« السابقةمتابعة »
-—"4. but they have been successfully confuted by Riihle von Lilienstern, L'cber dos Honmn'sc/le Ithaca. The fullest authorities on the sthect of this article are Gell, Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca, London, 1807; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 24—55; Mum, Tour in Greece, vol. i. pp. 38—81: Bowen, Ilhaca in 1850, London, 1852.) [G. F. 13.]
ITHACE'SIAE lNSULAl'l, is the name given by Pliny (iii. 7. s. 13) to some small islets opposite to Vibo on the W. coast of Bruttium. These can be no other than some more rocks (too small to be marked on ordinary maps) which lie just opposite to the remains of Bivona, in the Goljb di Sta. Eufemin, and on which some traces of ancient buildings (probably connected with that port) were still visiblcin the days of Barrio. (Barrius, do Situ Calabr. ii. l3; Romauclli, vol. i. p. 57). [15. H. 13.]
ITHO'ME (’IOu'i/m: Eth. 'lfiwn'firm, 'Ifiwpaa'ios). l. A town of Histiaeotis in Thessaly, described by Homer as the “ rocky Ithome “ (’IOn’i/n; wanaKdea'o'a, 11. ii. 729), is placed by Strubo within a quadrangle formed by the four cities, Tricca, Metropolis, l’elinnaeum, and Gomphi. (Strah. is. p. 437.) It probably occupied the site of the castle which stands on the summit above the village of Fana'n'. Leakc observed, near the north-western face of the castle, some remains of a very ancient Hellenic wall, consisting of a few large masses of stone, roughly harm on the outside, but accurately joined to one another without cement. (Leake, Norllzern Greece, vol. iv. p. 510.)
2. A mountain fortress in Messcnia, where the Messenians long maintained themselves against the Spartans in the First Messenian War. It was afterwards the citadel of Messene, when this city was founded by Epaminoudas. For details, see Masszxn.
lTHO’RlA ('lflwpla), a town in Aetolia, near the Achelous, and a short distance south of Conope. It was situated at the entrance of a pass, and was strongly fortified both by nature and by art. It was taken by Philip V., and levelled to the ground, 1!. c. 219. (P01 iv. 64.)
l'TlUM PROMONTO’RIUM, is placed by Ptolemy (ii. 9. l) in Celtogalatia Belgian. After the mouths of the Seine, he mentions the outlet of the river I’hrudis [FRUDIS], Ieium ('lmov tin-pow), and then Gesoriacum (I‘nqopuurbv drivrwv), which is Bouloyne. One of the old Latin versions of Ptolemy has ltium Promontorium, and others may have it too. He places Gesoriacum and ltiuru in the same latitude, and ltinm due west of Geioriacum. This is a great mistake, for, Itinm being Cap Grisncz, the relative position of the two places is north and south, instead of east and west. There is no promontory on this part of the French coast north or south of Boulogne except Grisnez, at which point the coast changes its direction from south to north, and runs in a geneml ENE. direction to Calais, Gravclilws, and Dunlrn'que. It is therefore certain that there is a great mistake in Ptolemy, both in the direction of the coast and the relative position of Gcsorincum and ltium. Cap Grimez is a chalk clifl', the termination on the coo-d. of the chalk hills which cross the department of Pas de Calais. The chalk clifi's extcntl a few miles on each side of Cop Grimace, and are clearly seen from the English const on a fine day. This cape is the nearest point of the French coast to the opposite wast of Kent. [G. In]
l’TlUS PORTUS (Tb rPrior, Strab. p. 199). thn Caesar was preparing for his second British ox
pedition (13.0. 54), he says (B. G. v. 2) that he ordered his forces to meet at “ l’ortus ltius, from which port he had found that there was the most convenient passage to Britannia,—about 30,000 passus." In his first expedition, is. c. 55, he says that he marched, with all his forces, into the country of the lllorini, because the passage from that coast. to Britannia was the shortest (B. G. iv. 21) ; but he does not name the port from which he sailed in his first expedition; and this is an omission which a man can easily understand who has formed a correct notion of the Commentaries. It seems a plain conclusion, from Caesar's words (v. 2) that he sailed from the Itiua on his first expedition; for he marched into the country of the Morini, in order to make the shortest passage (iv. 21) ; and he made a good passage (iv. 23). In the fifth book he gives the distance from the Itius to the British coast, but not in the fourth book; and we conclude that he ascertained this distance in his first voyage. Drumann (Geschichte Roms, vol. iii. p. 294) thinks that the passage in the fifth book rather proves that Caesar did not sail from ltius on his first voyage. We must accordingly suppose that, having had a good passage on his first voyage to Britannia, and back to the place from which he had sailed, he chose to try a difl‘erent passage the second time, which passage he had learned (cognoverat) to be the most convenient (commodissimum). Yet he landed at the same place in Britannia in both his voyages (v. 8) ; and he had ascertained (cognoverat) in the first voyage, as he says, that this was the best landing-place. So Drumann, in his way, may prove, if he likes, that Caesar did not land at the same place in both voyages.
