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ridge S. of Hebron, where there are sites of ruins visible.

2. A town of liIoab. (Jer. xlviii. 24. 41: Amos, ii. 2.) [11 B. J.]

KIRJATH, a word signifying in Hebrew "town," or “ city," the following are the principal places to which this term is attached.

1. KIRJATHADI (Itiptattala, LXX) or the “ double city," one of the most ancient towns in the country 1'}. of the Jordan, as it was in the hands of the Einims (Gm. xiv. 5; comp. Ewald, Gcsch. des Volt-cs Israel. vol. i. p. 308), who were expelled from it by the Moabites. (Deut. ii. 9, 11.) Kiljathaim was afterwards assigned to the children of Reuben (.an. xxxii. 87; Josh. xiii. 19); but during the exile the Monbites recovered this and other towns. (Jer. xlviii. 1, 23; Ezek. xxv. 9.) Euscbius and Jerome (Onomnst. I. r. Kaptaeafp) describe it as being full of Christians, and lying 10 M. I’. W. of Mcdt-ba. Burckhardt (Trar. p.367) heard of ruins called 151- Tcim, half an hour W. of the site of Medebn, which he conjectures to have been this place, the last syllable of the name being retained. This does not agree with the distance in the Onomasticon, but Jerome is probably wrong in identifying the Christian town with the ancient Kiriathaim, as the former is no doubt, from the data assigned by him, the modem Kureyleidt, S. of the Wuriy Zfirlt'o Main, and the latter the El- Tet'm of Burckhardt, to the N. of the Wmiy. (Comp. Ritter, Erdkunde, voi. xv. pp. 1185, 1186.) There was another place of this name in the tribe of Naphtali. (l Chrmt. vi. 76.)

2. KIRJATH-ARBA, the ancient name of Hebron, but still in use in the time of Nehemiah (xi. 25). [Hannox]


4. Knus'ru-Hvzo‘m, or “city of streets," a town of Moab. (.Vum. xxii.

5. KIRJATH-JEARIM, or “ city of forests," one of the four towns of the Gibeonites (Josh. ix. 17), and not far distant from Beeroth (El-Birch). (Ezra, ii. 25.) At a later period the ark was brought here from licth-Shemcsh (1 Sam. vii. 1, 2), and remained there till it was removed to Jerusalem (1 Chron. xiii. 6). The place was rebuilt and inhabited other the exile (Ezra, l.c.; Nell. vii. 29). Josephus (.4 08. vi. 1. §4) says that it was near to Beth-Shemesh, and l'Iusebius and Jerome (Onomost. 5.0. BaalCnralhim-im) speak of it, in their day, as a village 9 or 10 M. P. from Jerusalem, on the way to Diospolis (Lg/(Ma). Dr. Robinson (Bibi. Res. vol. ii. pp. 334-3-'37) has identified it with the present Kuryrt-cl-‘Endb, on the road to Ramlch. The monks have found the ANATHO‘I'H of Jeremiah (i. l ; comp.Hieron. in fee; Onomast. a. v. ; Joseph. Ant. x. 7. §3), which is now represented by the modern ’Amim at Kfirycbel-Tmib, but the ecclesiastical tradition is evidently incorrect. There was formerly here a convent of the Minorites, with a Latin church. The latter remains entirely deserted, but not in ruins ; and is one of the largest and most. solidly constructed churches in Palestine. (Ritter, Erdkundc, v01. xvi. pp. 108—110.)

6. KIRJATH~SEP11ER, or “city of the book” (Josh. xv. 15, 16 ; Judy. i. 11). also called KthxrnSauna", “cityofpalms.” (Josh. xv.49.) Afterwards it took the name of Damn (Aat’ip, LXX.). a “ word" or “oracle.” Debir was captured by Joshua (x. 38). but being afterwards rctnken by the Canaanitcs, Caleb gave his daughter Achsa to Otlmiel, for his

bravery in carrying it by storm (Josh. xv. 16—20). lt._belonged afterwards to the priests. (Josh. mi. 15; lCllron. vi. 5S.) Dchir is afterwards lost sight of; but from the indications already given, it appears to have been near Hebron,—but the site has not been made out. There was a second Debir in the tribe of God. (Josh. xiii. '26.) (Von Raumer, Pnlcst. p. 182 ; Winer, 8.17.) B. J.]

