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must be looked for between Id-rin and Kminburg, in lllyricnm. (It. Ant. 1:. 276; comp. Muchar, Noricum, p. 247.) ‘ [L. S.]

LARNUM (Tordera), a small coast river in the territory of the Lani-fram, in Hispania Tarraconcnsis, falling into the sea between Iluro and Blanda. (l’lin. iii. 3. s. 4.) It has been inferred that there was a town of the same name on the river, from Pliny's mention of the LARNENSES in the conventus of Caesaraugusta: but it is plain that the Laee'tani belonged to the conventus of 'l'armco. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 456, assigns these Larnenscs to the Arevacae.) [P. S.]


LARYMNA (Adpupma). the name of two towns in Boeotia, on the river Cephissus, distinguished as Upper and Lower Larymna. (Strab ix. pp. 405. 406.) Stmbo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at the Upper Larymns, and joined the sea at the Lower Larymna; and that Upper Larymna had belonged to Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Larymna by the Romans. Upper Larymna belonged originally to the Opuntian Lucris. and Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax Oi'leus. (Lycophr. 1146.) Pausanias also states, that it was originally Locrian; and he adds, that it- voluntarily joined the Boeotians on the increase of the power of the 'l‘hcbans. (Pans. ix. 23. § 7.) This, however, probably did not take place in the time of Epaminondas, as Scylax, who lived subsequently, still calls it a Locrian town (p. 23). Ulrichs conjectures that it joined the Boeotian league afler Thebes had been rebuilt by Cassimder. in 3.0. 230, Larymua is described as a Boeotian town (Polyh. xx. 5. where Aépwwav should be read instead of Aaepn'vav); and in the time of Sulla it is again spoken of as a Boeotian town.

We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Larymna, situath at a spot, called Anchoe by Strabo, Where the Ccphissus emerged from its subterrancan channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Larynma bad a. port upon the coast, which gra~ dually rose into importance, especially from the time whcn Larymna joined the Boeotian League, as its port then became the most convenient communication with the eastern sea for Lebadeia, Chaeroneia, Orchomcnos, Copae, and other Boeotian towns. The port town was called, from its position, Lower larymaa, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may also have been called more especially the Boeotian Larymna, as it became the seaport of so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymna, though it had joined the Boeotian League, continued to be frequently called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris. When the Romans united Upper Larymna to Lower Larymna, the inhabitants of the fomer place were probably transferred to the latter; and Upper Larymna was henceforth abandoned. This accounts for Pausanias mentioning only one Larymna, which must have been the Lower city; for if he had visited Upper Larymna, he could hardly have failed to mention the emissary of the Cephissus at this spot. Moreover, the ruins at Lower Larymna show that it hecame a place of much more importance than Upper Larymna. These ruins, which are called Knsh'i,


like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the ~

Bay of Lanna, on a level covered with bushcs, ten

minutes to the left. of the mouth of the Uephissus. _

VOL. ll.

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Leake adds, that the walls, which in one place are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone, very much corroded by the sea air, and in some places are constructed of rough masses. The sorus is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, and stands in its original place upon the rocks: there was an inscription upon it, and some ornaments of sculpture, which are now quite defaced. The GlyU'oneru' is a small deep pool of water, impregnated with salt, and is considered by the peasants as sacred water, because it is cathartic. The sea in the bay south of the ruins is very deep; and hence we ought probably to read in Pausanias (ix. 23. § 7), Anthv 66’ a¢imw thrrlv dyxlfiaflhr, instead of Mom, since there is no land-lake at this place. The ruins of Upper Larymna lie at Bazaréki, on the right bank of the Ccphissus, at the place where it issues from its subterranean channel. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 287. seq.; Ulrichs, Reisen in Grievhcnland, p. 229,

LARY'SIUM. [Gr'nuusn]

LAS (Adar, “MIL; Air, Scyl., Pans, Strab.; AE, Steph. B. s. 0.: Eth. Aaos), one of the most ancient towns of Lat-onia, situated upon the western coast of the Laeonian gulf. lt is the only town on the coast mentioned by Scylax (p. 17) between Tacnarus and Gythiuln. Scylux speaks of its port; but, according to Pausanius, the town itself was distant l0 stadia from the sea, and 40 sladia from Gythium. (l'sus. iii. 24. in the time of Pausanias the town lay in a hollow between the three mountains, Asia, llium, and Cnacadium; but the old town stood on the summit of Mt. Asia. The name of Las signified the rock on which it originally stood. It is mcntionud by Homer (II. is