The name ltius gives some reason for supposing that Portus ltius was near the Promontorium ltium; and the opinion now generally accepted is, that l’ortua ltius is lVissant or Witsund, a few miles east of Cap Grzlmcz. The critics have fixed Portus ltius at. various places ; but not one of these guesses, and they are all guesses, is worth notice, except the guess that ltius is Geaariamnn or Boulog‘ne. But the name Gesoriacum is not ltius, which is one objection to the supposition. The only argument in favour of Bouloyne is, that it vvns the usual place from which the Romans sailed for Britannia after the time of Claudius, and that it is in the country of the Morini. Gesoriacum was the best spot that the Romans could choose for a regular place of embarkation, for it is adapted to be the site of a town and a fortified place, and has a small river. Accordingly it became the chief Roman position on this part of the French coast. [GI-LSORIA(TU.\L]
The distance of Portus ltius from the nearest port of Britannia, 30 M.I’., is too much. It seems to be a just conclusion, that Caesar estimated the distance from his own experience, and therefore that he estimated it either to the clifi'a about the South Forehand, where he anchored, or to the place seven or eight miles (for the M55. of Caesar vary here) further ulong the mast, where he landed. It is certain that. he first approached the British coast under the high chalk diffs between Folkestone and Walmer. It is a disputed point whether he went from his anchorage under the cliffs northwards to Deal, or southward to Sandgnle or Ilyllie. This matter does not atl'cct the position of ltius, and it is not discussed here; but. the writer maintains that Caesar landed on the beach at Deal. There are difficulties in this question, which the reader may examine by referring to the authorities mentioned at the end of this article. The pas
sage in the fifth book (v. 8), in which Caesar describes
his second Voyage, shows very clear] y where he landed. lle sailed from Portus ltius, on his second expedition, at sunset, with a wind about SW. by W. ; about midnight the wind failed him, he could not keep his course, and, being carried too far by the tide. at daybreak, when he looked about him, he saw Britannia on his let't hand behind him. Taking advantage of the change of the tide, he used his oars to reach “ that part of the island where he had found in the previous summer that there was the best landing." He had been carried a few miles past the Cantium l'romontorimn, or North Forelaml but not out of sight, and he could easily find his way to the beach at Deal. There are many arguments to show that Deal was Caesar's landing-place, as it was for the Romans under the empire, who built near it the strong place of Rutupiae (Ric/tborouyli), on the Slour, near Samlwiclt.
