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Euagon to seize the citsdel,.1nd thereby to make himself tymnt, seems to belong to the same period. (Athen. xi. p. 508.) After the battle of Myculc. in 11.0. 479, Lumpmcns joined Athens, but revolted after the failure of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily : being, however, unfortified, it was ensin rcconquercd by a fleet under Stromhichides. (Thuc. riii. 62.) After the time of Alexander the Great, the Lanipsaceni had to defend their city against the attacks of Antiochus of Syria; they voted a. crown of gold to the Romans. and were reccircd by them as allies. (Liv. xxxiii. 38, xxxv. 42, xliii. 6: Polyb. xxi. 10.) In the time of Strabo, Lampsacus was still a flourishing city. It was the birthplace of many distinguished authors and philosophers, such as Charon the historian, Anuximenes the orutor, and lletrodorus the disciple of Epicurus, who himself resided there for many years, and reckoned some of its citizens nmongr his intimate friends. (Strnb. l. c.; Ding. Laiirt. x. 11.) Lampsacus possessed a fine stntuc by Lysippus, representing a prostrate lion, but it was removed by Agrippa to Rome to adorn the Campus Martins. (Strut). !. c.) Lampsncus, as is Well known, was the chief seat. of the obscene worship of Priapus, who was believed to have been born there of Aphrodite. (Athen. i. p. 30; Pans. ix. 31. 2; Aprdlon. lthod. i. 983; 0v. Fast. vi. 345; Virg. Gem—g. iv. 110.) From this circumstance the whole district was believed to have derived the name of Aburnis or Apurnis (drapvciadm), because Aphrodite denied that she had given birth to him. (Throphr. Hist. Plant. i. 6,13.) The ancient name of the district had been Bebrycin, probably from the Thraciun Bebryces, who had settled there. (Comp. Hecat. Fraym. 207; Charon, Frogm. 115. 119; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 8. § 1: Polyb. v. 77; Plin. iv. 18, v. 40; Ptol. v. 2. § 2; Steph. B. s. v.) The name of ansaki is still attached to a small town, near which Lampsacus probably stood, as Laman itself contains no remains of antiquity. There are gold and silver stntcrs of Lampsncus in ditfercnt collections; the imperial coins have been traced from Augustus to Gallionus. (Sestini, Mon. '4. p. 73.) [L. 5.]
LAMPSUS, a town of Histiueotis in Thessaly, on the borders of Athamunia. (Liv. xxxii. 14.)
LAMPTRA. [ATHCA, p. 331, a.]
LAMUS (minor). a village of Cilicia, at the mouth nf the river Lamus, from which the whole district derived the name of Lamotis. The river is mentioned by Stephlnns B. (from Alexander Polyhistor), and both the river and the village by Strabo (xiv. p. 671) and Ptolemy (v. 8. §§ 4. 6). The river, which is otherwise of no importance, formed the boundary between Cilicia Aspen! and Cilicis Propria, and still bears the name oflxmuu or Lomuw. About the village of anus no particulars are known. (Comp. Nonuus, Divnys. xxiv. 50; Hierocl. p. 709.) [1. 5.]
LAMYRON (Aauupa'iv), a great harbour near Cape Hornclium, on the coast of Pontus, not far from Thcmiscym. (Anonym. I‘er-l'pl. Pom. Eu. p. 10.) [1,. 5.] LANCE (ltin. Ant. p. 395), or LA'NCIA (Aa‘yxla, Dion Cnss. liii. 25, 29; Flor. iv. 12; Urns. vi. 21), or LANCIATUM (Aa'yxia'row, I’tol. ii. 6. § 29), the chief city of the LANCEATI (Annie-rm, I’tol. I. c.) or LAxcmNsrcs (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4), a tribe of the Astures, in Hispanin Turmconensis. It was strongly fortified, and was the most. important city of that region, even more so than Loom Vll. GEMINA, at least before the settlement of the luttcr by the Romans, by whom Lunciu was destroyed, though it was again restored. It lay on the high road from Caesaraugusta to Legio VII. (Leon). only 9 M. 1’. from the latter. where its name is still to be traced in that of SolIa-nco or Sollanciu. (Florez, Esp. S. rol. xvi. p. 16; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 441.) [R 8.]
