam ferm suliruding yasçbuni, iqrrentes alios, tio medica.
in a wilderness, one afraid of another." Our modern stories afford vs many notable examples.. iHenry the third of France, jealous of Henry of Lorain Duke of Guise, Anno. 1588. caused him to be murdered in his own chamber. Lewes the eleventh was so suspitious, he durst not trust his ehildren, every man about him he suspected for a traitor : Many strange tricks Comineus telleth of him. How jealous was our Henry the 'fourth of King Richard the second, so long as he lived, after he was deposed? and of his own son Henry in his later daies? which the Prince well perceiving, came to visit his father in his sickness, in a watchet velvet gown, full of oilet holes, and with needles sticking in them, (as an embleme of Jealousie) and so pacified his suspitious father, after some speeches and protestations, which he had used to that purpose. Perpetual imprisonment, as that of Robert TM Duke of Normandy, in the daies of Henry the first, forbidding of inarriage to some persons, with such like edicts and prohibitions, are ordinary in all states. In a word (" as he said) three things cause Jealousie, a mighty state, a rich treasure, a fair wife; or where there is a crackt title, much tyranny, and exactions. In our state, as being freed from all these fears and miseries, we may be most secure and happy under the raign of our fortunate Prince,
•His fortune hath indebted him to none
But I rove, I confess. These æquivocations, Jealousies, and many such, which crucifie the souls of men, are not here pro. perly meant, or in this distinction of ours included, but that alone which is for beauty, tending to love; and wherein they can brook no corrival, or endure any participation: and this Jealousie belongs as well to bruite beasts, as men. Some creaWres, saith p Vives, Swans, Doves, Cocks, Bulls, &c. are jealous as well as men, and as much moved, for fear of communion.
i Serres fol. 56. Neap. belli lib. 5. nulli prorsus homini fidebat, omnes insidiari sibi putabat.. Camden's. Remaines. m Mat. Paris. R.T. notis in blason jealousie. Daniel in his Panegyrick to the King. 3. de anima cap de zel. Animalia quædam zelotypia tanguntur, ut olores, columba, galli, tauri, &c. ob metum communionis.
« ? Grege pro toto bella juvenci,
Will fight and roare, if once they bè but jealous. In Bulls, Horses, Goats, this is most apparently discerned, Buls especially, alium in pascuis non admittit, he will not admit another Bull to feed in the same pasture, saith * Oppian: which Stephanus Bathorius, late. king of Poland, used as an Impress, with that Motto, Regnuni non capit duos. R. T. in his blason of Jealousie, telleth a story of a Swan about Windşore, that finding a strange Cock with his mate, did swim I know not how many miles after to kill him, and when he had so done, came back and killed his hen; a certain truth, he saith, done upon Thames, as many Water-men, and neighbour Gentlemen can tell. Fidem suain liberet; for my part, I do beleeve it may be true ; for Swans have ever been branded with that Epithite of Jealousie. Thejealous Swanne against his and eke the Dwle that of death bode bringeth. • Some say as much of Elephants, that they are more jealous than any other creatures whatsoever; and those old Ægyp: tians, as Pierius informcth us, expresse in their Hieroglyphicks, the passion of Jealousie by a Camel ; " because that fearing the worst still about matters of Venery, he loves solitudes, that he may enjoy his pleasure alone, & in quoscunque obvios, insurgit, Zelotypie stimulis agitatus, he will quarrel and fight with whosoever comes next, man or beast, in his jealous fits. I have read as much of + Crocodiles ; and if Peter Martyr's authority be authentique, legat. Babylonicæ lib. 3. you shall have a strange tale to that purpose confidently related. Another story of the jealousie of dogs, see in Hieron. Fabricius Tract. 3. cap. 5. de loquela animalium.
But this furious passion is most eminent in men, and is as well amongst Batchelors, as married men. If it appear ainongst Batchelors, we commonly call them rivals or corrivals, a meta
:Som any other informeth us, ex Eamel; "be he loves soli obvios
Seneca. * Lib. 11. Cynoget. Chaucer in his' assembly of fowls, • Alderovand. Lib. 12. u Sibi timens circa res venereas, solitudines amat quo solus sola fæmina fruatur. + Crocodili zelotypi & uxorum aman. tissimi, &c.
phor derived from a Rirer, rivales à *rivo; for as a river, saith Acron in Hor. art. Puet. and Donat. in Ter. Eunuch. divides a common ground betwixt two men, and both partici. pate of it, so is a woman indifferent betwixt two suiters, both likely to enjoy her; and thence comes this emulation, which breaks out many times into tempestuous stormes, and produceth Jamentable effects, murder itself, with much cruelty, many single combats. They cannot endure the least injury done unto thęın before their mistress, and in her defence will bite off one another's noses; they are most impatient of any flout, disgrace, lest emulation or participation in that kind. “+ Lacerat lacertum Largi mordax Meminius. Memnius the Romane (as Tully tels the story de oratore lib. 2.) being corrival with Largus Terracina, bit hiin by the arme, which fact of his was so fa. mous, that it afterwards grew to a proverb in those parts.
Phædria could not abide his cörrival Thraso ; for when Parmeno demanded, numquid aliud imperas? whether he would command hiin any more service: “No more (saith he) but to speak in his behalf, and to drive away his corrival if he could." Constantine in the eleventh book of his husbandry, cap. 11. hath a pleasant tale of the Pine tree; * she was once a fair maid, whom Pineus and Boreas, two corrivals, dearly sought; but, jealous Borcas broke her neck, &c. And in his 18 chap. ter he telleth another tale of Mars, that in his jealousie slew Adonius. Petronius calleth this passion amantium furiosam remulationem, a furious emulation ; and their symptomes arc well expressed by Sir Jeffery Chaucer in his first Canterbury tale. It will make the nearest and clearest friends fall out; they will endure all other things to be common, goods, lands, monyes, participate of each pleasures, and take in good part any disgraces, injuries in another kinde; but as Propertius well describes it in an "Elegy of his, in this they will suffer nothing, have no corrivals,
· "$Tu mihi vel ferro pectus, vel perde veneno,
A domina tantùm te mode tolle med:
Te dominum admitto rebus amice meis.
* Qui dividit agrum communem; inde deducitur ad amantes. + Erasmus chil. ). Cev!. 9. adas. 99. Ter. Sun. Ac. 1. sc. 1. Munus nostrum ornato verbis, & istum. xmulum, quoad poteris, ah ca pellito. Pinus puella quondam fuit, &C. Mars zelotypus Adun.dein interfecit. R. T.