D'Anville makes out Caesar's distance of 30 M. P. thus. He reckons 22 or 24 M.P., at most, from l’ortue ltius to the English cliffs, and 8 miles from his anchorage under the clitl‘s to his landingplace make up 30. Perhaps Caesar means to estimate the whole distance that he sailed to his landing place ; and if this is so, his estimate of “ about 30 ltomaa miles" is not far from the truth, and quite as near as we can expect. Strabo (p. 199) makes the distance 820 stadia, or only 300, according to a note of Eustathius on Dionysius l’eriegetcs (v. 566), who either found 300 in his copy of Strabo, or made a mistake about the number; for he derived his information about Caesar’s passage only from Strabo. It may be observed here that b'tmbo mentions two expeditions of Caesar, and only one port of embarkatiun, the ltius. He understood Caesar in the same way as all people will do who can draw a conclusion from premises. But even 300 stadiu is too great a distance from lVLssant to the British coast, it' we reckon 8 stadia to the Roman mile; but there is good reason, as D'Anville says, for making 10 stadiu to the mile here Pliny gives the distance from Boulogne to Britannia, that is, we must assume. to the usual landing place, Rutupiae, at 50 M. l’., which is too much ; but it seems to be some evidence that he could not suppose Boulogne to be Caesar's place of etnbarkation.
Caesar mentions another port near Itius. He calls it the Ulterior Portus (iv. 22, 23, 28), or Superior, and it was 8 MP. from Itins. We might assume from the term Ulterior, which has reference to Itius, that this port was further to the north and east than ltius; and this is proved by what he says of the wind. For the wind which carried him to Britannia on his first expedition, his direct couise being nearly north, prevented the ships at the Ulterior Portus from coming to the place where Caesar embarked (iv. 23). The Ulterior, or Superior, Portus is between Wiuaat and Calais, and may beSangalte. Calais is too far off. When Caesar was returning from his first expedition (iv. 36, 37) two transport ships could not make the same portus—the [tins and the Ulterior or Superior—that the rest of the ships did, but were carried a little lower down (paulo infra), that is, further south, which we know to be Caesar‘s meaning by comparing this with another passage (iv. 28). Caesar does not say that these two ships landed at a “ portus,” as L'kert supposes (Grllltk’ll, p. 554), who makes a port unknown to Caesar, and gives it the name “ Inferior."
. Du Cange, Camden, and others, correctly took
ITON or ITO'NUS ('1qu, Hom. ;"11'auvos, Strab.), a town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, called by Homer “mother of flocks" (ll. ii. 696), was situated 60 stadia from Alus, upon the river Cuarius or Coralius, and above the Crocian plain. (Strab. ix. p. 435.) Lcake supposes thc Kholo' to be the Cuarius, and places Itonus near the spot where the river issues from the mountains ; and as, in that case, Iton possest a portion of the pastoral highlands of Othrys, the epithet " mother of flocks" appears to have been well adapted to it. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 356, 357.) Iton had a celebrated temple of Athena, whose worship, under the name of the Itonian Athena, was carried by the Boeotians, when they were expelled from Thessaly, into the country named after them. (Strab. l. c.; Staph. B. a. v.; Apollod. ii. 7. 7.; Appollon. i. 551, with Schol.; Callim. Hymn. in Cer. 74.; Paris. i. 13. § 2, iii. 9. § 13, ix. 34. § I, x. l.§ IO ; Plut. Pyrr/l. 26.) ITO'NE (‘l-ra’iwl), a town in Lydia of unknown site. (Dionys. Per. 465; Steph. B. s. o.) [1,. 8.] I'I'UCCI (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3), or ITUCI (Coins; 'IriIm-n, Appian, Hop. 66, 68), a city in the W. of Ilispania Baetica. Under the Romans, it was :1. (“01012172 immunis, with the surname Vm'rus J unit, and it belonged to the conventus of Hispalis. Its probable site, in the opinion of Ukert, was between Mario: and Espejo, near Valenzuela. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 369; Coins, up. Florez, Med. dc Esp. vol. ii. p. 487; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 18, Suppl. vol. i. p. 32 ; Sestini, p. 63; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 24.) [I’. 