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tremity of Greece. This mountainous district between the Lacotriau and Messenian gulls is now called Maui, and is inhabited by the Manilites, who always maintained their independence, while the rest of Greece was subject to the Turks: the southern part of the peninsula, as well as the promontory, bore the name of Taenarurn in antiquity. [’l‘aananuarj Although there is no trace of any volcanic action in Mt. Taygetus, many of its chasms and the rent. forms of its rocks have been produced by the numerous and violent earthquakes to which the district has been subjected. Hence Laconia is called by Homer “full of hollows " (Knréwo'a, 11. ii. 581, Oil. in. l), and Strabo describes it as a country easily shaken by earthquakes (Strab. viii. p. 367). In the fearful earthquake, which laid Sparta in ruins in rs.c. 464, and killed more than 20,000 Iacedaemonians, huge masses of rocks were rolled down from the highest peaks of Taygetus. (l’lut. Cim. 16.)
On the sides of Mt. Taygetus are forests of deep green pine, which abounded in ancient times with game and wild animals, among which Pausanias mentions wild goats, wild boars, stage, and bears. The district between the summits of Taletum and Evoras was called THERAS<81$PIS), or the hunting ground. (Pans. iii. 20. 4, 5.) Hence Taygetus was one of the favourite haunts of the huntrcss Artemis vi. 103), and the excellence of the Laconian dogs was proverbial in antiquity. (Aristot. Hist. An. vi. 20; Ken. do You. 10. § 1; Virg. Georg. iii. 405; Hor.Epod. vi. 5.) lilodern travellers tell us that the dogs of the country still support their ancient character for ferocity and courage. (Mure, vol. ii. p. 231.)
The southern part of Mount Taygetus is rich in marble and iron. Near Croceae there were quarries of green porphyry, which was extensively employed by the Romans. [CROCEAE-1 There was also another kind of marble obtained from quarries more to the south, called by the Romans Taenariiur marble. The whetstones of Mount Taygetus were likewise in much request. (Strab.viii.p. 367; "Taenarius lapis," l’lin. xxxvi. 22. s. 43; “ cotos Laconicae ex Taygeto monte,” l’lin. xxxvi. 22. s. 47 The iron found in the mountain was considered very good, and was much used in the manufacture of warlike weapons and agricultural instruments. (Steph. B. s. v. Amreoalimv; ch. Hell. iii. 3. § 7; Plin. vii. 57; Eustath. ad ll. p. 298, cd. Rom.)
Much PARNON (6 Hdpwnv, Pans. ii. 38. § 7) is of an entirely dili'erent character from the opposite range of Tuygctus. _It does not form one uninterrupted line of mountains, but is broken up into various detached masses of less elevation, which form a striking contrast to the unbroken and majestic barrier of Taygetus. The mass to which the name of Parnon was more especially applied was the range of mountains, now called illulevo', forming the natural boundary between Arcadia, Laconia, and Argolis. It is 6355 feet high, and its summit is nearly equidistant from the Eurotas and the eastern coast. This mountain is continued in a general soutlreasterly direction, but how far southwards it continued to bear the name of l‘arnon is unknown. its eastern declivities, which extend as far as the coast at a considerable elevation, contain the district now called Tzalwm'u, a corruption of the word Lacouia, the inhabitants of which speak a dialect closely resembling the ancient Greek: of this an account has been given elsewhere. [V0]. 1.
p. 728.] On its westcm side Mt. Parnon sinks down more rapidly, and divides itself into separate hills, which bear the names of BARBOSTHESES, Onvnrus, Ossrt, Trroruvrrx, and L'laxrairarurr; the two last. are opposite Sparta, and a modern observer describes Menclaium as not remarkable either for height or variety of outline, but rising gradually in a succession of gentle ridges. (lllure, vol. ii. p. 223.) In its southern continuation, Mt. Parnon still continues of moderate height till near the commencernent of the peninsula between the Myrtoan and Laconian gult's, where it- rises under the name of Mount ZARAX (deaf) to a height of 3500 feet, and runs along the eastern coast at a considerable elevation, till it reaches the promontory of llakaa.