Kilt-MOAB (1b 'reixos rfis Mamet-rider, LXX.), “ the stronghold of Moab.” (Ian. xvi), called also KmHsassa'rn and KIR-HERES. (1m. xvi. 7, ll; Jer. leiii. 31.) In the Chaldee version and the Greek of the Apocrypha, it appears in the form of Kerakkabloab,and Characa (Xdpana,2 lilacc. xii. 17). Under this latter name, more or less corrupted, it is mentioned by Ptolemy (andxupa, v. 17. § 5; comp. Xapaxpaiga. Steph. B.) and other writers, both ecclesiastical and profane, down to the centuries before the Crusades. (Ahfi-l-féda, Tab. Syr. p. 89; Schultcns, Index ad Vii. Salad. s. v.) The Crusaders found the name extant, and erected the fortress still known as Kerak, which, with that of Shobek, formed the. centre of operations for the Latins E. of the Jordan. With the capture of these, after a long siege by Saladin, Ian. 1188, the dominion of the Franks over this territory terminated. (Wilken; die Krcuzs, vol. iv. pp. 244—247.) The whole of this district was unknown till 11.0. 1806, when Seetzen (Zachs, Momtl. Corr. xviii. pp. 433, fell.) penetrated as far as Ker-ale. A fuller account of the place is given by Bunckhardt (Trav. pp. 379—387), by whom it was next visited in 1812; and another description is furnished by lrby and Mnnglcs (va. pp. 361—4370), who followed in the same direction in 1818. (Robinson, Bibi. Res. 1701. ii. pp. 566—571 ; Bitter, Erdkmule, vol. xv. pp. 916, 1215.) [E. B. J.]

KISHON. [Cisom]

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LABANAF. AQUAE. [AQUAE LABANAE.] LABEA'TES. [LAREATIS Laces] LABEA'TIS LACUS. a large lake of Roman 1llyricum, situated to the N. of Scodra, the chief city of the Lassa-res (Liv. xliii. 21, xliv. 31, xlv. 26) or LABEATAE. (Plin. iii. 26.) It is now called the lake of Scuitan', famous for the quantity of fish, especially of the “ Cyprinus " family. The rivers, which drain the rocky district of Monte-It'eyro, discharge themselves into this lake, which communicates with the sea by the river BARBARA. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia, vol. i. pp. 411, 415. 476.) [E. B. J.] LABI’C U M or LAVI’CUM, sometimes also(Liv. ii. 39, iv. 45) LAVl'Cl, ('rb Adgllflil': Eth.Aa€|Kavdr, Labicanus and Lavicanus : La Colonna), an ancient city of Imtium, situated at. the foot of the northt‘flstlfm slope of the Alban hills, and distant about 15 miles from Rome. Its foundation was ascribed, according to a tradition reported by Servius (ad Aen. vii. 796). to Glancus, a son of Mines: and Virgil (1.0.) mentions it among the cities which sent assistance to king Latinos against Aeneas, so that he must have regarded it as more ancicnt than the Trojan settlement in Latium. But the cur~ rent tradition, adopted by Dionysius, represented Labicutn, in common with so many other Latin citieimas a colony of Alba. (Dionys. viii. 19; Diodor. up. Funk. Arm. p. 185.) Whatever was its origin, we know with certainty that it was one


of the cities of the Latin League, and as such retained, down to a late period, the right of participating in the sacrifices on the Albau Mount. (Dionys. v. 61 ; Cic. pro Plane. 9.) It first appears in history as taking part in the league of the Latins against Rome previous to the battle of Regillus (Dionys. 1.0.), and is afterwards mentioned among the cities which are represented as taken in succession by Coriolanus, during his campaign against the Romans. (Liv. ii. 39; Dionys. viii. 19.) It is not improbable that this legend represents the historical fact that Lnbicum, together with Bola, Peduin, and other places which figure in the some narrative, actually fell about that time into the hands of the Aequians, as Satrieum, Corioli, and other towns further to the 8., did into those of the Volscians. (Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 259.) But during the subsequent wars of the Romans with the Aequians, Labicum always appears as a Latin city: and from its position on the frontier of Latium adjoining the Aequians, its name repeatedly occurs in the history of those contests. Thus, in n. c. 458, its territory was ravaged by the Aequian general Gracchus : and in 418 we find the Labiczms themselves abandoning the Roman alliance, and joining the Aequians, together with whom they established a camp on Mount Algidus. Their combined forces were, however, defeated by the Roman dictator Q. Servilius Priscus, and sticum itself was taken by storm. In order to secure their new conquest against the Acqnians the Roman senate sent thither a colony of 1500 Roman citizens, which appears to have maintained itself there, though attacked the very next year by the Aequians. (Liv. iii. 25, iv. 45—47, 49.) In 15.0. 388, its territory was again ravaged by the Praencstines, at that time on hostile terms with Home (Liv. vi. 21); and after a long interval, in 11.0. 211, it once more sustained the same fate from the army of Hannibal. (Liv. xxvi. 9.)