585), and is said to have been destroyed by the Dioscuri, who hence derived the surname of Lapcrsae. (Strab. viii. p. 364; Steph. B. s. 0. Ad.) There was also a mountain in Laconia milled Lapersa. (Steph. B. 3.11. Amre'ptm.) In the later period it was a place of no importance. Livy speaks of it as “ vicus maritimus" (xxxviii. 30), and Pausanias mentions the ruins of the city on Mt. Asia. Before the walls he saw a statue of Hercules, and a trophy erected over the Macedonians who were a part of Philip's army when he invaded Laconia; and among the ruins he noticed a statue of Athena Asia. The modern town was near I. fountain called Galaco (PMam-i), from the milky colour of its water, and near it was a gymnasium, in which stood an ancient statue of Hermes. Besides the ruins of the old town on Mt. Asia, there were also buildings on the two other mountains mentioned above : on Mt. Ilium stmd a temple of Dionysus, and on the summit a temple of Asclepius; and on Mt. Cnacadinm a temple of Apollo Carneius.

Las is spoken of by Pulybius (v. 19) and Strabo (viii. p. 363) under the name of Asine; and hence it has been supposed that some of the fugitives from Asine in Argolis may have settled at has, and given their name to the town. But, notwithstanding the statement of Polybins, from whom Strabo probably copied, we have given reasons elsewhere for believing that there was no Laconion town called Asine; and that the mistake probably arose from confounding “Asine” with " Asia," on which Les originally stood. [Asmlc, No. 3.]

Les stood upon the hill of Paunva', which is now crowned by the ruins of a fortress of the middle ages, among which, however, Lcake noticed, at the southern end of the eastern wall, a piece of Hellenic wall, about 50 paces in length, and two-thirds of the height of the modern wall. It. is formed of polygonal blocks of stone, some four feet long and three broad. The fountain Galaco is the stream Turlm'm'ysu, which rises between the hill of Pa:sani and the village of Ka'rvela, the latter being one mile and a. half west of Passava'. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 254, seq., p. 276. seq.; Peloponneriaca, p. 150 ; Boblaye, Richer-cites, ()0. p. 87 ; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 273, seq.)

LASAEA (Anemia), a city in Crete, near the roadstead of the “ Fair Havens." (Acts, xxvii. 8.) This place is not mentioned by any other writer, but is probably the same as the Lisia of the Peutinger Tables, 16 M. P. to the E. of Gortyna. (Comp. Hock, Kreta, vol. i. pp. 412, 439.) Some MSS. have Lasea; others, Alassa. T he Vulgate reads Thalussa, which Bcza contended was the true name. (Comp. Coneybeare and llowson, Life and Elias-t. of St. Paul, vol. ii. p. 330.) B. J.]

LA'SION (Aam'wv or Attend»), the chief town of the mountainous district of Acroneia in Elis proper, was situated upon the frontiers of Arcadia near Psophis. Curtius places it with great probability in the upper valley of the Lsdon, at the Palcoknatro of Klimam', on the road from the Eleinn Pylos and Ephyra to Psophis. Lesion was a frequent object of dispute between the Arcadiuns and Eleians. both of whom laid claim to it. In the war which the Spurtans carried on against Elis at the close of the Peloponnesian War, Pausnnias, king of Sparta, took Ls.sion (Diod. xiv. 17). The invasion of l’ausanias is not mentioned by Xenophon in his account of this war; but the latter author relates that, by the treaty


400, the Eleinns were obliged to give up Lasion, in consequence of its being claimed by the Arcadians. (Xen. llell. iii. 2. §3U.) In B. c. 366 the Elcians attempted to recover Lesion from the Arcsdians; they took the town by surprise, but. were shortly afterwards driven out of it again by the Arcadians. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. §13, seq.; Diod. xv. 77.) In 13.0. 219 Lesion was again a fortress of Elis. but upon the capture of Psophis by Philip. the Eleian garrison at Lesion straightway deserted the place. (l’olyb. iv. 72, 73.) Polybius mentions (v. 102) along with Lasion a fortress called Pyrgos, which he places in a district named Perippia. (Leake, Mona, vol. ii. p. 200, seq.; Boblaye, Récherehudc. p. 125; Curtins, Pclopannesor, vol. i. p. 41.)