LA’NC IA, LANCIA’TI, LAN CIA’TU M. [LANCE-1
LA'NCIA OPPIDA'NA. [Vi-:r-ros its]
LANCIENSES OCELENSES or TRANSCUDANI. [Ocnwan]
LANGOBARDI, LONGOBARDI (Awyyogdpdoi, AoTynEdpom, nlSO Acry'Yodeoai and Ao'nonpdai), a tribe of Germans whom we first meet with in the plain, south of the lower Elbe, and who belonged to the Suevi (Strab. vii. p. 290, where Kramer reads Aa'ylrdeame; Ptol. ii. 11. 9, 17). According to Pnnlns Diat‘nnus, himself a Langobsrd, or Lombard (lh'xt. Longob. i. 3,8; comp. Isidor. Orig. ix. 2; Elym. M. a. v. 7111:1011), the tribe derived its name from the long beards, by which they distinguished themselves from the other Germans, who generally shaved their beards. But it seems to be more probable that they derived the name from the country they inhabited on the banks of the Elbe, where Borde (or Bord) still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river;" and a. district near Magdeburg is still called the Iange Bdwle (Wilhelm. Germanim, p. 286). According to this, Langobardi would signify “ inhabitants of the long bard of the river.” The district in which we first meet with them, is the left bank of the Elbe, from the point where the Sula cmpties itself into it, to the frontiers of the Chauci Minorcs. so that they were bounded in the north by the Elbe, in the east by the Scmnones, in the south by the Cherusci, and in the west by the Fosi and Angrivnrii. Traces of the name of the Langobardi still occur in that country in such names as Burllengau, Bm'dflvik. The earliest writer who mentions the Lungobsrdi as inhabiting those parts, is Vellrius Patcrculus (ii. 106). But notwithstanding the unanimous testimony of the ancients that they were a branch of the Sueri, their Own historian (Paul. Dino. l 0.; comp. Euscb. Citron. ad an. 380) stutcs that the Langohardi originally did not inhabit any part of Germany, but had migrated south from Scandinavia. where they had home the name of Vinili. and that they manned the name Lnngobardi after their arrival in Germany. It is impossible to say what value is to be attributed to this statement, which has found us many advocates as it has had opponents. From Strubo (l. c.) it is clear that they occupied the northern bank of the Elbe. and it 13 possible that they were among those Germans whom Tiberius, in the reign of Augustus drove across the Elbe (Snot. Aug. 21). in thcir new country they were soon reduced to submission by Marobodnus, but afierwards they shook off the yoke, and, in conjunc‘ tion with the Semnones, joined the confederacy of the Cheruscans against the Marcomanui. ('l‘ac. Ann. ii. 45.) When, in consequence of the murder of Arminius, the power of the Cheruscans was decaying more and more, the Langobanli not only supported and restored Italus, the king of the Cheruscans who had been expelled, but seem to have extended their own territory in the south. so as to occupy the country between llalle, alfrlgdeburg, and Leipzig. (Tac.Arm. xi. 17.) They were not a numerous tribe, but their want of numbers was made up for by their natural bravery (Tac. Gem. 40), and Velleius describes them as a “ gens etiarn Gennana feritate ferocior." Shortly after these events the Langobardi disappear from history, until they are mentioned again by Ptolemy (l. c.), who places them in the extensive territory between the Rhine and Wcser, and even beyond the latter river almost as far as the Elbe. They thus occupied the country