8.] ITUNA, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 2) as an aestuary immediately to the north of the Morioambe aestuary = Morecombe Bay. This identifies it with the Selmay Firth. [11. G. L.] [TURAEA ('lroupala), a district in the NE. of Palestine (Strab. xvi. p. 755; Plin. v. 19), which, with Trachonitis, belonged to the tetrarchy of Philip. (St. Luke, iii. 1 ; comp. Joseph. Ant. xv. 10. § 1.) The name is so loosely applied by the ancient writers that it is diflicult to fix its boundaries with precision, but it may be said roughly to be traversed by a line drawn from the Lake of Tiberius to Damascus. It was a mountainous district, and full of caverns (Strab. 1.0.): the inhabitantsmwild race (Cic.Phi!.ii. 24), favoured by the natural features of the country, were in the habit of robbing the traders from Damascus (Strab. xvi. p. 756), and were famed as archers. (Virg. (ivory. ii. 448 ; LucanJ'ii. 230, 514.) At an early period it was occupied by the tribe of .letur (1 Chron. v. 19; 'Iroupai‘oi, LXX.), whose name is connected with that of Jetur, a son of Ishmael. (1 Chron. i. 31.) The Itnraeans—either the d1» accndants of the original possessor, or, as is more probable, of new comers, who had occupied this district after the exile, and assumed the original name —were eventually subdued by king Aristobulus, 3.0. 100. who compelled them to be circumcised, and incorporated them in his dominions. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 11. §3.) The mountain district was in the hands of Ptolemaeus, tetrarch of Chalcis (Strah. xvi. p. 753); but when Pompeins came into Syria, Iturnea was ceded to the Romans (Appian. Mill/r. 106), though probably it retained a certain amount of independence under native vasaal princes: M. Antonina imposed a heavy tribute upon it. (Appian, 556'. v. 7.) Finally, under Claudius, it. became part of the province of Syria (Tac. Ann. xii. 211; Dion Cass. lit. 12.) The district ELDjediir, to the E. of Hermon (fiebel-uh-Scheikh), and lying W. of the Hrufi road, which according to Burckiiardt.
Juliacum, and from Juliscum through Tiberiscum to Cologne. On this road :also Juliscum is placed 18 leagues from Cologne. Juliacum is Juliers, or Jiilich, as the Germans call it, on the river Roer, on the carriage road from Cologne to Aix-la-Chapelle.
The first part of the word seems to be the Roman name Juli-, which is rendered more probable by finding between Juliacum and Colonis a place Tiberiacum (Berclm'm or Berg/zen). Acum is a common ending of the mares of towns in North Gallic. [0. L.]
J ULIANO'POLIS ('lovMavmin-olur), a town in Lydia which is not mentioned until the time of Hierocles (p. 670), according to whom it was situated close to Maeonis, and must be looked for in the southern parts of Mount Tmolus, between Philadelphia and Tralles. (Comp. I‘lin. v. 29.) (L. 8.]
JULIO'BONA ('loukidgova), a town in Gallia Belgica, is the city of the Caleti, or Caleitae as Ptolemy writes the name (ii. 8. § 5), who occupied the Pays de Coax. [CALETL] The place is Lillebone, on the little river Bolbec, near the north bank of the Seine, between Hat-re and Caudcbec, in the present department of Seine lufe'rt'euse. The Itins. show several roads from Juliobona; one to Rotomagus (Raven), through Breviodurum; and another through Breviodurum to Noviomagus (Lisieuzc), on the south side of the Seine. The road from J uliobona to the west terminated at Carocotinnm. [Cameos-morn] The place has the name Juliabons in the Latin middle age writings. It was a favourite residence of the dukes of Normandie, and William, named the Conqueror, had a castle here, where he often resided.
The name J uliobona is one of many examples of a Word formed by a Roman prefix (J ulio) and a Celtic termination (Bonn), like Augustobons, Juliomagus. The word Divona or Bibona [DrvoNA] has the same termination. It appears from a middle age Latin writer. cited by D‘Anville (Notice, 9%., Juliobona), that the place was then called Illebonu, from which the modern name Lillebonne has come by prvfixing the article; as the river Oltis in the south of France has become L' 01!, and Lot.
The name Juliobona, the traces of the old roads, and the remains discovered on the site of Lillebonne prove it to have been a Roman town. A Roman theatre, tombs, medals, and antiquities, have been discovered. .[G. L.
