صور الصفحة
PDF

Roman city of Astoria. in Hispania anrlconensis, admirably situated at the confluence of two tributaries of the Eula, at the foot of the Asturian mountains, commanding and protecting the plain of Leon. As its name implies, it grew out of the station of the new 7th legion, which was raised by the emperor Galba in Hispania. (Dion Cass. iv. 24; Tue. Hist. i. ll, iii. 25; Suet. Galba, 10.) Tacitus calls the legion GALBIANA, to distinguish it from the old LEGIO VII. CLAUDIA, but this appellation is not found on any genuine inscriptions. It appears to have received the appellation of Gamma (respecting the use of which, and GEMELLA, see Caesar B. C. iii. 3) on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions, not improbably the Learn I. GERMANICA. Its full name was VII. GEMINA li‘nux. After serving in Pannonia, and in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespesian in Hispanic Tamconenais, to supply the place of the VI. Victrix and X. Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but which had been withdrawn to Germany. (Tac. Hist. ii. ll, 67, 86, iii. 7, 10, 21—25, iv. 89; Inscr. up. Gruter, p. 245, no. 2.) That its regular winter quarters, under later emperors, were at Leon, we learn from the Itinerary, Ptolemy, and the Notitia Imperii, as well as from a few inscriptions (hluratori, p. 2037, no. 8, A. n. 130; p. 335, nos. 2, 3, A.n. 163; p. 336, no. 3, A. n. 167; Grater, p. 260, no. 1, A. r). 216) ; but there are numerous inscriptions to prove that a strong detachment: of it was stationed at Tarraco, the chief city of the province. (The following are a selection, in order of time :—lei, no. 3496, A. n. 182; no. 4815 ; Grater, p. 865, no. 7.) In the inscriptions the legion has the surnames of P. F. AxronrntAnA, P. F. AutumDRIAXA, and P. F. SEVERIANA ALEXANDRIANA ; and its name occurs in a Greek inscription as AET. Z. AlAt’qa-n (C. I. Vol iii. no. 4022), while another mentions a xrAt’apxov dv 'Itrwavr’q As'yetin/os $54141”. (C. 1. vol. i. no. 1126.) There is an inscription in which is found a “ Tribunus Militum LEG. VII. GEaruun Fnucts IN GaumAnrA," from a comparison of which with two inscriptions found in Germany (Lehne, Schnflen, vol. i. nos. 11, 62; Borghesi, aulle iscr. Ram. del Reno, p. 26), it has been inferred that the legion was employed on an expe~ dition into Gemrany under Alexander Severus, and that this circumstance gave rise to the erroneous designation of I‘spaavud] in the text; of Ptolemy. (Booking, N. D. pt. ii. pp. 1026, seq.; Marquerdt's Becker, 115m. Alterthum. vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 854; Grotefend, in Pauly’s Realencykbplidie, a. v. Legia.)

The station of this legion in Asturia grew into an important city, which resisted the attacks of the Goths till A.r). 586, when it was taken by Leovigildo; and it was One of the few cities which the Goths allowed to retain their fortifications. During the struggle with the Arab invaders, the same fortress, which the Romans had built to protect the plain from the incursions of the mountaineers, became the advanced post; which covered the mountain, as the last refuge of Spanish independence. After yielding to the first assault of the Moors, it was soon recovered, and was restored by Ordorio I. in 850. It. was again taken by Al-Mansur in 996, after a year's siege: but was recovered after AlMausur’s defeat at Calalaflnzor, about A. D. 1000; repeopled by Alonso V., and enlarged by Alonso XL, under whose successor, Don Pedro, it ceased to be

[graphic]

the capital of the kingdom of Leon, by the removal of the court to Seville. The greater portion of the Roman walls may still be traced. (Ford, Handbook q/‘Spat'fl, p. 318.) [l’. 5.]

LEHl, or more fully RAarA'mLmu. a place in the south of Palestine, the name of which is derived from one of Samson's exploits. (.Irulg. xv. 9, 14, 17; comp. Joseph. Ant. v. 8. S; “'iner, Bilrh'sch. Realwfirtcrbach, .1. e.)