From this time the name of Labicum disappearsfrom history, but we learn that it still existed as a municipium, though in a very poor and dccaycd condition, in the days of Cicero. (Cic. pro Plane. 9, do Leg. Ayr. ii. 35.) Strabo, however, speaks of the town as in ruins, and Pliny mentions the population “ ex agro Labicano” in a manner that seems to imply that, though they still formed a “populus” or community, the city no longer existed. (Strab. v. pp. 230, 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) in like manner we find the “ager Labicanus" elsewhere mentioned, but no further notice of the town. (Suet. Cues. 83.) The inhabitants seem to have, under the Roman empire, congregated together afresh in the neighbourhood of the station on the Via Labicana, called Ad Quintanas, and hence assumed the name of Laviezini Quintanenses, which We meet with in inscriptions. (Orell.lnscr.118,3997.) The territory appears to have been one of gicut fertility, and was noted for the excellence of its grapes. (Sil. Ital. viii. 366; Jul. Capit. Clad. All/in. 11.)

The position of Labieum has been a subject of much dispute, having been placed by different writers at anmontone, anarolo, and Lllgmmo. But the precise statement of Strabo (v. p. 237) as to the course of the Via Labicann, together with the fact that he describes the ancient city as situated on a hill to the right of that read, about 120 stadia (15 Roman miles) from Rome, ought to have left no ditiicnlty on the subject: and Ilolstenius long ago correctly placed the ancient city on the hill now occupied by the village of La Coleman; 3 height a little in advance of the Tusculan hills, and commanding the adjoining portion of the plain. It is about a mile from the 15th milestone on the Roman road, where, as we have seen, the suburb Ad Quintanas afterwards grew up, and is certainly the only position that accords with Strabo’s description. No ruins are visible; but the site is one well calculated for an ancient city, of small magnitude, and the discovery of the inscriptions already noticed in its immediate neighbourhood may be considered eonclusive of the point. The modern village of La Colonna dates only from the 11th century. (Holsters. Not. ad Clue. p. 194; Fabrett. dc Aquaeduct. p. 182 ; Nibby, Dintorni'di Roma, vol. ii. pp. 157 —164.) Fieoroni, in his elaborate work (.llemon'e della Prima e Seconda Cittd ds' Labieo, 4to. Roma, 1745), has laboured to prove, but certainly without success, that sticum was situated on the Colle dei' Quadri, near Lugnano, about 5 miles beyond La Column. The remains there discovered and described by him render it probable that Lugnana was an ancient site, probably that. of Bola [EULA] ; but the distance from Rome excludes the supposition that it was that of Labicum.

The Via Lame/ma, which issued from the Ports Esquilina at Rome together with the Via Praenestina, but separated from the latter immediame afterwards, held a course nearly parallel with it as far as the station Ad Quintanas; from whence it turned round the foot of the Albnn hills, and fell into the Via Latina at the station Ad l’ictas, where the latter road had just descended from Mt.Algidus. (Strab. v. p. 237; “in. Ant. pp. 304,305.) it is strange that the Itinerary gives the name of Lavicanu to the continuation of the road after their junction, though the Via Latina was so much the more important of the two. The course of the ancient Via Labicana may be readily traced from the gates of Rome by the Tom Pignatara, Cento Celle, Torre .Vuova, and the Osleria di Finoccliio to the Osten'a della Colonna, at the foot of the hill of that name. This Osteria is 16 miles from Rome and a mile beyond the ancient station Ad Quintana-i. From thence the road proceeded toSan Ceaario, and soon after, quitting the line of the modern road to Valmontone, struck ofl' direct to join the Via Latina: but the exact site of the station Ad Pictas has not been determined. (Westphal, Ro'm. Kampay'ie, pp. 78—80; Gell's Topogr. of Rome,

