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Cham departs, or an Emperor in America: how they plague themselves, which abstain from all that hath life, like those old Pythagoreans, with immoderate fastings, as the Bannians about Surat, they of China, that for superstition's sake. never cat flesh nor fish all their lives, never marry, but live in deserts and by-plares, and some pray to their idols 24 hours together without any intermission, biting of their tongues when chey have done, for devotion's sake. Some again are brought to that madness by their superstitious Priests, that tell them such vain stories of 'immortality, and the joyes of heaven in that other life) that many thousands voluntarily break their own necks, as Cleombrotus Amborciatus, Auditors of old, precipitate thenselves, that they may participate of that unspeakable happiness in the other world. One poisons, another strangleth himself, and the King of China had done as inuch, deluded with the vain hope, had he not been detained by his servant. But who can sufficiently tell of their several superstitions, vexations, follies, torments? I may conclude with * Possevinus, Religifacit asperos mites, homines è feris; superstitio ex hominis bus feras, Religion makes wild beasts civil, superstition makes wise men beasts and fools; and the discreetest that are, if they give way to it, are no better then dizards; nay more, if that of Plotinus be true, is unus religionis scopus, ut ei quem colimus similes fiamus, that's the drift of religion to make us like him whom we worship : what shall be the end of Idolaters, but to degenerate into stocks and stones? of such as worship these Heathen gods, for dii gentium dæmonia, * but to become divels themselves ? 'Tis therefore exitiosus error, & maxime periculos, a most perilous and dangerous error of all others, as y Plutarch holds, turbulenta passio hominem consternans, a pestilent, a troublesome passion, that utterly undoeth men. Unhappy superstition, 2 Pliny cals it, morte non finitur, death takes away life, but not superstition. Impious and ignorant are far more happy then they which are superstitious, no torture like to it, none so continuate, so generall, so destructive, so violent.

In this superstitious row, Jewes for antiquitie may go next to Gentiles; what of old they have done, what Idolatries they

Epist. Jesuit. ann. 1549 à Xaverto et socus. Idemque Riccius expedid. ad Sinas I. I. per totum Jejugatores apud eos toto die carnibus abstincnt et piscibus ob religionem, nocte et die Idola colentes; nusquam egredientcs. Ad immortabtatem morte aspirant summi magistratus, &c. Et mului mortales hac insania, et præpostero immortalitatis studio laborant, et misere pereunt : rex ipse clam venenum hausisset, nisi a servo fuisset detentus. *Cantione in lib. 10. Bonini de repub. fol. 111. * Quin ipsius diaboli ut nequitiam referant. ✓ Lib. de superstit. Hominibus vitæ finis mors, non autem superstitionis, profcrt hæc suos terminos ultra vitæ finem. VOL. II. Mm

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have committed in their groves and high places, what their Pharisees, Sadduces, Scribes, Essei, and such sectaries have maintained, I will not so much as mention: for the present, I presume no nation under heaven can be more sottish, ignorant, blinde, superstitious, wilfull, obstinate and peevish, tyring themselves with vain ceremonies to no purpose; he that shall but read their Rabbins' ridiculous Comments, their strange interpretation of Scriptures, their absurd ceremonies, fables, childish tales, which they stedfastly believe, will think they be scarce rational creatures ; their foolish a customes, when they rise in the morning, and how they prepare themselves to prayer, to meat, with what superstitious washings, how to their Sabbath, to their other feasts, weddings, burials, &c. Last of all, the expectation of their Messias, and those figments, miracles, vain pompe that shall attend him, as how he shall terrifie the Gentiles, and overcome them by new diseases; how Michael the Archangel shall sound his trumpet, how he shall gather all the scattered Jewes in the holy Land, and there make them a great banquet, “ Wherein shall be all the birds, beasts, fishes, that ever God made, a cup of wine that grew in Paradise, and that hath been kept in Adam's cellar ever since.” At the first course shall be served in that great Oxe in Job 4. 10. " that every day feeds on a thousand hils," Psal. 50. 10. that great Leviathan, and a great bird, that laid an egge so big, me that by chance tumbling out of the nest, it knockt down 300 tall Cedars, and breaking as it fell, drowned 160 villages :") This bird stood up to the knees in the Sea, and the sea was so deep, that a hatchet would not fall to the bottom in seaven years :: Of their Messias - wives and children; Adam and Eve, &c. and that one stupend fiction amongst the rest: When a Roman Prince asked of Rabbi Jehosua ben Hanania, why the Jewes' God was compared to a Lion; he made answer, he compared himself to no ordinary lion, but to one in the wood Ela, which when he desired to see, the Rabbin pray'd to God he might, and forthwith the Lyon set forward, e But when he was 400 miles from Rome, he so roared that all, the great bellied women in Rome inade aborts, the citie walls fell down, and when he came an hundred miles nearer, and roared the