LEIMO'NE (Any-6m). the later name of the Homeric Emma ('HAévn), according to Strabo, was a town of Perrhaebia in Thessaly, and was situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, not far from the Titaresius or Eurotas. The Greeks of Elasu'ma report that there are some remains of this city at Srlos. (Horn. II. ii. 739; Strab. ix. p. 440; Staph. B. l. v. 'HMtw-r]; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 345.)

LEINUM (Animal), a town of Sannatia Europnca, which Ptolemy (iii. 5. §29) places on an aflluent of the Borysthenea, but whether on the Berea-ina, or some other, is uncertain. LrAmru (Aeluuw, l'tol. iii. 5. § 12), on the Palus Maeotis, appears to be the same place repeated by an oversight. (Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 5l2.) B. J.]

LElPSYDRIlJM. [Ach, p. 326, b.]

LELAMNO'NIUS SINUS, in Britain,mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3) as lying between the aestuary of the Clots (Clyde) and the Epidian Promontory (Mull of Cavity/re); = Loch F [11 G. 1...]

LELANTUS CAMPUS (1 Afikdvrov new»), a fertile plain in Euboea, between Chalt-is and Erctria, which was an object of frequent contention between those cities. [CHALcra] It was the subject of volcanic action. Strobe relates that on one occasion a torrent of hot mud issued from it; and it contained some warm springs, which were used by the dictator Sulla. The plain was also celebrated for its vineyards; and in it. there were mines of copper andiron. (Strab. i. p. 58, x. p. 44 7, scq.; Hom. Hypnn. in Apoll. 219; Theogn. 888; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 265.) Pliny mentions a river Lchmtus in Euboca, which must. have flowed through this plain, if it really existed. (Plin. iv. 12. a. 21.)

LE'LEGES (Ac'As'ycs). an ancient race which was spread over Greece, the adjoining islands, and the Asiatic coast, before the Hellenes. They were so widely difl‘used that we must either suppose that their name was descriptive, and applied to several difi‘erent tribes, or that it. was the name of a single tribe and was afterwards extended to others. Strnbo (vii. p. 322) regarded them as a mixed race, and was disposed to believe that their name had reference to this (-rb a'vAAe'K-rovs 1970:4111“). They may probably be looked upon, like the Pelasgians and the other early inhabitants of Greece, as members of the great Indo—Enropmn race, who became gradually incorporated with the Helleues, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.

The most distinct statement of ancient writers on the origin of the ‘Leleges is that; of Herodotus, who says that the name of Lt-leges was the ancient name of the Car-ians (Herod. i. 171). A later Greek writer considered the Leleges as standing in the same relation to the Corinna as the Helots to the Lacedaemonians and the Penestae to the Thessaliaus. (Athcn. vi. p. 271.) In Homer both Leleges and Car-inns appear as equals, and as auxiliaries of the Trojans. (1 l. x. 428.) The Leleges are ruled bv

[ocr errors]

town called Pcdnsus at the foot of Mount Ida. (II. xxi. 86.) Strabo relates that Leleges and Carians once occupied the whole of Ionia, and that in the Mileaian territory and in all Carin tombs and forts of the Lclcges were shown. He further says that the two were so intermingled that they were frequently regarded as the same people. (Strab. vii. p. 321, xiii. p. 61 I.) It would therefore appear that there was some close connection between the Lelcgcs and Carians, though they were probably different peoples. The Lclcgcs seem at one time to have occupied a considerable part of the western coast of Asia. Minor. They were the earliest known inhabitants of Samoa. (Athen. xv. p. 672.) The connection of the Lelegcs and the Carians was probably the foundation of the Megarian tradition, that in the twelfth generation after Car, Lelex came over from Egypt to Megara, and gave his name to the people (Pans. i. 39. § 6) ; but their Egyptian origin was evidently an invention of later times, when it became the fashion to derive the civilisation of Greece from that of Egypt. A grandson of this Lolex is said to have led a colony of Megarian Lclcges into Messeniu, where they founded Pylus, and remained until they were driven out by Neleus and the Pelasgians from Iolcoe; whereupon they took possc§ion of Pylus in Elis. (Paus.v. 36. § 1.) The Lacedacrnonian traditions, on the other hand, represented the Leleges as the autochthons of Laconia ; they spoke of Lelex as the first native of the soil, from whom the people were called Lclegcs and the land Lclcgia ; and the son of this Lelcx is said to have been the first king of Messenin. (Pans. iii. 1. 1, iv. 1. §§ l, 5.) Aristotle seems to have regarded Leucadia, or the western parts of Acarnania, as the original seats of the Lelcges ; for, according to this writer, Lelcx was the autochthon of Leucudia, and from him were descended the T eleboans, the ancient inhabitants of the Tsphian islands. He also regarded them as the same people as the Locrians, in which he appears to have followed the authority of Hesiod, who spoke of them as the subjects of Locrus, and as produced from the stones with which Dcucalion repeopled the earth after the deluge. (Strab. vii. pp. 321, 322.) Hence all the inhabitants of Mount Parnassus, Loci-inns, Phocians, Boeotirrns, and others, are sometimes described as Lelcgcs. (Comp. Dionys. Hal. i. 17.) (See Thirlwall. llr'at. of Greece, vol. i. p. 42, seq.)