. 279.) P On the leit of the Via Labicana, about thirteen miles and a half from Rome, is a small crater-formed lake, which has often been considered as the ancient Locus Regillus: but the similar basin of the Lago di Cornufelle, near Tusculum, appears to have a better claim to that celebrated name. [REGILLUB Laces]

The course of the Via Labicana in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome was bordered, like the other highways that issued from the city, with numerous sepulchres, many of them on a large scale, and of massive construction. Of these, the one now known as the Torre Pignatara, about three miles from the Porto Maggiore, is represented by very ancient tradition, but with no other authority, as the mansoleum of Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. (Nibby, vol. iii. p. 243.) We learn, also, that the family tomb of the emperor Didius J ulinnna was situated on the same road, at the distance of 5 miles from Rome. (Sportian. Did. Jul. 8.)


LABISCO. [Ii/Wisco.)

LABlSCUM. [Lavrsca]

LA’BOTAS (An-8610.5), a small river of the plain ofAntioch. (Strab. xvi. p. 751.) It runs from the north, parallel to the Amazonian, and, mixing with its waters and those of the Oenoparas coming from the east, in a small lake, they flow ofl‘ in one stream and join the Orontcs a little above AntiOch. It is the western of the two rivers shown in map, Vol. I. p. 115, and Pagrue (Bagrm) is situated on its \vesteni bank near its mouth. [G- W.]

LABRAXDA (rd. Ad.st or Aiifipauvba), a village in the west of Caria, about 60 stadia from the town of Mylusa, to which the village belonged, and with which it was connected by a road called the sacred. Labrands was situated in the mountains, and was celebrated for its sanctuary of Zeus Strutios, to which processions went along the sacred road from Myhmo. Herodotus describes (v. 119) the sanctuary as an extensive grove of plane trees, within which a. body of Carians, in their war against the Persians, retreated for safety. Strabo (xiv. p. 659) speaks of an ancient temple with a {dc-vow of Zeus Strutios, who was also surnamed “ Labrandenus ” or “ Labrandeus." Aeliun (II. A. xii. 30), who states tliat.the temple of Labranda was 70 studia from Mylusa, relates that a spring of clear water, within the sanctuary, maintained fishes, with golden necklaces and rings. Chandler (Antiq. q/‘loru'a, pt. 1. c. 4, and Asia Minor, c. 58) was the first who stated his belief, that the ruins at Iakli, south of Kizeljik, consisting of a theatre and a mined temple of the lonian order, of which 16 columns, with the entablature, were then still standing, were those of ancient Labrunda and of the temple of Zeus Stratios. But Choiseul Goufiier, Barbié du Bocuge, and Leaks (Alia Minor, p. 232), agree in thinking that these ruins belong to Euromus rather than Labranda. Their view is supported by the fact that the ruins of the temple have nothing very ancient about them, but rather show that they belong to a structure of the Roman period. The remains of Labranda must be looked for in the hills to the north-east of Mylasa. Sir C. Fellows (Journal, p. 261), apparently not knowing what had been done by his predecessors, unhesitatingly speaks of the ruins at 10in as those of Labrauda, and gives an engraving of the remains of the temple under the name of the “ Temple at Labranda." [L. 3.]


LABUS or LABU'TAS (A480: or Augoii-ms), a mountain range in the N. of l’arthia, mentioned by Polybius (x. 29). It seems to have a part of the greater range of M. Coronas, and is probably represented now by the Sobad-Kok, a part of the Ellmrz mountains. [VJ

LACANl'TlS (Auxui'rts), the name of a district in Cilicia Proper, above Tarsns, between the rivers Cydnus and Sarus, and containing the town of Irenopolis. (Ptol. v. 8. 6.) [L 8.]



LACEDAI'IMON (Aaxedalluvv, Steph. B. s. r.: Eustath. ad. ll. ii. 582), a town in the interior of Cyprus. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 158.) [E. B. J.]