which had formerly been inhabited by the tribes forming the Cheruscan mnfederacy. This great extension of their territory shows that their power must have been increasing ever since their liberation from the yoke of Maroboduus. After this time we again hear nothing of the Longobardi for a considerable period. They are indeed mentioned, in an excerpt from the history of Petrus Patricius (Eu. do Legut. p. 124), as allies of the Obii on the frontiers of Pannonia; but otherwise history is silent about them, until, in the second half of the 5th century, they appear on the north of the Danube in Upper Hungary as tributary to the Heruli (Procop. dc Bell. Goth. ii. 15, who describes them as Christians). Whether these Langobardi, however, were the same people whom we last met with between the Rhine and the Elbe, or whether they were only a band of emigrants who had in the cour.»e of time become so numerous as to form a distinct tribe, is a question which cannot be answered with certainty, although the latter seems to be the more probable supposition. Their natural love of freedom could not bear to submit to the rule of the Heruli, and after having defeated the king of the latter in a great battle,they subdued the neighbouring Quadi. likewise a Suevian tribe, and henceforth they were for a long time the terror of their neighbours and the Roman province of Pannonia. (Paul. Diac. i. 22.) For, being the most powerful nation in those parts, they extended their dominion down the Danube, and occupied the extensive plains in the north of Dacia on the river Theiss, where they first came in conflict with the Gepidae, and entered Pannonia. (Paul. Disc. i. 20.) The emperor Justinian, wanting their support against the Gepidae, gave them lands and supplied them with money (l’rocop. Bell. Goth. iii. 33), and under their king Audoin they gained a great victory over the Gepidae. (Paul. Disc. i. 25; 1‘rocnp. Bell Goth. iii. 34, iv. 18, 25.) Alboin, Audoin's successor, after having, in conjunction with the Avari, completely overthrown the empire of the Gepidae, led the Langobardi, in A. n. 568, into Italy, where they permanently established themselves, and founded the kingdom from which down to this day the north-cast of Italy bears the name ofLombar-dy. (Ezc. de Legut. pp. 303, 304; Marius Episc. Citron. Rona. ii. 412.) The occasion of their invading Italy is related as follows. When Alboin had concluded his alliance with the Avari, and had ceded to them his own dominions, Narscs, to take revenge upon Justin, invited them to quit their poor country and take possession of the fertile plains of Italy. Alboin
accordingly crossed the Alps, and as the north of Italy was badly defended, he succeeded in a short time in establishing his kingdom, which continued to flourish until it was overpowered and destroyed by Charlemagne. (Paul. Diac. ii. 5; Eginhard, l'rt. Carol. M. 6.) The history of this singular people, whose name still survives, has been written in Latin by Paulus Diaconus (Warncfried), in the reign of Charlemagne, and by another Lombard of the 9th century, whose name is unknown. (Comp. Wilhelm, Ger-martial, p. 281, foll.; Zeuss, die Deutrchen and die Nachbarshimmr, p. 109, ML; F. Dufl‘t, Quasationu do Artlt'qut'uimu Longobardoflnn Hislon'a, Berlin, 1830, 8ro.; Koch-Sternfeld, do: Reich der Longobarden in Italian, Munich, 1839; Latham, T ac. Germ. p. 139, and Epileg. p. lxxxiv.) [L.S.]