The EUROTAS (Erlpé'rar) flows, as already observed, throughout the entire length of the valley between the ranges of Tuygetus and Parnon. its more ancient names were BOMYCAB (Bwni’mas, Etym. M. s. v.) and Hmaaus Clasp», l’lut. do Fluv. 17): it is now called Iris and r’t’a'ris in its upper and middle course, and Basili-potanui front the time it leaves the Spartan plain till it reaches the sea. In its course three districts may be dis‘ tingnished;—the vale of the upper Eurotas; the vale of the middle Eur-otas, or the plain of Sparta; and the vale of the lower Eurotas, or the maritime plain. l. The Vale of the Upper Eurolcu. The river Eurotas rises in the mountains which form the southern boundary of the Arcadian plains of Asea and Megalopolis. It was believed by both Pansanias and Strabo that. the Alpheius and the Eurotas had a common origin, and that, after flowing together for a short distance, they sunk under ground; the Alpheius reappear-mg at Pegae, in the territory of lilogalopolis in Arcadia, and the Eurotas in the Blenrirratis in Laconia; but for a fuller account of their statements upon this subject the reader is referred to the article Au'nrztt‘s. All that we know for certain is that. the Eurotas is formed by the union of several copious springs rising on the southern side of the mountain above mentioned, and that it flows from a narrow glen, which gradually opens towards the SSW. On the eastern side it keeps close to the mountains, while on the western side there is a little level ground and some mountain slopes between the river and the heights of Taygetus. At the distance of little more than a mile from Sparta, the Eurotas receives the Oscars (Oivoiir, Polyb. ii. 65, 66; Atheu. i. p. 31; Liv. xxxiv. 28), now called Kelcfina, which rises in the watershed of Mt. Parnon, and flows in a general south-westerly direction: the principal tributary of the Oenus was the Gomvuzs (rap-Wm, Polyb. ii. 66), probably the river of l'restemi. (Leako, Pelopomsesiaca, p. 347.) Nearly opposite the union of the Oenus and the Eurotas, the mountains of Taygetus press close upon the river, but again almost immediately withdraw to a greater distance than before, and the river emerges into the Spartan plain.
2. T he Vale of the Middle Eurotas. Sparta is situated at the commencement. of this vale on the left bank of the Eurotas. Between the river and Mt. Taygetus the plain is of considerable extent. Its soil is particularly adapted for the growth of olives, which are in the present day preferred to those of Athens; and the silk of the Spartan plain is superior to the silk of every other district of Greece. (Mure, vol. ii. p. 224.) The soil, however, cannot be compred with that. of the rich Messcnian plain, and hence Euripides, in contrasting the two countries, describes Laconia as a poor land, in which there is a. large tract of arable, but of laborious tillage (ap. Strab. viii. p. 366). This is in accordance with the account of Leake, who says that the soil of the plain is in general a poor mixture of white clay and stones, difiicult to plough, and better suited to olives than corn. (Mm-ea. vol. i. p. 148.) The vale, however, possesses a genial climate, being sheltered on every side by mountains, and the scenery is of the most beautiful description. Hence Lacedaemon has been aptly characterised by Homer as “a hollow pleasant valley" (Kai/\n dpu’reW‘h, IL ii. 581, iii. 443, 011. iv. 1). The climate is favourable to beauty; and the women of the Spartan plain are at present taller and more robust than the other Greeks, have more colour in general, and look healthier; which agrees also with Homer’s Aure8ai/wva. KuAAr'yr'wam-u (Leuke, .‘llorea. vol. iii. p. 149). The security of the Spartan plain against hostile attacks has been briefly alluded to. There were only two roads practicable for an invading army; one by the upper Eurotas, leading from southem Arcadia and Stenyclarus; the other by the long and narrow valley of the Oenus, in which the roads from 'l‘egea and Argos united near Sellasia.