JULIOBRI'GA ('IouAtéGpr'ya), the chief city of the Cantabri, in Hispania Tarraconensis, belonging to the conventus of Giants, stood near the sources of the Ebro, on the eminence of Retortilb, S. of Reyr'iosa. Five stones still mark the bounds which divided its territory from that of Legio IV. It had its port, named Portns Victoriac J uliobrigcnsium, at Saatonna. (Plin. 3. s. 4, iv. 20. s. 34 ; Ptol. ii. 6. § 51 ; Inscr. up. Grutcr, p. 354; Morales, Antiq. p. 68 ; Florez, Esp. S. vol. vi. p.417; Cantabr. p. 64 ; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 443.) [P. 8.]
JULIOMAGUS ('louMd/La'yos), a town of the Andecavi, in Gallia Lugduncnsis, and their capital. (Ptol. ii. 8. § 8.) It is named Juliomagns in the Table, and marked as l capital. It is now Angers.
Annucavfl [G. L.]
JULIO’I’OLIS. [Gonnwx and Tamas]
JULIO'POLIS AEGYI’TI. Pliny (vi. 23. s. 26) alone among ancient geographers mentions this place among the towns of Lower Acgypt. From the silence of his predecessors, and front the name itself, we may reasonably infer its recent origin. According
to Pliny, Juliopolis stood about 20 miles distant from Alexandreia, upon the banks of the canal which connected that city with the Canopic arm of the Nile. Some geographers suppose Juliopolis to have been no other than Nicopolis, or the City of Victory, founded by Augustus Caesar in n. c. 29, partly to commemorate his reduction of Aepypt to a Roman province, and partly to punish the Alexandrians for their adherence to Cleopatra and M. Antonius. Mannert, on the contrary (x. i. p. 626), believes Juliopolis to have been merely that suburb of Alexandicia which Strabo (xvii. p. 795) calls Eleusis. At this place the Nile-boats, proceeding up the river, took in cargoes and passengers. [\V. B. D.]
JU'LIUM CA'BNICUM (’IoliMov devmor,Ptol: Zuglio), a town of the Cami, situated at the foot of the Julian Alps, which, from its name, would seem to have been a Roman colony founded either by Julius Caesar, or in his honour by Augustus. If Paulus Diaconus is comet in ascribing the foundation of Forum Julii to the dictator himself (I’. Diac. Hist. Lang. ii. 16), there is little doubt that Julium Carnicum dates from the same period: but we have no account of its foundation. Ptolemy in one place distinctly dmfibu it as in Noricum (viii. 7. § 4), in another more correctly as situated on the frontiers of Noricum and Italy (rte-mgr) Tfis 'IraMa: Kai Nupmoii, ii. 13. § 4). But I’liny expressly includes it. in the territory of the Carni and the tenth region of Italy (“ J ulienses Carnorum," iii. 19. s. 23),and its position on the S. side of the Alps clearly entitlm it to be considered in Italy. Its position is correctly indicated by the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 219), which places it 60 M. P., from Aquileia, on the road leading nearly due N. from that city over the Julian Alps. The first stage on this road, “ Ad Triccsimum," still retains the name of Trigesimo, and the site of Julium Cumicum is marked by the village of Zuglio (where some Roman remains have been discovered), in a side valley opening into that of the Tagliamento, about 4 miles above Tolmezzn. The pass from thence over the Monte di 51a. Croce into the valley of the Gail, now practicable only for mules, follows the line of the ancient Roman road, given in the Itinerary, and therefore probably a frequented pass under the Romans [ALPns, p. 110, No. 7]: but the inscription on the faith of which the construction of this road has been ascribed to Julius Caesar is a palpable forgery. (Clover. Ital. p. 200.) E. H. 13.]
JUNCARIA, JUNCARIL'S CAMPUS. [INmourns.
JUNONIA INSULA. [Fourunamrr Ins]
JURA. [Hsnvrt'ru ; Ganua, p. 951.]
