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most deceitfull thing of all, as Forestus and some other Physicians have proved at large: I say nothing of Critick dayes, 'errours in Indications, &c. The most rationall of them, and skilfull, are so often deceived, that as s Tholosanus infers, “ I had rather beleeve and commit my selfe to a meer Emperick, then to a meer Doctor, and I cannot sufficiently commend that custome of the Babylonians, that have no professed Physitians, but bring all their patients to the market to be cured:” which Herodotus relates of the Agyptians: Strabo, Sardus, and Aubanus Bohemus of many other nations. And those that prescribed Physick amongst them, did not so arrogantly take upon them to cure all diseases, as our professours do, but some one, some another, as their skill and experience did serve; “* One cured the eyes, a second the teeth, a third the head, another the lower parts," &c. not for gain, but in charity, to do good, they made neither art, profession, nor trade of it, which in other places was accustomed: and therefore Cambises in + Xenophon told Cyrus, that to his thinking, Physitians “ were like Taylers and Coblers, the one mended our sick bodies, as the other did our cloaths.” But I will urge these cavilling and contumelious arguments no farther, lest some Physitian should mistake me, and deny me Physick when I am sick : for my part, I am well persuaded of Physick: I can distinguish the abuse from the use, in this and many other Arts and Sciences; † Aliud vinum, aliud ebrietas, wine and drunkennesse are two distinct things. I acknowledge it a must noble and divine science, in so much that Apollo, Æsculapius, and the first founders of it, meritò pro diis habili, were worthily counted Gods by succeeding ages, for the excellency of their invention. And whereas Apollo at Delos, Venus at Cyprus, Diana at Ephesus, and those other Gods were confined and adored alone in some peculiar places : Æsculapius had his Temple, and Altars everywhere, in Corinth, Lacedæmon, Athens, Thebes, Epidaure, &c. Pausanius records, for the latitude of his art, diety, worth, and necessity. With all lvertuous and wise men therefore I honour the name and caling, as I am enjoyned “ to honour the Physitian for necessitie's sake. The knowledge of the Physitian lifteth up his head, and in the sight of great men he shall be admired. The Lord hath created medicines of the earth, and he that is wise will not abhorre them,” Eccles. 58. 1. But of this noble subject how
s Lib. 28. cap. 7. syntax. art. mirab. Mallem ego expertis credcre soluin, quam merè ratiocinantibus : neq; satis laudare possum institutum Babylonicum, &c. * Herod. Euterpe de Egyptiis. Apud eos singulorum morborum sunt singuli medici; alius curat ocuiris, alius dentes, alius caput, partes occulcas alius. + Cyrip. lib. 1. Velut: ivm fractarum resarcinatores, &c. Chrys. hom.
many panegyricks are worthily written? For my part, as Salust said of Carthage, præstat silere, quam pauca dicere; I have said, yet One thing I will adde, that this kinde of Physick is very inoderately and advisedly to be used, upon good occasion, when the former of diet will not take place. And 'tis no other which I say, then that which Arnoldus prescribes in his 8. Aphoris. “ A discreet and godly Physitian doth first endeavour to expell a disease by medicinall diet, then by pure medicine:” and in his ninth, co u he that may be cured by diet, must not meddle with Physick.” So in 11. Aphoris. “* A modest and wise Physitian will never hasten to use medicines, but upon urgent neccessity, and that sparingly too :' because (as he addes in his 13. Aphoris.) “y Whosoever takes much Physick in his youth, shall soon bewail it in his old age:" Purgative Physick' especially, which doth much debilitate nature. For which causes some Physitians refrain from the use of Purgatives, or else sparingly use them. ? Herricus Ayrerus in a consultation for a melancholy person, would have him take as few purges as he could, “ because there be no such inedicines, which do not steal away some of our strength, and rob the parts of our body, weaken nature, and cause that Cacochymia,' which a Celsus and others observe, or ill digestion, and bad juyce through all the parts of it. Galen himself confesseth, “ that purgative physick is contrary to nature, lakes away some of our best spirits, and consumes the very substance of our bodies :" But this, without question, is to be understood of such purges as are unseasonably or immoderately taken ; they have their excellent use in this, as well as most other infirmities. Of Alteratives and Cordials no man doubts, be they simples or compounds. I will amongst that infinite variety of medicines, which I finde in every Pharmacopæa, every Physician, Herbalist, &ç. single out some of the chiefest.