LA'SSORA, a town of Galatia, mentioned in the Pent. Tab. as 25 miles distant from Eccobriga, whence we may infer that it is the same place as the AatTKopiG of Ptolemy (v. 4. § 9). The Antonine Itinerary (p. 203) mentions a town Adapera in about the some site. [1... 5.]

LASTI'GI, a town of Hispanic Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Hispalis (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3)I and one of the cities of which we have coins, all of them belonging to the period of its independence: their type is a head of Mars, with two ears of corn lying parallel to each other. The site is supposed to be at Zahara, lying on a height of the Sierra de Ronda, above the river Guadalete. (Carter's Travels, p. 171 ; Florez, Esp. S. v01. ix. pp. 18, 60, filed. vol. ii. p. 475, vol. iii. p. 85; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 50, Suppl. vol. i. p. 113; Sestini, Med. Isp. p. 61; Num. Goth; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 25; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. pp. 358, 382.) [P. S.]

LASUS, a town of Crete, enumerated by Pliny (iv. 12) among his list of inland cities. A coin with the epigraph MTlnN, the Doric form for Aavfwu, is claimed by Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 316, comp. Sestini, p. 53) for this place. B. J.]

LATARA. [Lupus]

LATHON (Add-or, Strab. p. 836, where the vulgar reading is Aéowv ; comp. xiv. p. 647, where he calls it Anda'ior ; Ptol. iv. 4. §4; Afidwv, Ptol. Euerg. up Ath. ii. p. 71 ; varcs Lam-ton, Plin. v. 5; Solin. 27 ; Lsanes Aunts, Lucan, ix. 355), a river of the Hesperidae or Hesperitae, in Cyrenaica. It rose in the Herculis Arenae, and fell into the sea a little N. of the city of Husrrmlnns or Bzrmxrcrt: Strabo connects it with the harbour of the city (Muhv 'Emrsprfifiv: that there is not the slightest. reason for altering the reading, as Groskurd and others do, into Alarm, will presently appear); and Scylax (p. 110, Gronov.) mentions the river, which he calls Eoceius (’Emmds), as in close proximity with the city and hnbour of Hosperides. Pliny expressly states that the river was not far from the city, and places on or near it a sacred grove, which was supposed to represent the “ Gardens of the Hes~ peridos” (l’lin. v. 5: me proud ante oppizlum fluvius Lethon, lucus racer, rlbi Hesprridum horti me» morantur). Athenaens quotes from a work of Ptolemy Energetes praise; of its fine pike and eels, somewhat inconsistent, especially in the month of a luxurious lting of Egypt, with the mythical sound of the name. That name is, in fact, plain Doric Greek, descriptive of the character of the river, like our English Mole. So well does it deserve the name, that it “escaped the notice" of commentators and geographers, till it was discovered by Beechey, as it still flows “ concealed" from such scholars as depend of the localities. Thus the laborious, but often most inaccurate, compiler Forbigcr, while taking on himself to correct Strabo’s exact account, tells us that “ the river and lake (Strabo's harbour) have now entirely vanished ;" and yet, a few lines down, he refers to a passage of Bcechey‘s work within a very few pages of the place where the river itself is actually described ! (Forbiger, Hamllmch der alien Geographic, vol. ii. p. 828, note.)

of peace concluded between Elis and Sparta in 1m:v I on vague guessos in place of an accurate knowledge