LEMANIS PORTUS (Kawhs Midi”, Ptol. ii. 3. § 4), one of the chief seaports of Britain, situated in the territories of the Cantii; the site near Lymne, in Kent. The road from Durovernum to l'ortus Lcmanis (ltin. Anton. iv.) is extant nearly its entire length, and kflown by the name of Stone Street.

The harbour or port is no longer to be traced, owing to the silting up of the sea; but it must have boon situated opposite to West Hylhe and Lymne. The remains of the castrum, called Stuy‘ull Castle, to the west of West [lg/tire, and below Lymne, indimte the quarters of the Turnacensian soldiers stationed there in defence‘of the Littus Saxonicum. (Not. Dig.) Recent discoveries have shown that a body of marines (Classiarii Britannici) were also located at the Portus Lemunis, and at Dubris (Dover). An altar was also found, recording the name of a prefect of the. British fleet. (Report on Excavations mmle at Lymne.) The Portus Lomanis is laid down in the Peutingerian Tables, and it is mentioned by the anonymous Geographer of tar-onus.

[graphic]

The Roman station was situated on the slope of a hill. Like that of Richborouyh (Rutnpiae), it was walled on three sides only; the side facing the sea being snfiicicntly defended by nature in a stcep bank, such as we see at other Roman castra where the engineers have availed themselves of a natural defence to save the expense and labour of building walls. The fortress enclosed about 10 acres. The walls, in part only now standing, were upwards of 20 ft. high, and about 10 ft. thick; they were further strengthened by semicircular solid towers. The principal entrance was on the cast, facing the site of the village of Walt Hytlre. It was supported by two smaller towers, and, as recent excavations prove, by other constructions of great strength. Opposite to this, on the west, was a postcm gate, of narrow dimensions. At some remote period the cast wu shattered by a land-slip, and the lower part was carried away, and separated entirely from the upper wall, which alone stands in its original position. To this cause is to be ascribed the present disjointed and shattered condition of the lower part. Parts of the wall and the great gateway were completely buried. The excavations alluded to brought them to light, and enabled a plan to be made. Within the area were discovered the walls of one of the barracks, and a large house with several rooms heated by a hypocaust. [G. R. 5.]

LEMANUS or LEMANNUS LACUS (Aenaivus, Aeudy” Aipwy: Lemon Lake or Lake of Geneva). Caesar says (B. G. i. 8) that he drew his rampart against the llclvetii “ from the Lucus Lemannua, which flows into the Rhone, as far as the Juraz" a form of expression which some of the commentators have found fault with and altered without any reason. The name Aure’w; Ail-um in Ptolemy‘s text (ii. 10. § 2) is merely a copyist'e error. In the Antonino ltin. the name Lausonius Lacns occurs; and in the Table, Losannensis Locum Mela (ii. 5), who supposes the Rhodanus to rise not far from the sources of the Rhenus and the Ister, says that, “ after being received in the Lemannus Lacus, the river maintains its current, and flowing entire through it, runs out as large as it came in." Stnrbo (p. 27 I) has a remnrktothesume purpose, and Pliny (ii. 103), and Ammianus Marcellinus (xv. 11). This is not the fact, as we may readily suppose, though the current of the Rhone is perceptible for some distance after the river has entered the east end of the lake of Geneva. Ausonius (De Clar. Urb. Narbo) makes the lake the chief source of the Rhodanus:—

Qua rapitur praeceps Rhodanus genitore Lemanno;

but this poetical embellishmcnt needs no remark.