LANU'VIUM (Auooi'ov, Strab. ; Anvotiéior, Ptol.: Elh. Aeroflot“, Lanuvinus: Civih'z Lavinia), an ancient and important city of Latium, situated on a lofly hill forming is projecting spur or promontory of the Alban Hills towards the S. It was distant about 20 miles from Rome, on the right of the Appian Way, rather more than a mile from the road. The name is often written in inscriptions, even of a good time, Lam'vium; hence the confusion which has arisen in all our MSS. of ancient authors between it and Laviaium: the two names are so frequently interchanged as to leave constant doubt which of the two is really meant, and in the middle ages they appear to have been actually regarded as the same place; whence the name of “ Civitas Lavinia" by which Lanuvium is still known, and which can be traced as far back as the fourteenth century. The foundation of Lanuvium was ascribed by a tradition recorded by Appian (B. C. ii. 20) to Diomed; a legend probably arising from some fancied connection with the worship of Juno at Argos. A tradition that has a more historical aspect, though perhaps little more historical worth, represented it as one of the colonies of Alba. (Diod. vii. ap. Eweb. Arm. p. 185.) The statement of Cat: (up. Print-ion. iv. 4. § 21) that it was one of the cities which co-operated in the consecration of the celebrated temple of Diana at Aricia, is the first fact concerning it that can be loukcd upon as historical, and shows that Lanuvium was already a city of consideration and power. Its name appears also in the list given by Dionysius of the cities that formed the league against Rome in n. c. 496, and there is no doubt that it was in fact one of the thirty cities of the Latin League. (Dionys. v. 61 ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. p. 17.) But from this time we hear little of it, except that it was the faithful ally of Rome during her long wars with the Volsciana and Aequians (Liv. vi. 21): the position of Lanuvium would indeed cause it to be one of the citi most immediately interested in opposing the progress of the Volscians, and render it as it were the natural rival of Antium. We have no explanation of the causes which, in n. c. 383, led the Lnnuviaus suddenly to change their policy, and take up arms, together with some other Latin cities, in favour of the Volscians (Liv. vi. 21). They must have shared in the defeat of their allies near Satricum; but. apparently were admitted to submission on favourable terms, and we hear no more of them till the great Latin War in 11.0. 340, in which they took an active and important part. At first, indeed, they seem to have hesitated and delayed to take the field; but in the two last campaigns their forces are particularly mentioned, both among those that fought at Pedum in B. C. 339, and the next year at Astura (Liv. viii. 12, 13)! In the general settlement of affairs at the close of the war Lanuvium obtained the Roman civitas, but apparently in the first instance without the right of sufi'rngc; for Festns, in a well-known passage, enumerates the Lanm'ini among the communities who at one time enjoyed all the other privileges of Roman citizens except the suffrage and the Jus Magistratunm (Liv. viii. l4 ; Festus, v. flluniapium), a statement which can only refer to this period. We know from Cicero that they subsequently obtained the full franchise and right of suffrage, but the time when they were admitted to these privileges is unknown. (Cic. pro Bulb. 13.) seats still perfectly horizontal, though mcrcly laid upon the gravel), are well deserving of notice. Other buildings, also, on the top of the hill, are full of interest; and on the cast. the line of the ancient wall may be distinctly traced, with the remains of a. gateway; there is also a street within and without. the town, flanked by the ruins of a colonnadc and numerous pedestals, leading to a confused heap of fallen ruins on the brow of the hill, about 200 yards outside the walls. North of the town, towards the Lyons, are many sarcophagi, with their covers lying near them, partly imbedded in the ground, and all having been long since rifled.
From this time Lanuvium lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town, and is mentioned chiefly in relation to its celebrated temple of Juno Sospita. It did not, however, fall into decay, like so many of the early Latin cities, and is mentioned by Cicero among the more populous and flourishing municipia of Latium, in the same class with Aricia and Tusculum, which he contrasts with such poor and decayed places as Labicuxn and Collatia (Cic. do Leg. Agr. ii. 35). its chief magistrate retained the ancient Latin title of Dictator, which was borne by T. Annius Milo, the celebrated adversary of Clodius, in the days of Cicero. (Cic. pro .1151. 10; Orell. Inscr. 3786.) Previous to this period Lanuvium had suffered severely in the civil wars of Marius and Sulla, having been taken by the former at the same time with Antium and Aricia, just before the capture of Rome itself, 8.0. 87. (Appian, B. C. i. 69; Liv. EpiL 80.) Nor did it escape in the later civil wars: the treasures of its temple were seized by Octavian, and a part at least of its territory was divided among a colony of veterans by the dictator Caesar. (Appian, B. C. v. 24; Lib. Colon. p. 235.) It subsequently received another colony, and a part of its territory was at one time allotted to the vestnl virgins at Rome. (1bid.) Lanuvium, however, never bore the title of a colony, but. continued only to rank as a municipium, though it seems to have been a flourishing place throughout the period of the Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the emperor Antoninus Pius, who in consequence frequenin made it his residence, as did also his successors, M. Aurelius and Commodus: the lust of these three is mentioned as having frequently displayed his skill as a gladiator in the amphitheatre at Lanuviurn, the construction of which may probably be referred to this epoch. Inscriptions attest its continued prosperity under the reigns of Alexander Severus and Philippus. (Suet. Aug]. 72; Tue. Ann. iii. 48: Capit. Ant. Pins, 1; Lamprid. Commod. l, 8; Vict. do Cues. 15; Orell. Ill-507‘884, 3740, &c.)