The researches made in Beechey’s expedition give the following results :—East of the headland on which stands the ruins of Hesperides or Herr-nice (now Bengazi) is a small lake, which communicates with the harbour of the city, and has its water of course salt. The water of the lake varies greatly in quantity, according to the season of the year; and is nmrly dried up in summer. There are strong grounds to believe that its waters were more abundant, and its communication with the harbour more perfect, in ancient times than at. present. 011 the margin of the lake is a spot of rising ground, nearly insulated in u inter, on which are the remains of ancient buildings. East of this lake again, and only a few yards from its margin, there gushes forth an abundant spring of fresh water, which empties itfelf into the lake, “ running along a channel of inconsiderahlc breadth, bordered with reeds and rushes," and “ might be mistaken by a common observer for an iner of the lake into the sandy soil which bounds it." Moreover, this is the only stream which empties itself into the lake; and indeed the only one found on that part of the (‘0;le of Cyrenaica. Now, even without searching further, it is evident how well all this answers to the description of Strabo (xvii. p. 836) :—“ Then: is a promontory mlled Pseudopenias, on which Bercnice is situated, beside a certain Lake of Trilonis (rapt‘z Manly rim‘r. Tpt-rwvifla), in which there is generally (adAm-m) a little island, and a temple'of Aphrodite upon it: but there is (or it is) also the Harbour qf Ilesper'ider, and the river Lathon falls into it.” It is now evident how much the sense of the description would be impaired by reading Morn for Alum! in the last clause; and it matters but little whether Strabo speaks of the river as falling into the harbour because it fell into the lake which communicated with the harbour, or whether he means that the lake, which he calls that of Tritonis, was actually the barhour (that is, an inner harbour) of the city. But the little stream which falls into the lake is not the only representative of the river Lathon. Further to the east, in one of the subterranean caves which abound in the neighbourhood of Bengazi, Beechy found a large body of fresh water, losing itself in the bowels of the earth ; and the Boy of Beugazi afirmed that he had tracked its subterraneous murse till be doubted the safety of proceeding further, and that ho had found it as much as 30 feet deep. That the stream thus lost in the mrth is the same which reappears in the spring on the margin of the lake, is extremely probable; but whether it be so in fact, or not, we can hardly doubt that the ancient Greeks would imagine the connection to exist. (Beechey, Proceedinga, do. pp. 326, ML; Barth, Wanderungen, rfc. p. 387. [l’. 5.]

LATHRII’PA (Mplna). an inland town of Arabia Felix, mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 7. § 31), which there is no difliculty in identifying with the unrit-nt name of the renowned EI-Modineh, “ the city," as it is called by emphasis among the disciples of the false prophet. Its ancient namc, Yathrib, still exists in the native geographies and local tra


ditions, which, with the definite article 21 prefixed, is as accurately represented by Lithrippa as the Greek alphabet Would admit. “Medineh is situated on the edge of the great Arabian desert, close to the chain of mountains which traverses that country from north to south, and is a continuation of Libanou. The great plain of Arabia in which it lies is considerably elevated above the level of the sea. It is ten or eleven days distant from Hakka, and has been always considered the principal fortress of the Hedjaz, being surrounded with a stone wall. It is one of the best-built towns in the East, ranking in this respect next to Aleppo, though ruined houses and walls in all parts of the town indicate how far it has fallen from its ancient splendour. It is surrounded on three sides with gardens and plantations, which, on the east and south, extend to the distance of six or eight miles. It: population amountsto 16,000 or 20,000- 10,000 or 12,000 in the town, the remainder in the suburbs." (Burckhardt, Arabia, 321—400 : Bitter, Erdkunde, vol. i. p. l5, ii. pp. 149. &c.) G. W.

LA'l'lUM (1'7 An-rlv'n: EM. and A15. Latinas), was the name given by the Romans to a district or region of Central Italy, situated on the Tyrrheniun sea, between Etruria and Campania.

I. Name.

There can be little doubt that Latiurn meant originally the land of the La'rmr, and that in this, as in almost all other cases in ancient history, the name of the people preceded, instead of being derived from, that of the country. But the ancient Roman writers, with their usual infelicity in all matters of etymology, derived the name of the Latiui from a king of the name of Latinos, while they sought for another origin for the name of Lutium. The common etymology (to which they were obviously led by the quantity of the first syllable) was that which derived it from “ lateof’ and the usual explanation was, that it was so called because Saturn had there lm'u kid from the pursuit of Jupiter. (Virg. Am. viii. 822; Ovid, Fast. i. 238.) The more lr-arucd derivations proposed by Saufcius and Varro, fmm the inhabitants having lived hidden in caves (Saufcius, (1p. Serv. ad Aen. i. 6), or because Latium itself was as it were hidden by the Apennines (Varr. 0]). SUN). ad Aen. viii. 322), are certainly not more sotisfactory. The form of the name of Latium would at first load to the supposition that the ethnic Latini was derived from it; but the same remark applies to the case of b‘amnium and the Samnitcs, where we know that the people, being a race of foreign settlers, must have given their name to the country, and not the converse. Probably Latini is only a lengthened form of the name, which was originally Lalii or Latvi; for the connection which has been generally recognised between Latiui and Lavinium, Latinos and Lavinns. seems to point to the existence of an old form, Latvinus. (Dtlllllldrnll. l'arronfluuu, p. 6; Niebuhr, V.u. L. Krmdc, p. 352.) Varro himself seems to regard the name of Latinm as derived from that of Latinos (LL. v. §32); and that it was generally regarded as equivalent to " the land of the Latins" is sufficiently proved by the foot that the Greeks always rendered it by i; Aa'rirm, or 1‘; Aa-rlvwv 7?]. The name of Adnor is found only in Greek writers of a late period, who borrowed it directly from the Romans. (Appian, B. C. ii. 26; Herodian, i. 16.) From the same cause it must have proceeded that when the Latini mood to have any national existence, the name of Latium is still not unfiequently used, as equivalent to “ nomen Latinum," to designate the whole body of those who possessed the rights of Latins, and were therefore still called Lutini, though no longer in a national sense.