_ 3. Vale of the Lower Em‘otas. At the southern
extremity of the Spartan plain, the mountains again ‘ approach so close, as to leave scarcely span for the ‘
passage of the Eurotas. The mountains on the western side are the long and lofty eounterfork of Mt. Taygetus, called Lykobrim', which has been already mentioned. This gorge, through which the ‘lurotas issues from the vale of Sparta into the maritime plain, is mentioned by Strabo (6 Er'lprhas -— erefrdw ail/\de 'nva panpbv, viii. p. 343). it is about 12 miles in length. The maritime plain,
which is sometimes called the plain of Helos, from I
the town of this name upon the coast, is fertile and of some extent. In the lower part of it the Eurotas flows through mars-hrs and saudbanks into the Laconian gulf.
The banks of the Eurotas and the dry parts of its bed are overgrown with a profusion of reeds. Hence the epithets of 80VMOTp6¢OS and Sol/auction are frequently given to it by the poets. ('l'heogn. 785; Eurip Ipln'g. in Aul. 179, Helen. 207.)
The only tributary of the Eurotas, which possesses an independent valley, is the Genus already mentioned. The other tributaries are mere mountain torrents, of which the two following names have been preserved, both descending from Mt. 'l‘a'ygetus through theSpar-tan plain: TIASA (Tiaoa, Pans. iii. 18. § 6; Athen. iv. p. 139), placed by Pausanias on the road from Amyclae to Sparta, and hence identified by Leake with the Pamleler’mona ; Panama (com, iii. 20. §3), the river between Amyclae and Pharis. The Csacrmt (Kvakiwv), mentioned in one of the ordinances of Lycurgus, was identified by later writers with the Oenus. (Plat. Lye. 6.)
The streams Sm;an and chnas, flowing into the sea on the western side of the Laconiau gulf, are spoken of below. [See p. ll4, b.]
Before leaving the rivers of Laconia, a few words must be said respecting an ancient Laeonian bridge still existing, which has been assigned to the remotest antiquity. This is the bridge of Xerdkampo, built over a tributary of the Eurotas, about three hours' ride to the suuth of Sparta,just where the stream issues from one of the deepest and darkest
gorges of Taygetus. It was first discovered by Ross, and has been described by Mare, who supposes it to belong to the same period as the monuments of Mycenae. Even if it does not belong to so early at date, but is a genuine Hellenic work, it would establish the fact that the Greeks were acquainted with the use of the concentric arch at a very early period; whereas it has been usually supposed that it was not known to them till the time of Alexander the Great. The general appearance and character of this structure will be best seen from the annexed drawing taken from Mure. The masonry is of the polygonal species: the largest stones are those of the arch, some of which are from four to five feet long, from two to three in breadth, and between one and two in thickness. From the character of the structure, and from its remote situation, More concludes that it cannot be a Roman work; and there are strong reasons for believing that the Greeks were acquainted with the use of the arch at a much earlier period than has been usually supposed. (lllure, vol. ii. p. 247, seq.; comp. Leake, Pelopon
The political history of the country forms a prominent part of Grecian history, and cannot be narrated in this place at sufficient length to be of value to the student. But as the boundaries of anonia difi'ered considerably at various periods, it is necessary to mention briefly those facts in the history of the country which produced those changes.