The Lake of Geneva is an immense hollow filled by the Rhone and some smaller streams. and is properly described under another title. [RIIODANUS-1 [G. L.]

LEMA'VI. [Curr/teens]

LEMlNCUM. in Gallia Narbonensis, is placed in the Table and the Antonine ltin. on a road from the Alpis Graia (Lillie St. Bernard) to Vienna ( Vienna). Lemincum is Lcmefla, near Chamber-y. and there is also, according to some authorities, a Mont Leminc. The next station to Lemincum on the road to Vienna is Labiscum. [Lanrscum] [G. L.]

LEMNOS (Afip-vor: Elli. Aimmos), one of the larger islands in tho Aegaean sea, situated nearly midway between Mount Athos and the llellcspont. According to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 23), it lay 22 milcs SW. of lmbros, and 87 miles SE. of Athos; but the latter is nearly double the true distance. Several ancient writers, however, state that Mount Athos cast its shadow upon the island. (Soph. up. Schol. ad T/teocr. vi. 76; 1’lin.l. c.) Pliny also relates that Lemnos is 112 miles in circuit, which is perhaps not far from the truth, if we reckon all the windings of the coast. Its area is nearly 150 square miles. It is of an irregular quadrilateral shape, being nearly divided into two peninsulas by tu‘odcep bays, Port Paradise on the N., and Port St. Antony on the S. The latter is a large and convenient harbour. On the eastern side of the island is a bold rock projecting into the sea, called by Aesehylus 'Eppaiav AE'I’G! Anavou, in his description of tile beacon fires between Mount Ida and Mycenae, announcing the capture of Troy. (Aesch. Agnm. 283; comp. Soph. Pltiloct. 1459.) Hills, but of no great height, cover two-thirds of the island; they are barren and rocky, and there are very few trees, except in some of the narrow valleys. The whole island bmrs the strongest marks of the ellects of volcanic fire; the rocks, in many places, are like the burnt and vitrified scoria of furnaces. Hence we may account for its connection with Hephaestus, who, when hurled from heaven by Zeus, is said to have fallen upon Lemnos. (Hem. H. i. 594.) The island was therefore sacred to Hephaestus (Nicandr. Tiler. 458; Ov. Fast. iii. 82), who was frequently called the Lemnian god. (0v. Met. iv. 185; Virg. Am. viii. 454.) From its volcanic appearance it derived its name of Aethaleia (Aiddlteta, Polyb. ap. Slt'ph. B., and Etym. M. s. o. Aidan). It was also related that from one of its mountains, called Mosvcnws (Monoxltos), file was seen to blaze forth. (Antimaeh. ap. Sclzol. ad Nicandr. Titer. 472; Lycophr. 227; Hesych. 0.1).) In a village in the island, named Charon-s, there is a hot-spring, called Thermia, where a commodious bath has been built, with alodging-house for strangers,who frequent it for its supposed medicinal qualities. The name of Lemnos is said to have been derived from th name of the Great Goddess, who was called Lemnos y the original inhabitants of the island. (Hecat. ap. Step/t. B. s. v.)

The earliest inhabitants of Lemnos, according to Homer, were the SINTIES (firms). at Thracian tribe; 8. name, however, which probably only signifies robbers (from vivoaat). (Hem. 1!. i. 594, 0d. viii. 294; Strab. vii. p. 331, x. p. 457, xii. p. 549.) When the Argonauts landed at Leninos, they are said to have found it inhabited only by women. who had murdered all their husbands, and had chosen as their queen Hypsipyle, the daughter of Thoas, the former King of the island. [See Diet. of Bioyr. art. HYPSIPYLEJ Some of the Argonauts settled here, and became by the Lemnian women the fathers of the MINYAE (thiau), the lsterinhabitants of the island. The Minyae were driven out of the island by the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians, who had been expelled from Attica. (Herod. iv. 145, Vi. 137 ; Apoll. Bhod. i. 608, seq , and Schol. ; Apollod. i. 9. § 17, iii. 6. it is also related that these Pelas< pians, out of revenge, made a descent upon the coast of Attica during the festival of Artemis at Brauron, and carried off some Athenian women, whom they made their eoncubines; but, as the children of these women despised their half-brot hers born of Pelasgian women, the Pelascinns murdered both them and their Athenian mothers. In consequence of this atrocity, and of the former murder of the Lemninu husbands by their wives, “ Lcmnisn Deeds" (A'l'ypvm