The snegestion of a modern writer (Abeken, Mimi Ilalien. p. 42) that Latinm is derived from “lotus,” broad, and means the broad plain or expanse of the Campagna (like Cumpania from “ Campus "). appears to be untenable, on account of the difference in the quantity of the first. syllable, notwithstanding the analogy of IMri/r, which has the first syllable short.

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The name of Latium was applied at different periods in a very difi'erent extent and signification. Originally, usalrendy pointed out,it meant the land of the Latini; and as long as that people retained their independent national existence, the name of Latiuln could only be applied to the territory POSSPSSQJ by them, exclusive of that of the Hernici, Aequians, V olsciuns, &c., who were at that period independent and often hostile nations. It. was not till these separate nationalities had been merged into the common condition of subjects and citizens of Home that the nmne of Latium came to be extended to all the territory which they had previously occupied; and was thus applied, that in common parlance, and afterwards in oliicial usage, to the whole region from the borders of Etruria to those of Cumpnnia, or flow the Tiber to the Liris. Hence we must carefully distinguish between Lntium in the original sense of the name, in which alone it occurs throughout the early Roman history, and Latium in this later or geographical sense; and it will be necessary here to treat of the two quite separately. The period at which the latter usage of the name came into vogue we have no means of determining: we know only that it was fully established before the time of Angustus,and is recognised by all the geographers. (Strub. v. pp. 228, 23l; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Ptol. iii. 1. 5, 6.) Pliny designates the original Latium, or Latium properly so called, as Latium Antiquum, to which he opposes the newly added portions, as Latium Adjectum. It may, however, be doubted whether these appellations were ever adopted in common use, though convenient as geographical distinctions.

l. LATIUM Anrrquum, or Latium in the original and historical sense, was a country of small extent, bounded by the Tiber on the N., by the Apennincs on the E., and by the Tyrrhenian sea on the W.; while on the S. its limits were not defined by any natural boundaries, and appear to have fluctuated considerably at different periods. Pliny defines it as extending from the mouth of the Tiber to the Circeian promontory, a statement confirmed by Strabo (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Strab.v. p. 231); and we have other authority also for the fact that at an early period all the tract of marshy plain, known as the Pontine Marshes or “ Pumptinus Ager," extending from Velitrae and Antium to Circeii. was inhabited by Latins, and regarded as a part of Lntium. (Cato, ap. Priscian. v. p. 668.) Even of the adjoining mountain tract, subsequently occupied by the Volscians, a part at least must have been originally Latin, for Corn, Norbn, and Setia were all of them Latin citics (Diouysv. 61),—-though, at a somewhat later period, not only had these towns, as well as the plain bc~ neath, fallen into the hands of the Volscions, but


that people had made themselves masters of Antium and Velitrae, which are in consequence repeatedly called Volsciau cities. The manner in which the early Roman history has been distorted by poetical legends and the exaggerations of national vanity renders it very diflicult to trace the course of these changes, and the alterations in the frontiers consequent upon the alternate progress of the Volscian and the Roman arms. But there seems no nelson to doubt the fact that such changes repeatedly took place, and that we may thus explain the apparent inconsistency of ancient historians in calling the same places at one time Volscian, at another Latin, cities. We may also clearly discern two different. periods, during the first of which the Volscian arms were gradually gaining upon those of the Latins. and extending their dominion over cities of Latin origin; while, in the second, the Volscians were in their tum giving way before the preponderating power of Rome. The Gaulish invasion (11.0. 390) may be taken, approximately at least, as the turning point between the two periods.