Lanuvium was the place from which several illustrious Roman families derived their origin. Among these were the Annie, to which Milo, the adversary
of Clodius, belonged by adoption, as well as the Papia, from which he was originally descended; the Roscia, and the Thoria (Cic. pro Nil. 10; Ascon. ad Milon. pp. 32, 53; Cic. dc Divin. i. 86, ii. 31, do Fin. ii. 20), to which may probably be added, on the authority of coins, the Prucilia and lllettia. (Eekhcl, vol. v. pp. 253, 267, 289, 293.) We learn from Cicero that not only did the Roscia Gena derive its origin from Lanuvium, but the celebmted actor Roscius was himself born in the territory of that city. (Cic. do Div. i. 36.)
But. the chief celebrity of Lanuvium was derived from its temple of Juno Sospita, which enjoyed a peculiar sanctity, so that after the Latin War in B. c. 338 it. was stipulated that. the Romans should enjoy free participation with the Lanuvians themselves in her worship and sacred rites (Liv. viii. 14): and although at a later period a temple was erected at Rome itself to the goddess under the same denomination, the consuls still continued to repair annually to Lanuvium for the purpose of offering solemn sacrifices. (Liv. xxxii. 30, xxxiv. 53; Cic. pro Maren. 4] The peculiar garb and attributes of the Lanuvian Juno are described by Cicero (do Not. Dear. i. 29), and attested by the evidence of numerous Roman coins: she was always represented with a goat's skin, drawn over her head like a helmet, with a spear in her hand, and a small shield on the left arm, and wore peculiar shoes with the points turned up (calceola' repandi). On coins we find her also constantly associated with a serpent; . and we learn from Propertius and Aelian that. there was a kind of oracle in the sacred grove attached to her temple, where a serpent was fed with fruits and cakes by virgins, whose chastity was considered to be thus put to the test. (Propert. iv. 8 ; Aelian, H. .4. xi. 16, where the true reading is undoubtedly Aavoufzp, and not Aaovivhp; Eckhel, vol. v. p. 294.)
The frequent notices in Livy and elsewhere of prodigies occurring in the temple and sacred grove of Juno at Lanuvium, as well as the allusions to her worship at that place scattered through the Roman poets, sufficiently show how important a part the latter had assumed in the Roman religion. (Liv. xxiv. 10, xxix. H, xxxi. 12, X]. 19; Cic. do Divin. i. 44, ii. 27; Ovid. Fast. \‘i. 60; Si]. Ital. xiii. 364.) We learn from Appian that a large treasure had gradually accumulated in her temple, as was the case with most. celebrated sanctuaries; and Pliny mentions that it was adorned with very ancient, but excellent, paintings of Helen and Atalanta, which the emperor Caligula in vain attempted to remove. (Plin. xxxv. 3. s. 6.) It appears from a passage in Cicero (do Fin. ii. 20) that Juno was far from being the only deity especially worshipped at Lanuvium, but that the city was notedas abounding in ancient temples and religious rites, and was probably one of the chief seats of the old Latin rcligion. A temple of Jupiter adjoining the forum is the only one of which we find any special mention. (Liv. xxxii. 9.)