• Buxtorfius Synagog. Jud. c. 4. Inter precandum nemo pediculos attingat, vel pulicem, aut per guttur inferius ventum emittas, &c. Id. c. 5. et scq. cap. 36. b Illic omnia animalia, pisces, aves, quos Deus unquam creavit mactabuntur, et vinum gencrosum, &c. Cujus lapsu cedri altissimi 300 dejecti sunt. quumq; è lapsu ovum fuerat confractum, pagi 160 inde submersi, et alluvione inundaii. Every King of the world shall send him one of his daughters to be his wife, because it is written, Ps. 45.-10: Kings daughters shall attend on him, &c. Quum quadringentis adhuc milliaribus ab impefatore Leo hic abesset, tam fortiter rugiebat, ut mulieres Romanz aborticrin omnes, matique, &c.

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second time, their teeth fell out of their heads, the Emperour himself féll down dead, and so the Lyon went back.” With an infinite number of such lies and forgeries, which they verily beleeve, feed themselves with vain hope, and in the mean time will by 110 perswasions be diverted, but still crucifie their souls with a company of idle cereinonies, live like slaves and vaga.. bonds, will not be relieved or reconciled.

Mahometans are a coinpound of Gentiles, Jewes, and Christians, and so absurd in their ceremonies, as if they had taken that which is most sottish out of every one of them, full of idle fables in their superstitious law, their Alcoran it self a galliinaufrie of lyes, tales, ceremonies, traditions, precepts, stole from other sects, and confusedly heaped up to delude a company of rude and barbarous clownes. As how birds, beasts, stones, saluted Mahomet. when he came from Mecha, the Moon came down from heaven to visit him, how God sent for him, spake to him, &c. with a company of stupend figments of the angels, sun, moon, and stars, &c., · Of the day of judgenient, and three sounds to prepare to it, which must last 50000 years, of Paradise, which wholly consists in coeundi & comedendi voluptate, and pecorinis hominibus scriptum, bestialis beatitudo, is so ridiculous, that Virgil, Dantes, Lu. cian, nor any Poet can be more fabulous. Their rites and cereinonies are most vain and superstitious, wine and swine's flesh are utterly forbidden by their law, they must pray five times a day; and still towards the South, wash before and after all their bodies over, with many such. For fasting, vows, religious orders, peregrinations, they go får beyond any Papists, h they fast a month together many times, and must not cat a bit till Sun be set. Their Kalenders, Dervises, and Torlachers, &c. are more i abstemions some of them, than Carthusians, Franciscans, Anachosites, forsake all, live solitary, fare hard, go naked, &c. * Their pilgrimage are as far as to the River * Ganges (which the Gentiles of those Tracts like. wise do) to wash themselves, for that river as they hold hath a soveraign vertue to purge them of all sins, and no man can be saved that hath not been washed in it. For which reason they come far and near from the Indies ; Maximus gentium omni

* i Strozius Cicogna omnif. mag. lib. 1. c. 1. putida multa recenset ex Alcorano, de cælo, stellis, Angelis, Lonicerus c. 21, 22. 1. 1. Quinquies in die orare Turcæ tenentur ad meridiem. Bredenbachius cap. 5. In quolibet anno mcnsem integrum jejunant interdiu, nec comedentes nec bibentes, &c. + Nullis unquam multi per totam ætatem carnibus vescuntur. Leo Afer. k Loc nicerus to. i. cap. 17. is. * Gotardus Arthus ca. 33. hist. orient. Indiæ ; opinio est expiatorium esse Gangem; et nec mundum ab omni peccato nec salvum fieri posse, qui non hoc fumine se abluat: quam ob causam ex tota India, &c.