J URCAE ("lupntu), mentioned by Herodotus (iv. 22) as lying contiguous to the Thyssagetae, who lay beyond the Budini, who lay beyond the Sauromatae of the Pains Macotis and Lower Tansi's. Their country was well-wooded. They were hunters, and had horses. This points to some portion of the lower Uralian range. They were probably tribes of the Ugrian stock, akin to the present Jlordm'ns, TJ/wo‘imiss, Tslzumuhes, of which they were the most southcm portion. The reason for for this lies in the probability of the name being a derivative from the root Jcr- (us in Ukraine and Carin-thia)=borrler, or boundary, some form of which gave the Slavonic population their equivalent to the Germanic name Marcomanni = Marchmen. [11. G. L.]
JUSTINIA’NA. [CARTHAGO: Hannustnrusfl
JIJS'I‘INIA'NA I’RIMA. [Scorn]
JUSTINIANO'POLIS. l. A city in Epcirus, formerly called Hadrianopolis. [IIADRIANQPOLISJ
2. The later name of Hadrumetutn in Africa. [Hannumm'usn]
JUTHUNGI ('Iot'laolrflm), a German tribe dwelling on the banks of the Danube. They are described by some ancient writers as a part of the Alemanni (Amm. Marc. xvii. 6); but they belonged more probably to the Gothic race : even their name seems to be only another form for Gothi or Gothoncs. (Ambros. Epi'st. 20.) Dcxippus, from whom we learn most about their history, calls them a Scythian tribe, which, however, clearly means that they were Goths.
In the reign of the emperor Aurelian the J uthungi invadcd Italy, and, being defeated, they sued for peace, but were obliged to return without having efi'ectcd their purpose : afterwards they made preparations for another invasion. (Dcxip. pp. 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, ed. Xiebuhr and Bekker.) In these wars, however, they never appeared alone, but always in conjunction with others, either Alemannians, Suevi, or Goths. (See Eisenschmidt. (16 Orz'yine Ostrogot/wrum et Visi'gothorum, p. 26; Latham, Tacit. Germ“ Epileg. p. cxiii.) [L. S.
JUTTAII ('I-rdv, LXX.), a town of Judah (Josh. xv. 55), appropriated to the priests; according to Eusebius (Onomast. s. v. ’Ier'ra'v) it was 18 M. P. from Eleutheropolis. Roland (Palaest. p. 870) supposes this to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elizabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist,—the 16M: ’1065n. of Luke, i. 39, being so written, by a corruption or from a softer pronunciation, instead of 16M; 'lurira. The modern film, on the site of the old town, in which there are said to be indications of old remains, preserves the ancient name. (Robinson. Bib. Res. vol. ii. pp. 190, 195, 628; Bitter, Erdkumk, vol. xv. pt. i. pp. 638, 641; Winer, a. 1:.) B.J.]
JUVAVUM, JUVA’VIA, a town in the interior of Noricum, on the left bank of the river Irarus. It is the modern city of Sakburg, situated in an extensive and fertile valley, on the slope of a range of a high mountain. It is chiefly known from inscriptions : one of which (Orelli, no. 496) describes the place as a colony planted by the emperor Hadrian ; but. its genuiizcness is disputed. (Orelli, Inscript. Vol. i. p. 138.) J urarium was the head-quarters of the fifth cohort of the first legion (Notit. Imper.) and the residence of the governor of the province. At an earlier period it seems to have been the residence of the native kings of Noricum. In the second half of the fifth century it was destroyed by the Ilcruli ; but was restored as early as the seventh century, and still contains many beautiful remains of antiquity, especially mosaics. (Comp. Orelli, 1nncript. 1106. 496, 497; Itin- Ant. p. 235, where it bears the erroneous name of Jovavis ; Eugipp. Vit. S. Sever. 13, 24, where it is called Iopia ; Vit. S. Ruperlt', up. Basnage,tom. iii. pt. 2. p. 273 ; Eginhard, Vit. Caroli )1. 33; Juvavt'a, odor Nachrichten com Zmlande der Gegemlen mu] Stadt Jucavia, Salzburg, 1784, fol.) [L. 8.]