Though there is no doubt that Cirita'z Lavinia occupies the original site of Lanuviuin, the position of which is well described by Strabo and Silius Italicns (Strab. v. p. 239 ; Sil. Ital. viii. 360), and we know from inscriptions that the ancient city continued in a flourishing condition down to a late period of the Roman empire, it is curious that scarcely any ruins now remain. A few shapeless masses of masonry, principally substructiuis and foundations, of which those that crown the summit
of the bill may possibly have belonged to the temple of Juno Swpita; and a small portion of a theatre, brought to light by excavations in 1832, are all that are now visible. The inscriptions discovered on the spot belong principally to the time of the Antonines, and excavations in the last century brought to light many statucs of the some period. (Nibby, Dintm-ni di Roma, \‘ol. ii. pp. 173—187 ; Abeken, illittel ltalien, p. 215.)
Lanuvium, as already observed,was situated at a short distance from the Appiau Way, on the right of that road: the station “ Sub Lanuvin," marked in the Tabula l’eutingcriana between Al'icia. and Treat Tabernae, was evidently situated on the high road, probably at. the eighteenth milestone from Rome, from which point a branch road led directly to the ancient city. (ll'estphal, R6111. Kamp. p. 28; Nibby, l. c.)
The remains of two other ancient roads may be traced, leading from the W. and S. of the city in the direction of Antium and Astura. The existence of this line of communication in ancient times is incidentally referred to by Cicero (ad All. xii. 41, 43, 46). The tract of country extending S. of Lanuvium in the direction of Antiam and the Pontine marshes, was even in the time of Strabo very unhealthy (Slrab. v. p. 231), and is now almost wholly dcpopulatcd. [P.. H. B.]
LAODlCl'lIA COMBUSTA (Aaodlxem KaraKe“va17 or xexauue'im), one of the five cities built
- by Seleucus 1., and named after his mother Sclcuca. Its surname (Lat.Cornbusta) is derived by Strabo (xii. pp. 576, 579, xiii. pp. 626, 628,637) from the volcanic nature of the surrounding country, but Hamilton (Researches, ii. p. 194) asserts that there is “ not a particle of volcanic or igneous rock in the neighbour-braid ;" and it may be added that if such were the case, the town would rather have been called A. H]: mraxurauue'vm. The most probable solution undoubtedly is, that the town was at one time destroyed by fire, and that on being rebuilt it received the distinguishing surname. It was situated on the north-west of Iconium, on the high road leading from the west coast to Mclitcne on the Euphrates. Some describe it, as situated in Lycaonia (Stcpll. B. 3.17. ; Strab. xiv. p. 663), and others as a town of Pisidis (Socmt. Hist. Ecol. Vi. 18; Hicrocl. p. 672), and Ptolemy (v. 4. §10) places it in Galatia ; but this discrepancy is easily explained by recollecting that the territories just mentioned were often extendai or reduced in extent, sothat atone time the town belonged to Lycaonia, while at another it formed part of Pisidia. Its foundation is not mentioned by any ancient writer.
Both Leake (Asia. Minor, p. 44) and Hamilton identify Laodiceia with the modern Ladik; and the former of these geographers states that at Ladib he saw more numerous fragments of ancient architecture and sculpture than at any other place on his route through that ecuntry. luscribed marbles. altars, columns, capitals, friezea, cornices, were dispersed throughout the streets, and among the houses and burying grounds. From this it Would appear that Laodiceia must once have been a very considerable town. There are a few imperial coins of Laodiceia, belonging to the reigns of Titus and Domitian. (Sestini, Jlllm. Ant. p. 95; comp. Droysen, Gesch. (Ies llellm. i. p. 668, foll.) . . .