• Prudens & pius medicus, morbum ante expellere satagit, cibis medicinali. bus, quam puris medicinis. u Cuicunq; potest per alimenta restitui sanitas, fugiendus est penitus usus medicamentorum. * Modestus & sapiens medicus, nunquam properabit ad Pharmaciam, nisi cogente necessitate. y Quicunq; pharmacatur in juventutc, de flebit in senectute. 2 Hildish. spic. 2 de mel. fol. 276. Nulla est firmè medicina purgans, quæ non aliquam de viribus & pərubus corporis deprædatur. • Lib. I. & Bart. lib. 8. cap. 12, • De vici, acut. Omne purgans medicamentum, corpori purgato contrarium &c. succos & spiritus abducit, substantiam corporis aufert.
Simples proper to Melancholy, Against Erotick Simples.
M EDICINES properly applied to Melancholy, are either
V Simple or Compound. Simples are Alterative or Purgative. Alteratives are such as correct, strengthen nature, alter, any way hinder or resist the disease; and they be herbs, scones, minerals, &c. all proper to this humour. For as there be diverse distinct infirmities continually vexing us,
• Νόσοι δ' ανθρώποισι εφ ήμέρη ήδ' επι νυκτί
For Jupiter hath taken voice from them: So there be severall remedies, as dhe saith, “ each disease a medicine, for every humor; and as some hold, every cline, every country, and more then that, every private place hath his proper remedies growing in it, peculiar almost to the domineering and most frequent maladies of it. As one discourseth, “ Wormwood growes sparingly in Italy, because most part there they be misaffected with hot diseases : but henbane, poppy, and such cold herbes: With us in Gerinany and Poland, great store of it in every wast." Baracellus Horto geniali, and Baptista Porta Physiognomice, lib. 6. cap. 23. give many instances and examples of it, and bring many other proofes. For that cause belike that learned Fuchsius of Noremberge, “f when he came into a village, considered alwayes what herbs did grow most frequently about it, and those he distilled in a silver limbeck, making use of others amongst them as occasion served.” I know that many are of opinion, our Northern simples are weak, unperfect, .not so well concocted, of such force, as those in the Southerne parts, not so fit to be used in Physick, and will therefore fetch their drugs afar off: Sena, Cassia out of Ægypt, Rubarbe from Barbary,
• Hesiod. op. Hurnins præf. pra. med. Quot morborum sunt Ideæ, tot remediorum genera variis potentiis decorata. Penottus denar. med. Ques cunq; regio pro lueit simplicia, pro morbis regionis; Crescit raro absynthium in Italia, quod ibi plerumq; morbi calidi, sed cicuta, papaver, & herbæ frigidæ ; apud nos Germanos & Polonos ubiq; provenit absynthiuin. Quum in villam venit, consideravit quæ ibi crescebant medicamenta, simplicia frequentiora, & iis plerung; usus distillatis, & aliter, alimbacum ideo argenteuin circumferens.