It will be seen from the preceding description of the physical features of Iaconia, that the plain of Sparta forms the very kernel and heart of the country. Accordingly, it was at all times the seat of the ruling class; and from it the whole country received its appellation. This place is said to have been originally inhabited by the Leleges, the most ancient inhabitants of the country. According' to tradition, Lelex, the first king, was succeeded by his son Myles, and the latter by his son Eurotas, who collected into a channel the waters which were spread over the plain, and gave his own name to the river which he had thus formed. He died without male offspring, and was succeeded by Lacedaernon, the son of Zeus and T s'ygeta, who married Sparta,
the daughter of his predecessor. Laccdaemon gavel 724, and the second from n. c. 685 to 668), the to the people and the country his own name, and to i Spartans conquered the whole of Messenia, expelled
the city which he founded the name of his wife. Amyclas, the son of Lacedaemon, founded the city called after him Amyelac. (Pans. iii. 1.) Subse~ qnently Laccdaemon was ruled by Achaean princes, and Sparta was the residence of Menelaus, the brother of Agamemnon. Menelaus was succeeded by Otrstes, who married his daughter Hermione, and Orestes by his son Tisamenus, who was reign_ 'rng when the Dorians invaded the country under the guidance of the Heracleidao. In the threefold division of Peloponnesus among the descendants of Hercules, Lacedaemon fell to the share of Eurysthenes Ind Procles, the twin sons of Aristodemus. According to the common legend, the Dorians conquered the Pehqionnesus at once: but there is sufficient evidence that they only slowly became masters of the countries in which we afterwards find them settled; and in Laconia it was some time before they obtained possession even of all the places in the plain of Sparta. According to a statement in Eplmrus, tho Dorian conquerors divided Laeonia into six districts; Sparta they kept for themselves ; Amyclae was given to the Achaean Philonomus, who betrayed the country to them; while Las, l’haris, Aegys, and a sixth town the name of which is lost, were governed by viceroys, and were allowed to receive new citizens. (Epher. up. Strub. viii. p. 364; on this corrupt passage, which has been happily restored, sec Miiller, Ilorinm. vol. i. p. HO, transl. ; Nicbuhr, Ethnograph. vol. i. p. 56, transl. ; Kramer, (Hi Slrab. l. c.) it is probable that this division of Laconia into six provinces was not actually made till a much later period; but we have sufficient evidence to show that, for a long time after the Dorian conquest, the Doriana possessed only a small portion of Laconia. Of this the most striking proof is that the Achaenn city of Amyclae, distant only 2.} miles from Sparta, maintained its independence for nearly three centuries after the Dorian conquest, for it was only subdued shortly before the First Mcssenian War by the Spartan king Teleclus. The same king took Pharis and Geronthrae, both Achaean cities; and his son and 'successor, Alcamenes, conquered the town of Heine, upon the coast near the mouth of the Eurotns. (Pans. iii. 2. G, 7.) Of the subjugation of the other Achaean towns we have no accounts; but there can be little doubt that they were mainly owing to the military organisation and martial spirit which the Spartans had acquired by the institutions of Lycurgus.
By the middle of the eighth century the Dorians of Sparta had become undisputed masters of the whole of Laconia. They now began to extend their dominions at the expense of their neighbours. Originally Argos was the chief Dorian power in the Peloponnesus, and Sparta only the second. In ancient times the Argives possessed the whole eastern coast of Laconia down to Cape Malca, and also the island of Cythera (Herod. i. 82); and although we have no record of the time at which this part of Laconia was conquered by the Spartans, we may safely conclude that it was before the Messeninn wars. The Dorians in Messeuia possessed a much more fertile territory than the Spartans in Laconia, and the latter now began to cast longing eyes upon the richer fields of their neighbours. A pretext for war soon arose; and, by two long protracted and obstinate contests, usually called the First and Second Messenian wars (the first from n. c. 743 to
or reduced to the condition of Helots the inhabit
l ants, and annexed their country to Laconia. The
name of Messcnia now disappears from history; and, for a period of three centuries, from the close of the Second Mcsseninn War to the restoration of the independence of Mcsscnin by Epaminondas, the whole of the southem part of Peloponnesus, from the western to the eastern Sea, bore the appellation of anonia.