MISHI’.\T (Gen. xiv. 7, xvi. 14), where the Israelites cncainpcd with the intention of entering the Promised Land (Nam. xxxii. S), and the point from which the spies were sent. (Nam. xiii. xiv. 40—45, xxi. 1—3; Deut. i. 41—44; comp. Judy. i. 17.) The supposition that the Kadesh-Bumea, to which the Israelites first came, is difi'crent from the Kadcsh-Meribah, which formed their later encampment, where the wants of the people were miraculously supplied from the smitten rock (Nam. xx. 14), reconciles some difficulties. On the hypothesis that there were two places of this name, the first Kadesh and its localities agrees very well with the spring of ’A in Kddés or Krillés, lying to the E. of the highest put of Qiebel Halal, towards its N. extremity, about l2miles from l1[oil<il|lti Iladjar. (Becr-lahui-roi, Gen. xvi. 14), and something like due S. from Khalasa (Chezil, Josh. xv. 30), which has been identified by lilr.Rowhmds (Williams, Holy City, vol. i. App. pp. 466—468) with the rock struck by Moses.
The second Kadesh, to which the Israelites came with a view of paSsing through the land of Edom, coincides better with the more easterly position of ’Az'n-el- lVeibe/t which Dr. Robinson (Bib. Res. vol. ii. pp. 582. 610, 622) has assigned to it (comp. Kitto, Scripture Lands, p. 82). Bitter (Erdlnmde, vol. xiv. pp. 1077—1089), who refers to the latest discoveries in this district, does not determine whether one Kadcsh would sufi'iciently answer all the conditions required. B. J.]
KADMONITES (Kefipwvaim, LXX.), a nation of Canaan at the time that Abraham sojourned in the land (Gen. xv. 19). The name Berti-Kedem, “ children of the East" (Judg. vi. 3; comp. Isa. xi. 14), was probably not distinctive of, but collectively applied to various pcopla, like the Saracens in the middle ages, and the Beduins in later times. (Hitter, Erdkzmde, vol. xv. pt. i. p. 138.) [15. B. J.]
KAMON (Kapa’w, LXX.), a town in Gilead, belonging to the tribe of Munrmseh, where Jnir died. (Judges, x. 5; comp. Joseph. Antig. v. 7. The Knnlonn (Kain-1110i) of Euscbius, which lay 6 M. 1’. to the N. of Logic (Onomast. s. 11.), must have been another place of the same name; but the city which Polybius (v. 70) calls Camus (Kahoiis), and which was taken, with other places in Peraca, by Antiochns,is identical with the town in Gilead. (Reland, Palaex. 6-19; Winer, s. u; Von Raumer, Paleat. p.242 ; Hitter, Erdkunde. vol. xv. p. 1026.) [E.B.J.
KANAH (Kud,LXX.). 1. A town in the . district of Asher. (Josh. xix. 28.) Dr. Robinson recognises it in the large village of Kdna, on the brow of the Wudy-‘Asluir, near Tyre.
2. A river which divided the district of Mnnasseh from that of Ephraim (Josh. xvi. 8, xvii. 9, 10), pro~ bany the river which discharges itself into the sea between Cacsnreia and Apollonia (Arundinetis; comp. Schultens, VilaSalad. pp. 191, 198), now the Nail? Abu-Zubdra. [H B. J.]
KAPHARABIS (Kndmpafls), a fortified place, in Idumaea, taken, with Kaphethrs, by Cerealis, A. D. 69. (Joseph. B. J. iv. 9. 9.) [1']. B. J.]
KEDEMOTH (Baxeopr, LXX.), a city in the tribe of Reuben (Josiaxiii. 18), which gave its name to the wilderness of chemoth, on the borders of the river Amon, from whence Moses sent messengers of peace to Sihon king of Heshbon (11ml. ii. 26.) Its site has not been made out. (lliltcr, Erdlwmle, vol. xv. pt. i. pp. 57-1, 1208; Winer, s. o.) B. J.]