[graphic]

(pr/a) became a proverb throughout Greece for all atrocious acts. (Herod. vi. 128; Eustath. all/L p. 158. 11, ad Dionys. Per. 347; Zenob. iv. 91.) Lemma continued to be inhabited by Pclnsgisns, when it was conquered by Otanes, one of the generals of Darius Hystaspis (Herod. v. 26); but. Miltiades delivered it front the Persians, and made it subject to Athens, in whose power it remained for a long time. (Herod. vi. 137; Thue. iv. 28, vii. 57.) In fact, it was always regarded as an Athenian possession, and accordingly the peace of Antalcidas, which declared the independence of all the Grecian states, nevertheless allowed the Athenians to retain possession of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyrns. (Xen. IIt'”. iv. 8. § 15, v. 1. §8l.) At a later period Lemuos passed into the hands of the Macedonians, but it, was restored to the Athenians by the Romans. (l‘olyb. xxx. 18.)

In the earliest times, Lemnos appears to have contained only one town, which bore the same name as the island (Hem. IL xiv. 230); but at a later period we find two towns, lilyrina and llephnestias. MYRINA (MII'PH'G: Eth. Mupwaior) stood on the western side of the island, as we may infer from the ‘ statement of Pliny, that the shadow of Mt. Athos was visible in the forum of the city at the time of the summer solstice. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Herod. vi. 140; Steph. B. I. 0.; Ptol. iii. 13. § 4.) On its site stands the modern Kastro, which is still the chief town in the place. In contains about 2000 inhabitants; and its little port. is defended by a pier, and commanded by a ruinous mediaeval fortress on the overhanging rocks. HEPHAESTIAQ, or Hy.PHAESTIA ('Htpaur-rias, 'Hpaucr'rlu: I'll/z. 'Htpcumuses), was situated in the northern part of the island. (Herod, Plin., Ptol. ll. 00.; Stepb. 13.3. 1:.) There are coins of Hephaestia (see below), but none of Myrina, and none bearing the name of the island. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 51.)

According to Pliny (xxxvi. 13. s. 19) Lemma had a. celebrated labyrinth, supported by 150 columns, and with gates so well poised, that a. child could open them. Pliny adds, that there were still traces of it in his time. Dr. Hunt, who visited the island in 1801, attempted to find out the ruins of this labyrinth, and was directed to a snbterraneous staircase in an uninhabited part of the island, near a bay, called Porniah. He hero found extensive ruins of an ancient and strong building that seemed to have had a ditch round it communicating with the sea. “ The edifices have covered about 10 acres of ground: there are found:tions of an amazing number of small buildings within the outer wall, each about seven feet square. The walls towards the sea are strong, and composed of large square blocks of stone. On an elevated spot of ground in one comer of the area, we found a subtermneeus staircase, and, after lighting our tapers, we went down into it. The entrance was difiieult: it consisted of 51 steps, and about every twelfth one was of marble, the others of common stone. At. the bottom is a small chamber with a well in it, by which probably the garrison was supplied: a censer, a lamp, and a few matches, were lying in a corner, for the use of the Greek Christians, who call this well an A'yluopm, or lloly Fountain, and the ruins about it Panagia Coceipe’e. The peasants in the neighbourhood had no knowledge of any sculpture, or statues, or medals having ever been found there.” It does not appear, however, that these ruins have any relation to the labyrinth

mentioned by Pliny; and Dr. Hunt thinks that they are probably those of the citadel of llephacstias.

The chief production of the island, was a red earth called terra Lemnia or sigillata, which was employed by the ancient physicians as a remedy for wounds and the bites of serpents; and which is still much valued by the Turks and Greeks for its supposed medicinal virtues. It is dug out of a hill, made into small balLs. and stamped with a seal containing Arabic characters.