The upper parts of the valleys of the Eurotas and the Genus, the districts of Sciritis, Belcminatis, Maleatis, and Caryatis, originally belonged to the Arcadians, but they were all conquered by the Spartans and annexed to their territory before B. c. 600. (Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 588.) They thus extended their territories on the north to what may be regarded as the natural boundaries of Laconia, the mountains forming the watershed between the Eurotas and the Alpheius; but when they crossed these limits, and attempted to obtain possession of the plain of Tags, they met with the most determined oppositio'n, and were at last obliged to be content with the recognition of their supremacy by the Tegeatans, and to leave the latter in the independent enjoyment of their territory.
The history of the early struggles between the Spartans and Argives is unknown. The district on the coast between the territories of the two states, and of which the plain of 'l'hyreatis was the most important part, inhabited by the Cynurians, a Pelasgic people, was a frequent object of contention between them, and was in possession, sometimes of the one, and sometimes of the other power. At length, in n. c. 547, the Spartans obtained permanent possession of it by the celebrated battle fought by the 800 champions from either nation. [CrNURIAJ The dominions of the Spartans now extended on the other side of Mount l’amon, as far as the pass of Anigmea.
The population of Sparta was divided into the three classes of Spartans. l’eriocci, and Helots. ()f the condition of these classes a more particular account is given in the Dictionary of Antiquities,- and it is only necessary to remark here that the Spartans lived in Sparta itself, and were the ruling Dorian class; that the Perioeci lived in the different townships in Laconia, and, though freemen, had no share in the government, but. received all their orders from the ruling class at Sparta; and that the Helots were serfs bound to the soil, who cultivated it for the benefit of the Spartan proprietors, and perhaps of the l’erioeci also. After the extension of the Spartan dominious by the conquest of Messeuia and Cynuria, Laeonia was said to possess 100 townships (Strab. viii. p. 362), among which we find mentioned Anthnna. in the Cynurian Thyreatis, and Aulon in ltlcssenia, near the frontiers of Elia. (Slcph. B. s. w. 'Avaa'vu, At'lltaiv.)
According to the common story, Lycurgus divided the territory of Laconia into a number of equal lots, of which 9000 were assigned to the Spartans, and 30,000 to the l’erioeci. (l’lut. Lye. 8.) Some ancient critics, however, while believing that Lycurgus made an equal division of the Lacouinn lands, supposed that the above numbers referred to the distribution of the Lacedaemonian territory after the incorporation of Messenin. And even with respect. to the latter opinion, there were two different state— mcnts; some maintained that 6000 lets had been given by Lycurgns, and that 3000 were added by king l’olydorus at the end of the First Messenian War; others supposed that the original number of 4.500 was doubled by Polydorus. (Plot. 1. c.) From these statements attempts have been made by modem writers to calculate the population of Laconia, and the relative numbers of the Spartans and the l'erioeci; but Mr. Grole has brought forward strong reasons for believing that no such division of the landed property of Laconia was ever made by Lycnrgns, and that the belief of his having done so arose in the third cerrtnry before the Christian era, when Agis attempted to make a fresh division of the land of Lacouia. (Grate, Hist. qf Greece, vol. ii. p. 521.) In any case, it is impossible to determine, as some writers have attempted, the lands which belonged respectively to the Spartans and the Perioeci. All that we know is, that, in the law proposed by Agis, the land bound by the four limits of l’ellcne, Selhisia, Malea, and Taygetus, was divided into 4500 lots, one for each Spartan; and that the remainder of Laconia was divided into 15,000 lots, one for each Perioecus (Plot. A yr's, 8.)