LACETA'NI (Anne'mvoi), one of the small peoplm of Hispania Tamconensia, who occupied the valleys at the S. foot of the Pyrenees. (Lacs

tam'a quae .mbjecm Pyrenucis montibus cu, Liv.) Their “ pathless forests ” (devia cl silvrslris gem, Liv.) lay S. of the CERRICTANI, \V. of the Ismor-znas, and N. of the LALETANI. (It is impossible to avoid the suspicion that these names are identical, especially as we have the intermediate form LarsAET.\.\'I, and that Lacetania. is only the N. part of Laletania. Moreover, the name is confounded with the Jacaraxr in the hiss. of Coca. B. C. i. 60.) Only one town is mentioned as belonging to them, and that without a name, but simply as having been taken b M. Cato. (Plut. Cal. Illaj. ll ; Liv. xxi. 23, 2 , 60, et seq., xxviii. 24, 26, et. seq., :xxiii. 34, xxxiv. 20 ; Dion Cass. alv. 10 ; Martial, i. 49. 22.) [P. s.] LACHlSH (Aaxt's, LXX.; Adxstr, Aaxsiua, Joseph.), a city to the south of the tribe of Judah ,(Jooh. xv. 39), the capital of one of the petty kings or sheikhs of the Canaanitcs (a. 3). It was taken and destroyed by Joshua (iv. 31—33). and is joined with Adoraim and Azekah (2 Citron. xi. 9) as one of the cities built, or rather fortified, by Rt‘l]f)l)0‘J.m. It was besieged by Sennucherib on his invasion of Judaea, a. c. 713. (2 Kings, aviii. 14, 17, xix. 8.) It is placed by Eusebius and St. Jerome (Onomast. a. :1.) seven miles south of Eleutheropolis, in Darana or “ the valley." (Josh. xv. 39.) But for this it might have been identified with L'm Ldki's, on the left of the road between Gaza and Hebron, about five hours from the fonner, where is an ancient site “ now covered confuscdly with heaps of small round stones, among which are seen two or three fragments of marble columns." (Robinson, Bibi. Res. vol. ii. p. 388.) The objections to the identification are not, perhaps, so great as is represented: the title Um, equi~ valent to metropolis, would seem to mark it as a place of importance ;' and there is no other vestige of a town in those parts that can be referred to Lachisll. It is con>iderably south of west from Beit Jebn'n (Eleutheropolis), which is near enough to satisfy the description of Eusebius, who is not remarkable for precise accuracy in his bearings, nor, indeed, in his distances, except in the parts with which he was familiar, and on the more frequented thoroughfares. No argument can be drawn from its juxtaposition with Adorairn and Azekah, in 2 Chl‘Ofl. xi. 9, as it might be near enough to group with them in a list of names which, it is evident, does not pretend to geographical precision. [LL \\".] LAClACA or LACIACUM (in the Pent. Table it is called Lucian-is), a town in the north-west of Noricum (It. Ant. pp. 235, 258). The name seems to be connected with “ locus," and thus to point to the lake district in upper Austria; hence some have identified the place with Sceu'ulchen, or St. Georgen on the Attersee. But Muchar (Noricum, p. 267) is probably right in identifying it with Frankenmrkt. [L. 5.] LA’CIBI (Plin. 1. s. 3; Aamelr, Ptol. ii. 4. § ll), a tributary town of Hispania Baetica, which l‘liny assigns to the oonventus of Gades, while .Pto_ lemy places it among the cities of the Turduh, in in the neighbourhood of Hispalis. [P. s.] LAClBU'RGIUbl (Aaméol'lp'ytov), aGermnn town on the south coast of the Baltic, between the rivers Chalusus, and Suevus or Suebus. It is mentioned only by Ptolemy (ii. 11. §27). and it is certain that its site must be looked for to the west of Wameminde, but the precise spot cannot be ascertained, whence some have identified it with th'smar, others with Ralzeburg, and others again with Lauenburg. [L.S.]


‘ LACIDAE. [A'l'I‘ICA, p. 326, s.]

LACI'NIA. [larvmm]

LACI'NIUM ('rb Aanlmov dorpuv: Capo delle Colonne), a promontory on the E. coast of the Bruttian peninsula, about 6 miles S. of C-rotona. It formed the southem limit of the gulf of Tarentum, as the Iapygian promontory did the northern one: the distance between the two is stated by Strabo, on the authority of Polybius, at 700 stadia, while Pliny apparently (for the passage in its present state is obviously corrupt) reckons it at 75 Roman miles, or 600 stadia; both of which estimates are a fair approximation to the truth, the real interval being 65 geog. miles, or 650 stadia. (Strab. vi. p. 261 ; Pliu. iii. ll. 5. 15; Mel. ii. 4. §8.) The Lacinian promontory is a bold and rocky headland, forming the termination of one of the offshoots or branches of the great range of the Apennines (Lucan. ii. 434; I’lin. iii. 5. s. 6): it was crowned in ancient times by the celebrated temple of the Lacinian Juno, the ruins of which, surviving throuin the middle ages, have given to the promontory its modern appellation of Capo d<lle Colonne. It is also known by that of Capo Nau, a name evidently derived from the Greek Nazis, a temple; and which seems to date from an early period, as the promontory is already designated in the Maritime Itinerary (p. 490) by the name of Nous. That Itinerary reckons it 100 stadia from thence to Crotona: Strabo gives the same distance as 150 studio; but both are greatly overrated. Livy correctly says that the temple (which stood at the extreme point of the promontory) was only about 6 miles from the city. (Liv. xaiv. 3.) For the history and description of this famous temple, see Cno'roru.