The ordinary modern name of the island, is Stalimene (ch 1dr Afipov), though it is also called by its ancient name.

There were several small islands near Lemnos, of which the most celebrated was CHRYSF.‘ (Xpwrf'), where Philoctetes was said to have been abandoned by the Greeks. According to l’ausanias, this island was afterwards swallowed up by the sea, and another appeared in its stead, to which the name of Hiera was given. (Eustath ad Hum. 11. ii. p. 330; Appian. Mithr. 77; Pans. viii. 33.

(Rhode, Res Lemm'cae, Vratisl. 1829; Hunt, in Walpole's Travels, p. 54, seq.)

[graphic][ocr errors]

LEMOVICES(Ae/46€txes,Strab. p.190; Acaoulnm, Ptol. ii. 7. § 10), a Gallic people who were bounded by the Arvemi on the east, the Bitnrigcs Cubi and the Pictoncs on the north, and the Sent/ones on the West. Their chief town was Augustoritum or Linmgea. [Auous'roarrusn] The diocese of Limoges, comprehending the diocese of Tulle, which has been separated from it, represents the limits of the Lemovices ; but the diocese of Limoges extends somewhat beyond the limits of the old province of Limousin, which derives its name from the Lemoviccs. and into that province which was called La )lal-r/te. An inscription in Gruter,fonnd at Rancon, in the diocese of Limoges, proves that there was included in the territory of the Lemovices a pcoplc named Andccamulenscs; and another Gallic inscription shows that Mars was called Cumulus. Camulo;r-nus was a Gallic name. (Cacs. B. G. vii. 59, 6‘2.)

Caesar (B. G. vii. 4) enumerates the Lemovices among the peoples whom Yen-ingctorix stirred up against the Romans in a. c. 52: they are placed in the text between the Aulerci and Andes. The Lemovices sent 10,000 men to assist their countrymen at the siege of Alesia (B. G. vii. 75) But in the same chapter (vii. 75) the Lemovices are again mentioned: “universis civitatibus qnae Oceanum attingunt quaeqne eorum consuetudinc Armoricae appellantur, qno stint in numcro Uuriosolites, Redoncs. Ambibari, Caletes, Osismi, Lcmovices, Veneti, Unelli. sex millia." Here the Lemovices are placed in a different position, and are one of the Armorie States. [ARMORICAE CIVITATER] Some critics erase the name Lemovices from Caesar's text; but there is good authority for it. Davis remarks (Caea. Oudendorp, i. p. 427), that all the hiss. (known to him) have the reading Lemnvices, and that it occurs also in the Greek translation. He also obserwm, that as there were three Aulerci [AL'IJCRCI]. so there might be two Lemovices; and

[graphic]

we may add that there were two Bitnriges, Bitariges Cubi and Bituriges Vivisci: and Volcae Arecomici and Volcae 'l'ectosnges. If the text of Caesar then is right, there were Armorie Lemovices as well as the Lemovices of the Limousin ; and we must either keep the name as it is, or erase it. The emendation of some critics, adopted by D'Anville, rests on no foundation. Walckenaer finds in the district which he assigns to the Lemoviees Armoricani, a place named La Limousiniére, in the arrondissement of Nantes, between Machccoul, Nantes and SaintLéger; and he considers this an additional proof in favour of a conjecture about the text of Ptolemy in the matter of the Lemovices; as to which conjecture his own remarks may be read. (Géog. &c. des Gaules, vol. i. p. 369.) [G. L.]

LEMO'VII, a German tribe, mentioned by Tacitus (Germ. 43) as living with the Rngii on the coast of the Ocean, that is, the Baltic Sea. Tacitus men_ tions three peculiarities of this and the other triba in those districts (the modern Pmnnmrum'u),— their round shields, short swords, and obedience towards their chiefs. (Comp. Zeuss, die Denise/ten, p. 155.) [L. s]

LE'NTIA (Line), a small place in Noricum on the Danube, on the road from Lanreacnm. According to the Notitia Imperii, from which alone we learn anything about this place, it appears that a prefect of the Logic ltalica, and a body of horse archers, were stationed there. (Comp. Grater, lmcript. p. 541. 10 ; Muchar, Noricum, i. p.