With respect to the population of Laconia, we . have a few isolated statements in the ancient writers. Of these the most important is that of Herodotus, who says that the citizens of Sparta at the time of the Persian wars was about 8000 (vii. 234). The number of the l’criocci is nowhere stated; but we know from Herodotus that there were 10,000 of them present at the battle of Plataea, 5000 heavysrmod, and 5000 light-armed (is. 11, 29); and, as there were 5000 Spartans at this battle, that is fiveeighths of the whole number of citizens, we may venture to assume as an approximate number, that the Perioeci at the battle may have been also fiveeighths of their whole number, which would give 16,000 for the males of full age. After the time of the Persian wars the number of the Spartan citizens gradually but steadily declined ; and Clinton is probably right in his supposition that at the time of the invasion of Laconia, in B. c. 369, the total number of Spartans did not exceed 2000; and that Isocrates, in describing the original Dorian conquerors of Laconia as only 2000, has probably adapted to the description the number of Spartans in his own time. (Is0cr. Panatb. p. 286, c.) About 50 years after that event, in the time of Aristotle, they were scarcely 1000 (Aristot. Pol. ii. 6. § 11); and eighty years still later, in the reign of Agis, 13.0.,244, their number was reduced to only 700 (Flat. Agis, 5.) The number of Helots was very large. At the battle of Plataea there were 35,000 light-armed Helots, that is seven for every single Spartan (Herod. ix. 28.) On the population of Luconia, see Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 407, seq.
From a. c. 547 to a. c. 37], the boundaries of anonia continued to be the same as we have mentioned above. But after the overthrow of her supremacy by the fatal battle of Leuctra, the Spartans were succesively stripped of the dominions they had acquired at the expense of the Messenians, Arcadians, and Argives. Epaminondas, by establishing the independent state of Mcssenia, confined the Spartans to the wuntry east of Mount Taygetus; and the Arcadian city of Megalopolis, which was founded by the same statesman, encroachcd upon the Spartan territory in the upper vale of the Eur'otas. While the Thebans were engaged in the Sacred War, the Spartans endeavoured to recover some of their territory which they had thus lost;
I but it was still further circumscribed by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, who deprived the Spartans of several districts, which he assigned to the Argives, Arcadians, and Messeniam. (l’olyb. ix. 28; Fans. iv. 28. §2.) Atter the establishment of the Achaean Imague their influence in the Peloponnesus sank lower and lower. For a short time they showed unwanted vigour, under their king Clcomenes, whose resolution had given new life to the state. They defeated the Achaeans in several battles, and seemed to be regaining a portion at least of their former power, when they were checked in their progress by Antigonus Doson, whom the Aclraems called in to their assist..nnce, and were at length completely humbled by the fatal battle of Sellasia, n. c. 221. (Diet. of Bioyr. art. Cleomenes.) Soon afterwards Sparta fell into the hands of a succession of nsnrpers; and of these Nabis, one of the most sanguinary, was cornpellcd by T. Quinctius Flamininus, to surrender Gythium and the other maritime towns, which had sided with the Romans, and were now severed from the Spartan dominion and placed under the protection of the Achaean League, B. c. 195. (Strab. viii. p. 366 ; Tlrirlwall, Uist. of Greece, vol. viii. p. 326.) The Spartans were thus confined almost to the valley in which their Dorian ancestors had first settled, and, like them, were surrounded by anumbcr of hostile places. Seven years afterwards, B. c. 188, Sparta itself was taken by Plrilopoemen, and annexed to the Achaean League (i’lut. Phil. 16; Liv. xxxviii. 32—34); but this step was displeasing to the Romans, who viewed with apprehension the further increase of the Achaean League, and accordingly encouraged the party at Sparta opposed to the interests of the Achaeuns. But the Roman conquest of Greece, which soon followed, put an end to these disputes, and placed Laconia, together with the rest of Greece, under the immediate government ofRome. Whether the Lacedaenronian towns to which F lamininus had granted independence were placed again under the dominion of Sparta, is not recorded; but we know that Augustus guaranteed to them their independence, and they are henceforth mentioned under the name of Eleuthero-Lacones. I’ausanias says there were originally 24 towns of the Eleuthero-Lacones, and in his time there were still 18, of which the names were Gythium, Teuthrone, Las, Pyrrhicus, Caenepolis, Oelylus, Leuctra, Thalamns, Alagonia, Gerenia, Asopus, Acriae, Boeae, Zarax, Epidaurus Liinera, Brusiae, Geronthrae, Maxim. (Pans. iii. 21. § 7.) Augustus showed favour to the Spartans as well as to the Lacedaemonians in general; he gave to Sparta the Messenian town of Cardamyle (Paus. iii. 26. § 7) ; he also annexed to Laconia the Messenian town of Pharae (l‘aus. iv. 30. 2), and gave to the Lacedaemonians the island of Cythera. (Dion Cass. liv. 7.)