Pliny tells us (iii. 10. s. 15) that opposite to the Lacinian promontory, at a distance of 10 miles from the land, was an island called Dioscoron (the island of the Dioscuri), and another called the island of Calypso, supposed to be the Ogygia of Homer. Scylax also mentions the island of Calypso immediately after the Lacinian promontory (§ 13, p. 5). But there is at the present day no island at all that will answer to either of those mentioned by Pliny: there is, in fact, no islet, however small, otf the Lacinian cape, and hence modern writers have been reduced to seek for the abode of Calypso in a small and barren rock, close to the shore, near Capo Rl'zz'uto, about 12 miles S. of Lscinium. Swinburne, who visited it, remarks how little it corresponded with the idea of the Homeric Ogygia: but it is diflicult to believe that so trifling a rock (which is not even marked on Zannoni's elaborate rnap could have been that meant by Scylax and Pliny. The statement of the latter concerning the island which he calls Dioscoron is still more precise, and still more ditiicult to account for. On the other hand, he adds the names of three others, This, Ernnusa, and Meloessa, which he introduces somewhat vaguely, as if he were himself not clear of their position. Their names were probably taken from some poet now lost to us. 1'1. 13.]


LAClPl’O (AlKlI‘IU, Ptol. ii. 4. § 11; LAGPO, coin op. Scstlni, Med. hp. p. 57; Mionnet, Suppl.

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vol. i. p. 34), a tributary town of the Turdnli in Hispania Baetica, ncnr the shore of the Mediterranean, where its ruins are still seen at Alecippe, near Calares. Ptolemy places it too far inland. (Mela, ii. 6. §7 ; Plin. iii. 1. s. 8; Carter, Travels, p. 128 ; Ukcrt, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 348.) [P. S.]_

LACMON (Attic/saw, Hecst. Fr. 70; Herod. 1X. 92; Steph. B. a. v.) or LACMUS (Ad-Knox, Strub. vi. p. 271, Vii. p. 316), the highest summit. of Mount l’indus, the Zygo's or ridge of Me'lzoro. This is geographically the most remarkable mountain in Greece; situated in the heart of Pindus as to its breadth, and centrally also in the longitudinal chain which pervades the continent from N. to S. : it gives rise to five principal rivers, in fact to all the great streams of Northern Greece except the Spercheiua ; north-eastward to the Haliacmon, south-eastward to the Pcneius, southward to the Achelous, south-westward to the Aruchthus, and north-westward to the Aous. (Leaks, Nor-them Greece, vol. i. pp. 204, 411—415, vol. iv. pp. 240, 261, 276.) B. J.]


LACO’NIA, LACO'NICA, or LACEDAEMON, the south-easterly district of Peloponnesus.

I. Nuns.

Its most ancient name was Lamlnemnn (Aux:Galiwv), which is the only form found in Homer, who applies this name as well to the country, as to its capital. (II. ii. 581, iii. 239, 244,8zc.) The usual name in the Greek writers was Laczmwa (1‘; Aukouvm'h, sc. 717), though the form Lacedaemon still continued to be used. (Herod. w. 58.) The Romans called the country Lacotslca (Plin. xxv. 8. s. 53; Laconice, Mela, ii. 3) or Lacoura (l’lin. vi. 34. s. 39, xvii. IS. a. 30), the latter of which is the form usually employed by modern writers. Mcla (l. 0.) also uses Lacorns, which is borrowed from the Greek (i) Aaxwvlr 7am, Hom. Hymn. 1'11 Apoll. 410.) The Ethnic names are Ada-my, -wvar, AcureBaimeos, Lat. Laco or Lacon, -nis, Lacedaemonius; fem. Admin, Acumvlr, Laconis. These names are applied to the whole free population of Laconia, both to the Spartan citizens and to the Perioeci, spoken of below (for authonties, see Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 405, 406). They are usually derived from a mythical hero, Lacon or Lacedaemon; but some modern writers think that the root Lac is connected with Adxns, Ada-nos, laws, lacuna, and was given originally to the central district from its being deeply sunk between mountains. (Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 309.)