4.) [L. S.]

LENTIENSES, the southernmost branch of the Alemanni, which occupied both the northern and southern borders of the Lacns Brigantinns. They made repeated inroads into the province of Rhaetia, but were defeated by the emperor Constantlns. (Amm. Marc. xv. 4, mi. 10; Zeuss, die Deutsclten, p. 309, toll.) [L. 8.]

LE’NTULAE or LE’NTOLAE, a place in Upper Pannonia, on the principal highroad leading through that country, a d 32 Roman miles to the south-east of Jovin. (It. Ant. p. 130; It. Ilieroa. p. 562; Geozr. Rav. iv. 19.) Ptolemy (ii. 15. 9'5) mentions a town Ae'v'roudov in the some neighbourhood, which is perhaps only a slip for Ac'WouAuv. Sonia identify the place with the modern Bertzenlzc, and others with Lc!!iclmn_1/. [L. 8.]

LEO FLUVIL'S. [Imoanas]

LEON (Ar'wv likpa.) l. A point on the S. coast of Crete. now Punta di Lionda. (Ptol. iii. 17.§ 4 ; Hock, Krela, vol. i. pp. 394, MS.) [15. B. J.]

2. A promontory of l-Iuboea, S. of lirctria, on the trek); dK-rfi. (l’tol. iii. 15. § 24.)

3. A place on the E. coast of Sicily, near Symcuse, where both the Athenians and Romans landed when they were going to attack that city. ('l'huc. vi. 97; Lir. xxiv. 39.) [SYRACUSAIL]

Ll-IOXICA. [EDI-ITANI.]

LEONTES (Ae'wros "mo/.011 bread), a river of Phoenicia, placed by l‘tulomy between Beiytus and Sidon (v. 15, p. l3?) ; consistently with which notice Strabo places Lcontnpidis between the same two towns, the distance between which he states at 400 stndia. He mentions no river of this name, but the 'l‘amyrns (6 Taptlpas 10mm), the grove of Aesculnpius, and Lcontopolis, which would doubtless correspond with the Lion river of Ptolemy; for it is obviously an error of Him to place “Leontoa oppidum” between “Berytus and “ l-‘lumen Lycos" (v. 20). Now, as tho 'l‘smyms of Strabo is clearly

identical with Nahr-ed-deur, half way between Beg/nit and Saida, Lion's town and river should be looked for south of this, and north of Sidon. The only stream in this interval is Nahr-eLAu-ly. called also in its upper part Nalu' Bani/c. which Dr. Robinson has shown to be the Bosh-anus Fluvius. [BosTRExue] This, therefore, hinnnert seemed to have sufficient authority for identifying with the Leontcs. But the existence of the Liking—a name supposed to be similar to the Leontes—between Sidou and Tyre, is thought to countenance the conjecture that Ptolemy has misplaced the Leontes, which is in fact identical with the anonymous river which Strnho mentions near Tyre (p. 758), which can be no other than the Liking (Robinson, Bib. Res. vol. iii. pp. 408 —410, and notes). No great reliance, however, can be placed on the similarity of names, as the form Lecmtoc is merely the inflexiou of Ac'wv, which was not likely to be adopted in Arabic. It is far more probable that the classical geographer in this, as in other cases, translated the Semitic name. [See CANIS and Limits] Besides which the Lining does not retain this name to the coast, but is here culled Nahr-el-Kriaimiyeh, the Casimeer of Manndrell (March 20, p. 48; ltelaiid,l‘al<wstina, pp. 290,

l. [G. W.]