At the end of the fourth century of the Christian era, Laconia was devastated by the Goths under Alaric, who took Sparta (Zosim. v. 6). Subsequently Slavonians settled in the country, and retained pus- _ session of it fora long time; but towards the end of the eighth century, in the reign of the empress Irene, the Byzantine court made an efl'urt to recover their dominions in Peloponnesus, and finally succeeded in reducing to subjection the Slavonians in the plains, while those in Laconia who would not submit were obliged to take refuge in the fastnesses of Mt. Taygctus. When the Franks became masters of Laconia in the ram ccntury, they found upon
the site of ancient Sparta a town still called Lacedaimonia; but in A. D. 1248, William Villehardoin built a fortress on one of the rocky hills at the foot of Mt. Taygetus, about three miles from the city of Lacedaemonia. Here he took up his residence; and on this rock, called Misitlira, usually pronounced .llistrn'. a new town arose, which became the capital of Lacnnia, and continued to be so till Sparta began to be rebuilt on its ancient site by order of the present Greek government. (Finlay, Medieval G reecc, p. 230; Curtius, Pelopomzesos, vol. ii. p. 214.) V. Town‘s.
1. In the Spartan Plath—The three chief towns were SPARTA, AMYCLAE, and PHARIS. all situated near one another, and upon some of the lower heights close to the Eurotas. Their proximity Would seem to show that they did not arise at the same time. Ainyclne lay only 2% miles south of Sparta. and appears to have been the chief place in the country before the Dorian invasion. South of Amyclae, and on the road from this town to the sea, was I’haris, also an Achaean town in existence before the Dorian conquest. TUERAPNE may be regarded as almost a part of Sparta. [SPARTAJ On the slopes of Mt. 'l'aygetus, above the plain, there were several places. They were visited by l‘uusanins (iii. 20. 3—7), but it is difficult to determine the road which he took. After crossing the river Phellis, beyond Amyclae, he turned to the right towards the mountain. In the plain was a sanctuary of Zeus Messapeus. belonging, as we learn from Stephanus, to a village called MasaAPnAx (Mwa'tn'c'm), and beyond it, at the entrance into the mountains, the Homeric city of Bureaus. In the mountains was a sanctuary of Demeter Elcusinio, and 15 stadia from the latter LAPITILAEUM, near which was DERRIHIJM, where was a fountain called Anonns. Twenty stadia from Derrhium was HARI‘LEIA, which borders upon the plain. Pansanias gives no information of the direction in which he proceeded from the Elcusinium to Ilarplcia. Lcakc snppmcs that he turned to the south, and accordineg places Harplcia at. the entrance into the plain by the bridge of Xero'kampa; while Curtins, on the contrary, imagines that he turned to the north, and came into the plain at Illiatrd, which he therefore identifies with Harpleia. It is impossible to determine which of these views is the more correct. The antiquities and inscriptions discovered at 1|! i'strai prove that it was the site of an ancient town, and Leake conjectures that it. represents the Homeric Maser-2.