LAODICEIA Al) LYCUM (Aaofifvma rpbs rq? Arimp: Eski Kisser), a city in the south-west of
Phryg'ia', about a mile from the rapid river Lyons, is situated on the long spur of a hill between the narrow valleys of the small rivers Asopus and Caprns, which discharge their waters into the Lycus. The town was originally called Diospolis, and afterwards Rhoas (l’lin. v. 29), and Laodicein, the building of which is ascribed to Antiochus Theos, in honour of his wife Laodice, was probably founded on the site of the older town. it was not far west from Colossac, and only six miles to the west of Hierapolis. (It. Ant. p. 337; Tab. Perm; Strab. xiii. p. 629.) At first Laxxlicein was not a place of much importance, but it soon acquired a high degree of prosperity. It snfi’ered greatly during the Mithridatic War (Appisn, Bell. Milhr. 20; Strab. xii. p. 578), but quickly recovered under the dominion of Rome; and towards the end of the Republic and under the first emperors, Lsodiccia became one of the most important and flourishing commercial cities of Asia Minor, in which large money transactions and an extensive trade in Wood were carried on. (Cic. ad Fonz. ii. 17, iii. 5; Stmb. xii. p. 577: comp. Vitruv. viii. 3.) The place often suffered from earthquakes, especially from the great shock in the reign of Tiberius. in which it was completely destroyed. But the inhabitants restored it from their own means. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 27.) The wealth of its inhabitants created among them a taste for the arts of the Greeks, as is manifest from its ruins; and that it did not remain behind~hand in science and literature is attested by the names of the sceptics Antiochus and Theiodas, the successors of Acncsidcmus (Ding. Laiirt. ix. 11. § 106, 12. § 116), and by the cxislcnce ofn great medical school. (Strab. xii. p. 580.) During the Roman period Laodiccia was the chief city of a Roman conventus. (Cic. ad Fam. iii. 7, ix. 25, xiii. 54. 67, xv. 4, ml Aft. v. 15, 16, ‘20. 21, vi. 1, 2, 3. 7, in Verr. i. 30.) Many of its inhabitants were Jews, and it was probably owing’ to this circumstance, that at a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity, and the see of a bishop. (St. Paul, Ep. ad Coloss. ii. 1, iv. 15, foll.; Apocal. iii. 14, foll.; Joseph. Ant. Jud. xiv. 10,20; Hierocl. p. 665.) The Byzantine writers often mention it, especially in the time nfthe Comneni; and it was fortified by the emperor Manuel. (Nicet. Chon. Ann. pp. 9, 81.) During the invasion of the Turks and Mongols the city was much exposed to ravages, and fell into decay, but the existing remains still attest its former greatness. The ruins near Denisli are fully described in Pococke's, Chandler's, Corkercll's, Arundel’s and Leake's works. “ Nothing," says Hamilton (Researches, vol. i. p. 515), “can exceed the desolation and melancholy appearance of the site of Laodiceia; no picturesque features in the nature of the ground on which it stands relieve the dull uniformity of its undulating and barren hills; and with few exccptions, its grey and widely scattered ruins possess no architectural merit to attract the attention of the traveller. Yet: it is impossible to view them without interest, when we consider what Laodiceia once was, and how it is connected with the early history of Chri>t-ianit_\'. . . . . . Its stadium, gymnasium, and theatres (one of which is in a state of great- prcservation, with its
" Amongst other interesting objects are the remains of an aqueduct, commencing near the summit of a low hill to the south, whence it is carried on arches of small square stones to the edge of the hill. The water must have been much charged with calcareous matter, as several of the arches are covered with a thick incrustation. From this hill the aqueduct crossed a valley before it reached the town, but, instead of being carried over it on lofty arches, as was the usual practice of the Romans, the water was conveyed down the hill in stone barrel-pipes; some of these also are much incrustcd, and some completely choked up. It traversed the plain in pipes of the same kind ; and X was enabled to trace them the whole way, quite up to its former level in the town. ,. . . . . Tho aqueduct appears to have been overthrown by an earthquake, as the remaining,' arches lean bodily on one side, without being much broken. . . . .