II. GENERAL Dascmr'nou OF THE Coos-nor.

The natural features of Laconia are strongly marked, and exercised a powerful influence upon the history of the people. It is a long valley, surrounded on three sides by mountains, and open only on the fourth to the sea. On the north it is bounded by the southern barrier of the Arcadian mountains, from which run in a parallel direction towards the south, the two lofty mountain ranges of Taygetns and Parnon,—the forrner dividing anonia and Messenia, and terminating in the promontory of Taenurum, now C. Ilfatopan, the southernmost extremity of Greece and of Europe, the latter stretching along the eastern coast, and terminating in the promontory of Malen. The river Eurotns flows through the entiie length of the valley lying between these mountain masses, and falls into the sea, which


was called the Laconian gulf. Laconia is well ddscribed by Euripides as a country “hollow, surrounded by mountains. rugged, and difiicult of access to an enemy” (up. Strab. viii. p. 366); and the difl'iculty of invading it made even Epaminondas hesitate to enter it with his army. (Ken. Ilell. v. 5. § 10.) On the northern side there are only two natural passes by which the plain of Sparta can be invaded. below.) On the western side the lofty masses of Taygetus form an almost insunnnnntable barrier; and the pass across them, Which leads into the plain of Sparta, is so dith‘cnlt as scarcely to be practicable for an army. 0n the custom side the rocky character of the coast protects it from invasion by sea.

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MOUNT Tai’tn-t'rts (Tali-721w, 'rii Trlfl'ye'rov Upos, the common forms; Tali'ye'ras‘, Lucian, Icarom. 19; 1’5 Tafiyera, Polyaen. vii. 49; Taygeta, Yirg. Georg. ii. 487: the first half of this word is said by llesychius to signify great). This mountain is the lol'tiost in Peloponnesus, and extends in an almost upbroken line for the space of 70 miles from Leondan in Arcadia to C. Jlatapa». Its vast height, unbroken length, and majestic form, have been celebrated by both ancient and modern writers. Homer gives it the epithet of replichaerow (0d. vi. 103), and a modern traveller remarks that, “ whether from its real height, from the grandeur of its outline, or the abmptness of its rise from the plain, it created in his mind a stronger impression of stupendous bulk and loflincss than any mountain he had seen in Greece, or perhaps in any other part of Europe." (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 221.) Taygetus rises to its greatest height immediately above Sparta. Its principal summit was called Taurrull (Taaerdr) in antiquity: it was sacred to the Sun, and horses and other victims were here sacrificed to this god. (Pans. iii. 20. §4.) It is now called S. Elias, to whose chapel on the summit an annual pilgrimage is made in the middle of the summer. Its height has been ascertained by the French Commission to be 2409 metres, or 7902 English feet. Another summit near Taletum was called Evonas (Ei'nipas, Belvedere, Pans. l. 0.), which Leake identifies with Mt. Parimddhi, the highest summit next to St. Elias, from which it is distant 5% geographical miles. The ancient names of none of the other heights are mentioned.

By the Byzantine writers TaYgetus was called PENTEDACI‘YLHM (1b Heweodxrvon), or the “Five Fingers,” on account of its various summits above the Spartan plain. (Constant. Porphyr. dc Adm. Imp. c. 50.) In the 13th century it bore the name of Mclingizs (6 (07b: 1116 MsAi'ryoii, see Leaks, Peloponnesiam. p. 138). At the base of Taygetus, immediately above the Spar~ tan plain, there is a lower ridge running parallel to the higher summits. This lower ridge consists of huge projecting masses of precipitous rocks, some of which are more than 2000 feet high, though they appear insignificant when compared with the lofty barrier of Taygetus behind them. AFter at, taining its greatest elevation, Mt. TaYgetus sinks gradually down towards the south, and sends forth a long and lofty countcrfork towards the Eurotas, now called Lykobzim' (Avxoéufiv:, Wolf's-mountain), which bounds the Spartan plain on the south. It there contracts again, and runs down, as the backbone of a small peninsula, to the southernmost ex

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