2. In the Vale of the Upper Eureka—The road from Sparta to lllcgalopolis followed the vale of the Eurotas. On this road Pausanias mentions first several monuments, the position of one of which, the tomb of Ladas, may still be identified. This tomb is described as distant 5t) stadia from Sparta, and as situated above the road, which here passes very near to the river Eurotas. At about this distance from Sparta, Leake perceived a cavern in the rocks, with two openings, one of which appeared to have been fashioned by art, and a little beyond a semicircular sepulchrsl niche: the place is called by the peasants a-robs ‘boII-pl'our. (Leake, .llorea, vol. iii. p. 13.) Further on was the Characoma (Xaptixwya), a fortification, probably, in the narrow part of the valley; above it the town Pumas, the frontierfort rose of Sparta in the vale of the Eurotas; and 100 ltadia from Pellana, Bowman. (Pans. iii. 20. 3' 8
—-21. §3.) In the neighbourhood of Belemins was AEGYS, originally an Arcadian town, which was conquered at an early period by the Spartans, and its territory annexed to Laconia. In the upper vale of the Eurotas was the Lacedaemonian TRr. POLIS. (Liv. xxxv. 27.) Pellana was one of the three cities (Polyb. iv. 81); Belemina was undoubtedly another; and the third was either Aegys or Carystus.
The road to Tocca and Argos ran along the vale of the Ocnus. (l’aus. iii. 10. 6—8.) After crossing the bridge over the l-Iurutas. the traveller saw on his right. hand Mount 'I‘hornnx, upon which stood a colossal statue of Apollo I’ythneus, guarding the city of Sparta, which lay at his teet. (Comp. Herod. i. 69; Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 27.) A little further on in the vale of the Oenus, was SELLASIA’ which was the bulwark of Sparta in the vale of the Genus, as Pellaua was in that of the Eurotas. Above Sellasia was a small plain, the only one in the vale of the Genus, bounded on the east by Mt. Olympus and on the west by Mt. lives: a small stream, called Gorgylus, flowed through the western side of the plain into the Oenus. This was the site of the celebrated battle in which Cleomenee was defeated by Antigonns. [SELLABIAJ In this plain the road divided into two, one leading to Argos and the other to Tegea. The road to Argos followed the Ocnus; and to the west of the road, about an hour distant from the modern Aru'k/iora, lay CA— Rviue. From this place to the confines of the Thyrentis in Argolis, was a forest of oaks, called SCOTITAS (Exorirat), which derived its name from a temple of Zeus Scotitas, about 10 stadia west of the road. (Pans. iii. 10. § 6; l’olyb. xvi. 37.) On the ridge of Mt. Parnon the boundaries of Argolis and Laconia were marked by Hermae, of which, three heaps of stones, called at (povwao‘vm (the slain), may perhaps be the remains. (Ross, Reiiell im Peloponnu, p. 173.) There was also a town Oexus, from which the river derived its name.
The road to Tcgea, which is the same as the present road from Sparta t0 Tripolitzd. after leaving the plain of Sellasia, passes over a high and mountainous district, called Scnu'ris in antiquity. The territory of Laconia extended beyond the highest ridge of the mountain; and the chief source of the Alpheius, called Sarantopritamos, formed the boundary bctwccn anonia and the Tegeatis. Before reselling the Arcadian frontier, the road went through a narrow and rugged pass, now called Klisilra. The two towns in Sciritis weie Sonata and OEUM, called lum by Xenophon.
3. In the soul/tern part of Laconizr.—On the road from Sparta to Gythium, the chief port of the country, Pausanias (iii. 21. § 4) first mentions CROCEAE, distant about 135 stadia from Spaltu, and celebrated for its quarries. GYTHIUM was 30 studia beyond Croceae. Above Gythium, in the interior, was Aaciaa, to which a road also led from Croccae. Opposite Gythium was the island CuANAit. After giving an account of Gythium, Pausanias divides the rest of anonia, for the purposes of his description, into what lies left and what lies right of Gythium (4v dpw'rcpé I'vth'nv, iii. 22. § 3 'rd 1v 84:6. rueiov, iii. 24. § 6).
Following the order of Pausanias, we will first. mention the towns to the left or east of Gythiuin. Thirty stadia above Gythium was Tmruscs, situated upon a promontory, which formed the NE. cxtrcmity of the peninsula tenninating in Cape