“ The stadium, which is in a good state of preservation, is near the southern extremity of the city. The seats, almost perfect, are arranged along two sides of a narrow valley, which appears to have been taken advantage of for this piirlmse, and to have been closed up at both ends. Towards the west are considerable remains of a subterranean passage, by which chariots and horses were admitted into the arena, with a long inscription over the entrance. . . . . The whole area of the ancient city is covered with ruined buildings, and I could distinguish the sites of several temples, with the bases of the columns still in situ. . . . . The ruins bear the stamp of Roman extravagance and luxury, rather than of the stern and massive solidity of the Greeks. Strnbo attributes the celebrity of the place to the fertility of the soil and the wealth of some of its inhabitants: amongst whom Hiero. having adorned the city with many beautiful buildings, bcqueaihed in it. more than 2000 talents at his death." (Comp. Fellows, Journal wn'lten t'n Asia )llinor, p. 280, foll.; Leake, An'a illinor, p. 251, full.) [L S.]
LAODlCElA AD LIBANUM (Aubixsia. ~77 Ipb: Algimp), mentioned by Stmho (xvi. p. 755) as the commencement of the Marsyns Campus, which extended along the west side of the Ornnics, near its source. [Manama CAMPUSJ It is called Cabioss Laodiceia by l’tolemy (KaGimra. Aaofiixna, v. 15), and gives its name to a district (Aaadumvli), in which he places two other towns, Paradisus (l'lapiiBeuros) and Jabruda ('Ideavh). Pliny (v. 23), among other people of Syria, reckons “ ad orientcm lmulicenos. qui ad Libanum cognominantur.” [G.\\'.]
LAODlCElA' AI) MARE, a city of Syria, south of HIRACLEIA [V0]. 1. p. 1050], described by Strabo (xvi. pp. 751, 752) as admirably built, with an excelleni. harbour, surrounded by a rich country specially fruitful in vines, the wine of which furnished
its chief supply to Alexandria. The vineyards were .
planted on the sides of gently-sloping hills, which were cultivated almost to their summits, and extended far to the east, nearly to Apaineia. Strabo mentions that Dolahclla, when he fled to this city before Cassius, dioil‘Osst'd it greatly, and that, being besieged there until his death, he destroyed many parts of the city with him, A. D. 48. [Iii/:6. ofliiog. Vol. I. p. 1050.] It was built by Scleucus Nicator, and named after his mother. It- was furnished with an aqueduct by Herod the Great (Joseph. B. J. i. 21. § ll), a large fragment of which is still to be seen. (Shaw, Travels, p. 262.)
The modern city is named Lndil'iyé/i, and still exhibits faint traces of its former importance, notwithstanding the frequcnt earthquakes with which it has been visited. lrby and Mangles noticed that: “ the Marina is built upon foundations of ancient columns," and “ there are in the town, an old gateway and other antiquities," as also sarcophagi and sepulchml caves in the neighbourhood. (Travels, p. 223.) This gateway has been more fully described by Shaw (1. c.) and Pocockc, as “ a remarkable trinmphal arch, at the SE. corner of the town, almost entire: it is built with four entrances, like the Forum Joni at Rome. It is conjectured that this arch was built in honour of Lucius Vcrus,or of Septimius Severus." (Description of the East, vol. ii. p. 197.) Shaw noticed several fragments of Greek and Latin inscriptions,dispersed all over the ruins. but entirely defaced. Pococke states that it was a very inconsiderable place till within fifty years of his visit, when it opened a tobacco trade with Damielta, and it has now an cnonnons trafiic in that article, for which it is far more celebrated than ever it was for its wine. The port is half an hour distant from the town, very small, but. better sheltered than any on the coast. Shaw noticed, : furlong to the west of the town, “the ruins of a beautiful cotllon, in figure like an amphitheatre, and capricious enough to receive the whole British navy. The mouth of