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um confluxus est; and infinite numbers yearly resort to it. Others go as far as Mecha to Mahomet's Tombe, which jour. ney is both miraculous and meritorious. The ceremonies of Ainging stones to stone the Divel, of eating a Camell at Caire by the way; their fastings, their running till they sweat, their long prayers, Mahomet's Temple, Tombe, and building of it, would aske a whole volume to dilate : and for their pains taken in this holy pilgriinage, all their sins are forgiven, and they reputed for so many Saints. And divers of them with hot bricks, when they return, will put out their eyes, “I that they never after set any prophane thing, bite out their tongues," &c. They look for their Prophet Mahomet as Jewes do for their Messias. Read more of their customes, rites, ceremo. nies, in Lonicerus Turcic. hist. tom. 1. from the tenth to the 24. chapter. Bredenbachius cap. 4. 5. 6. Leo Afer lib. l. Busbequius, Sabellicus, Purchas lib. 3. cap. 3. & 4. 5. Theodorus Bibliander, &c. Many footish ceremonies you shall finde in thein; and which is most to be lamented, the people are generally so curious in observing of them, that if the least circumstance be omitted, they think they shall be damned, 'tis an irremissible offence, and can hardly be forgiven. I kept in my house amongst my followers (saith Busbequius, sometime the Turke's Orator in Constantinople) a Turkey boy, that by chance did eat shell-fish, a meat forbidden by their law, but the next day when he knew what he had done, he was not only sick to cast and vomit, but very much troubled in minde, would weep and grieve many dayes after, tornient himself for his fowl offence. Another Turke being to drink a cup of wine in his Cellar, first made a huge noise and filthy faces, ľn to warn his soul, as he said, that it should not be guilty of that foul fact which he was to comnit." With such toges as these are men kept in awe, and so cowed, that they dare not resist, or offend the least circumstance of their Law, for conscience sake misled by superstition, which no humane edict otherwise, no force of arms could have enforced. · In the last place are Pseudo-Christians, in describing of whose superstitious symptomes, as a mixture of the rest, I may say that which S. Benedict once saw in a vision, one divel in the market place, but ten in a Monastery, because there was more work; in populous Cities, they would swear and forswear, lye, falsifie, deceive fast enough of themselves, one divel could circumvent a thousand; but in their religious houses a thousand divels could scarce tempt one silly Monk. All the

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* Quia nil volunt deinceps videre. in Nullum sc conflictandi finem facit. *Ul in aliquem angulum se reciperet, ne reus fieret ejus delicti quod ipse erat admissurus.

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principal Divels I think busie themselves in subverting Chris. tians; lewes, Gentiles, and Mahometans are extra caulem, out of the fold, and need no such attendance, they make no resistance, * eos enim pulsare negligit, quos quieto jure possidere se sentit, they are his own already ; but Christians have that shield of faith, sword of the spirit to resist, and inust have a great deal of battery before they can be overcome. That the Divel is most busie amongst us that are of the true Church, apa pears by those several oppositions, heresies, schismes, which in all ages he hath raised to subyert it, and in that of Rome espe. cially, wherein Antichrist himself now sits and playes his prize. This mystery of iniquity began to work even in the Apostles time, many Antichrists and Hereticks were abroad, many sprung up since, many now present, and will be to the world's end, to dementate men's minds, to seduce and captivate their souls. Their symptomes I know not how better to express, than in that twofold division, of such as lead, and are led... Such as lead are Hereticks, Schismaticks, false Prophets, im. postors, and their ministers : they have some common symptomes, some peculiar. Common, as madness, folly, pride, insolency, arrogancy, singularity, peeyishness, obstinacy, im. pudence, scorn and contempt of all other sects :

. .." Nullius addicti jurare in verba magistri ;" They will approve of nought but what they first invent them: selves, no interpretation good but what their infallible spirit dictates ; none shall be in secundis, no not in tertiis, they are onely wise, onely learned in the truth, all damned but they and their followers, cedem scripturarum faciunt ad materiam suam, saith Tertullian, they make a slaughter of Scriptures, and turn it as a nose of wax to their own ends. So irrefragable, in the mean time, that what they have once said, they must and will maintain, in whole Tomes, duplications, triplications, never yield to death, so self-conceited, say what you can. As • Bernard (erroniously soine say) speaks of P. Aliardus, omnes patres sic, atque ego sic. Though all the Fathers, Councels, the whole world contradict it, they care not, they are all one: and as P Gregory well notes “ of such as are vertiginous, they think all turns round and moves, all err ; when as the errour is wholly in their own brains.” Magallianus the Jesuite in his Comment on the first of Timothy cap. 16. vers. 20. and Alphonsus de Castro lib. 1. adversus hereses, gives two more eminent notes, or probable conjectures to know such men by, .(they inight have taken themselves by the noses when they said

* Gregor. Hom. Epist. 190. Orat. 8. u vertigine correptis videntur omnia moveri, omnia iis falsa sunt, quum error in ipsorumr'cerebro sit.

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