The case appears to have been somewhat similar, though to a less degree, on the northern frontier, where the Latins udjoined the Sabines. Here, also. we find the some places at different times, and by different authors, termed sometimes Latin and sometimes Suhine, cities; and though in some of those cases the discrepancy may have arisen from mere inadvertent-e or error, it. is probable that in some instances both statements are equally correct, but refer to difl‘erent periods. The circumstance that the Anio was fixed by Augustus as the boundary of the First Region seems to have soon led to the notion that it was the northern limit of Latium also; and hence all the towns beyond it were regarded as Sabine, though several of them were, according to the general tradition of earlier times, originally Latin cities. Such was the confusion resulting from this cause that Piny in one passage enumerates Nomentum, Fidenae, and even Tibur among the Sabine towns, while he elsewhere mentions the two fumier as Latin cities,—and the Latin origin of Tibur is too well established to admit of a doubt. (Plin. iii. 5. s.9, 12. s. 17.)

In the absence of natural boundaries it is only by means of the names of the towns that we can trace the extent of Latium; and here fortunately the lists that have been transmitted to us by Dionysius and Pliny, as well as those of the colonies of Alba, aflind us material assistance. The latter, indeed, cannot. be regarded as of historical value, but they were unquestionably meant to represent the fact, with which their authors were probably well acquainted, that the places there enumerated were properly Latin cities, and not of Sabine or Volsciau origin. Taking these authorities for our guides, we may trace the limits of ancient Latinm as follows:—l. From the mouth of the Tiber to the confluence of the Anio, the former river constituted the bolmdary between Latinm and Etruria. The Romans, indeed, from an early period, extended their territory beyond the Tiber, and held the Janiculum and Campus Varicanus on its right bank, as well as the so-callcd Septem Pagi, which they wrested from the Veientes; and it is probable that the Etruscana, on the other hand, had at one period extended their power over It part of the district on the left bank of the Tiber, but that river nevertheless constituted the generally recognised geographical limit between Etruria and Lalium. 2. North of the Anio the Latin territory

comprised Fidenae, Crustumerium, and Nomentum, all of which are clearly established as Latin towns, while Eretum, only 3 miles from Nomentnm, is equally well made out to be of Sabine origin. This line of demarcation is confimied by Strabo, who speaks of the Sabines as extending from the Tiber and Nmnenlmn to the Vestini. (Strab. v. p. 228.) From Nomentnm to Tihur the frontier cannotbe traced with accuracy, from our uncertainty as to the position of several of the towns in this part of Lntium—Corniculum, Medullia, Camcria, and Ameriola; but we may feel assured that it comprised the outlying group of the Montes Corniculani (Mte. S. Angela and Jlonticelli), and from thence stretched new to the foot of Monte Gennaro (Mons Lucretilis), around the lower slopes of which are the ruins or sites of more than one ancient city. Probably the whole of this face of the mountains, fronting the plain of the Cumpagna, was always regarded as belonging to Latium, though the inner valleys and reverse of the same range were inhabited by the Sabincs. Tibur itself was unquestionably Latin, though how far its territory extended into the interior of the mountains is difiicult to determine. But if Empulum and Sassula (two of its dependent towns) be correctly placed at Ampigh'one and near Siciliano, it must have comprised a considerable tract of the mountain country on the left bank of the Anio. Varia, on the other hand, and the valley of the Digentia, were unquestionably Sabine. 3. Returning to the Anio at Tibur, the whole of the W. front of the range of the Apennines from thence to Praeneste (I’alestrr'ruz) was certainly Latin ; but. the limits which separated the Latins from the Aequians are very difiicult to determine. We know that Bola, Pedum, Tolerium, and Vitellia, all of which were situated in this neighbuurhood, were Latin cities; though, from their proximity to the frontier, several of them fell at one time or other into the hands of tho Aeqnians; in like manner we cannot doubt that the whole group of the Alban Hills. including the range of Mount Algidus, was included in the original Latium, though the Aequians at one time were able to occupy the heights of Algidus at the opening of almost every campaign. anmontone, whether it represent Tolerium or Vitellia, must have been about the most advanced point of the Latin frontier on this side. 4. The Volscian frontier, as already observed, appears to have undergone much fluctuation. On the one hand, we find, in the list of the cities forming the Latin League, as given by Dionysius (v. 6]), not only Velitrae, which at a later period is called a Volscian city, but Cora, Norba, and Setia, all of which were situated on the western front of the range of mountains which formed in later times the stronghold of the Volscian nation; but looking on the l’ontine Marshes. Even as late as the outbreak of the gmt Latin War, 8. c. 340. we find L. Annius of Solid, and L. Nnmicius of Circeii, holding the chief magistracy among the Latins, from whom at the same time Livy expressly distinguishes the Volscians (Liv. viii. 3). These statements, combined with those of Pliny and Stmbo already cited, seem to leave no doubt that Latium was properly regarded as extending as faras Ciroeii and the promontory of the same name, and comprising the whole plain of the l’ontine Marshes, as well as the towns of Com, Norba, and Setirt, on the E. side of that plain. On the other hand, Tarracina (or Anxnr) and Privernurn were certainly Volscian cities; and there can