Aloes from Zocotora; Turbith, Agarick, Mirabolanes, Hermodactils, from the East Indies, Tobaco from the west, and some as far as China, Hellebor from the Antyciræ, or that of Austria which bears the purple flower, which Mathiolas so much approves, and so of the rest. In the kingdome of Valence in Spain, Maginus commends two mountains, Mariola and Renagolosa, famous for simples h; Leander Albertus, · Baldus a mountain near the lake Benacus in the territory of Ve. rona, to which all the herbalists in the countrry continually Hock; Ortelius one in Apulia, Munster Mons major in Histria: others Montpelier in France; Prosper Altinus preferres Egyptian simples, Garcias ab Horto Indian before the rest, another those of Italy, Crete, &c. Many times they are overcurious in this kind, whom Fuschius taxeth, Instit. l. 1. sec. 1. cap. 1. “k that think they doe nothing, except they rake all over India, Arabia, Æthiopia for remedies, and fetch their Physick from the three quarters of the World, and from beyond the Garamantes. Many an old wife or country woman doth often more good with a few known and common garden herbs, then our bunibast Physitians, with all their prodigious, sumptuous, far-fetched, rare, conjecturall medicines :" with out all question if we have not these rare Exotick simples, we hold that at home which is in vertue equivalent unto them, our's will serve as well as their's, if they be taken in proporti. onable quantity, fitted and qualified aright, if not much better, and more proper to our constitutions. But so 'tis for the most part, as Pliny writes to Gallus, "* We are carelesse of that which is neer us, and follow that which is afarre off, to know which we will travell and sail beyond the seas, wholly neglect. ing that which is under our eyes.” Opium in Turky doth scarce offend, with us in a sınall quantity it stupifies : Cicuta or heinlock is a strong poyson in Greece, but with us it hath no such violent effects: I conclude with I. Voschius, who as he much inveighs against those exotick medicines, so he promiseth by our European, a full cure, and absolute of all discases; à capite ad calcem, nostre regionis herbee nostris corporibus magis conducunt, our own simples agree best with us. It was a thing that Fernelius much laboured in his French practice, to reduce all his cure to our proper and domestick
& Herbæ medicis utiles omnium in Apahia feracissimæ, Geog, ad quos Magnus herbarioruin numerus undiq; confluit. Sinccru's Itiner. Gallia. i Bals dus mons prope Benacnm berbileg s maxime notus, k Qui se nihil effecisse arbitrantur, nisi Indiain, Ethiopiam, Arabiam, & ultra Garamantas à tribus mundi partibus exquisita remedia cerradunt. Tutins sæpe medetur rustica anus una, &c. * Ep. lib. 8. Proximorum incuriosi longinqua sectamur, & ad ea cognoscenda iter ingredi & marc transmittere solemus į at quæ sub oculisposita negligimus.
Physick: So did i Janus Cornarius, and Martin Rulandus in Germany. T. B. with us, as appeareth by a treatise of his divulged in our tongue 1615. to prove the sufficiency of English medicines, to the cure of all manner of diseases. If our simples be not altogether of such force, or so apposite, it may be, if like industry were used, those far fetched druggs would prosper as well with us, as in those countries whence now we have them, as well as Cherries, Artichokes, Tobacco, and many such. There have been divers worthy Physitians, which have tryed excellent conclusions in this kinde, and many diligent, painful Apothecaries, as Gesner, Besler, Gerard, &c. but amongst the rest those famous publike Gardens of Padua in Italy, Noremberge in Germany, Leiden in Holland, Montpelier in France, (and our's in Oxford now in fieri, at the cost and charges of the right Honourable the Lord Danvers Earl of Danby) are much to be commended, wherein all exotick plants alınost are to be seen, and liberall allowance yearly made for their better maintainance, that young students may be the sooner informed in the knowledge of them: which as * Fuchsius holds, “is most necessary for that exquisite manner of curing," and as great a shame for a Physitian not to observe them, as for a workman not to know his axe, saw, square, or any other tool which he must of necessity use.
Alteratives, Herbes, other Vegetals, &c.
to thinten of,
A MONGST those 800 simples, which Galeottus reckong A up, lib. 3. de promisc. doctor. cap. 3. and many exquia site herbalists have written of, these few following alone I finde appropriated to this humour: Of which some be altera. tives ; “ " which by a secret force,” saith Reņodels, “and speciall quality expell future diseases, perfectly cure those which are, and many such incurable effects." This is as well observed in other plants, stones, minerals, and creatures, as in herbs, in other maladies as in this. How many things are related of a man's skull? What severall vertues of corns in a horse legge, o of a Wolve's liver, &c. Of p diverse excrements of beasts, all good against several diseases ? What
'Exotica rejecit, domesticis solum nos contentos esse voluit. Melch. Adamus vit. ejus. Instit. l. 1. cap. 6. sec. 1. ad exquisitam curandi rationem, quorum cognitio imprimis necessaria est. "Quæ cæcâ vi ac specifica qualitate morbos futuros arccnt, lib. 1. cap. 10, Instit. Phar. Galen. lib. epar lupi epaticos curat. Stercus pecoris ad Epilepsiam, &c.