be no doubt. that during the period of the Volsciau

power they had wrestcd a great part of the tract just described from the dominion of the Latins. Antium, which for some reason or other did not form a member of the Latin League, was from an early period a Volscinn city, and became one of the chief strongholds of that people during the fifth century it. c.

The extent of Latium Antiqnum, as thus limited, was far from considerable; the coast-line, from the mouth of the Tiber to the Circeian promontory, does not exceed 52 geographical or 65 Roman miles (Pliny erroneously calls it only 50 Roman miles); while the greatest length, from the Circeian promontory to the Sabine frontier, near Eretum, is little more than 70 Roman miles; and its breadth, from the mouth of the Tiber to the Sabine frontier, is just about 30 Roman miles, or 240 stadia, as correctly stated by Dionysius on the authority of Cato. (Dionys. ii. 49.)

2. Larruu Novum. The boundaries of Latium in the enlarged or geographical sense of the name are much more easily determined. The term, as thus employed, comprehended, besides the original territory of the Latins, that of the Aequians, the Heniicans, the Volscians, and the Auruncans or Ausoniahs. lts northern frontiers thus remained unchanged, while on the E. and S. it was extended so as to border on the lilarsi.the Sarnnites, and Campania. Some confusion is nevertheless created by the new line of demarcation established by Augustus, who, while he constituted the first division of ltaly out of Latium in this wider sense together with Campania, excluded from it the part of the old Latin territory N. of the Anio, adjoining the Sabines, as well as a part of that of the Aequians or Aequiculani, including Carseoli and the valley of the Term. The upper valley of the Anio about Subiaco, on the other hand, together with the mountainous district extending from thence to the valley of the Sacco, constituting the chief abode of the Aequi during their wars with Home, was wholly comprised in the newly extended Lutium. To this was added the mountain district of the Hernici, extending nearly to the valley of the Liris, as well as that of the \‘olsci, who occupied the country for a considerable extent on both sides of the Liris, including thr-v mountain district. around Arpinuni and Atina, where they bordered on the territory of the Samnites. The limits of Latium towards the S., where its frontiers adjoined those of Campania, are clearly marked by Strabo, who tells us that Casinurn was the last Latin city on the line of the Via Latina,—Teanum being already in Campania; while on the line of the Via Appia, near the sea-coast, Sinuessa was the frontier town of Latium. (Strab. v. pp. 231, 233, 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) Pliny, in one passage, appears to speak of the Liris as constituting the boundary of this enlarged Latium (lb. 56). while shortly after 59) he terms Sinuessa “oppidum extremnin in adjecto Latio," whence it has been supposed that the boundary of Latium was at first extended only to the Liris, and subsequently carried a step further so as to include Sinussa and its territory. (Cramcr's Italy, vol. ii. p. ll.) But we have no evidence of any such successive stages. Pliny in all probability uses the term “ adjecturn Latium" only as contradistinguished from “ Latium antiqunln;" and the expression in the previous passage, “undo nomen Latii processit ad Lirim amnem,“ need not be construed too strictly. it is certain, at least, that, in the days of Strabo, as well as those of Pliny, Si

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