LEONTI'NI (Alovrivot: Eth. Aeovrivor: Lentim'), a city of Sicily, situated between Syracuse and Catana, but about eight miles from the seaeoast, near a considerable lake now known as the Logo (14' Lentim'. The name of Leontini is evidently an ethnic form, signifying properly the people rather than the city itself; but it seems to have been the only one in use. and is employed both by Greek and Latin writers (declined as a plural udjoctive'), with the single exception of Ptolemy, who calls the city Adv-rial! or Leontium. (l’tol. iii. 4. § 13.) But it is clear, from the modern form of the name, Lentini, that the form Leontini, which we find universal in writers of the best ages, continued in common use down to a late period. All ancient writers concur in representing Lenntini as a Greek colony, and one of those of Chalcidisn origin, being founded by Chalcidic colonists from Naxos, in the same year with Cutana, and six years after the parent city of Name, 13.0. 730. (Thuc. vi. 3; Scymn. Ch. 283; Diod. xii. 53, xiv. 14.) According to Thucydides, the site had been previously occupied by Siculi, but these were expelled, and the city became essentially a Greek colony. We know little of its early history; but, from the strength of its position and the extreme fertility of its territory (renowned in all ages for its extraordinary richness), it appears to have early attained to great prosperity, and became one of the most considerable cities in the E. of Sicily. The rapidity of its rise is attested by the fact that it was able, in its turn, to found the colony of Euboen (Strsb. vi. p. 272; Scymn. Ch. 287). apparently at a very early period. It is probable, also, that the three Chulcidie cities, Leontini, Naxos, and Catana, from the earliest period adopted the same line of policy, and made common cause against their Dorian neighbours, as we find them constantly doing in inter times.

The government of Leontini was an oligarchy, but it fell at one time, like so many other cities of Sicily, under the yoke of a despot of the name of Panactius, who is said to have been the first instance of the

[graphic][ocr errors]
[graphic]

kind in Sicily. His usurpation is referred by Eusebius to the 43rd Olympiad, or e. c. 608. (AristPvl. v. 10, 12; Euseb. Arm. vol. ii. p. 109.)

Leontini appears to have retained its independence till after B. c. 498, when it fell under the yoke of Hippocrates, tyrant of Gels (Herod. vi. 154): after which it seems to have passed in succession under the authority of Colon and Hieron of Syracuse; as we find that, in n.c. 476, the latter despot, having expelled the inhabitants of Catana and Name from their native cities, which he peopled with new colonists, established the exiles at Leontini, the possession of which they shared with its former citizens. (Died. xi. 49.) We find no special mention of Leontini in the revolutions that followed the death of Hieron ; but. there is no doubt that it regained its independence after the expulsion of Thrasybulus, n. c. 466, and the period which followed was probably that of the greatest prosperity of Leoutini, as well as the other Chalcidic cities of Sicily. (Diod. xi. 72, 76.) But its proximity to Syracuse became the source of fresh troubles to Leontini. In 13.6. 427 the Leontines found themselves engaged in hostilities with their more powerful neighbour, and, being unable to cope single-handed with the Syrasans, they applied for suppo:t not only to their Chalcidic brethren, but to the Athenians also, who sent a fleet of twenty ships to their assistance, under the command of Luehes and Uharoeades. (Thuc. iii. 86 ; Diod. xii. 53 ) The operations of the Athenian fleet under Laches and his successors Pythodorus and Eurymedon were, however, confined to the part of Sicily adjoining the Straits of Messana: the Leontinm received no direct support from them, but, after the war had continued for some years, they were included in the general pacification of Gela, n.c. 424, which for a time secured them in the possession of their independence. (Thuc. iv. 58, 65.) This, however, did not last long: the Syrucusans took advantage of intestine dissensions among the Loontincs, and, by espousing the cause of the oligm‘chy, drove the democratic party into exile, while they adopted the oligarchy and richer closes as b'yracusan citizens. The greater part of the latter body even abandoned their own city, and migrated to Syracuse; but quickly returned, and for a time joined with the exiles in holding it out against the power of the Syracusans. But the Athenians, to whom they again applied, were unable to render them any effectual assistance ; they were a second time expelled, e. c. 422, and Leontini became a mere dependency of Syracuse, though always retaining some importance as a fortress, from the strength of its position. (T huc. v. 4; Diod. xii. 54.)

In a. c. 417 the Leontine exiles are mentioned as joining with the Sages-tans in urging on the Athenian expedition to b'icily (Diod. xii. 83; Pint. Nic. l2); and their restoration was made one of the avowed objects of the enterprise. (Thuc. vi. 60.) But the failure of that expedition left them without any hope of restoration ; and Leontini continued in its subordinate and fallen condition till n.c. 406, when the Syracusons allowed the unfortunate Agrigcntines, after the capture of their own city by the Carthnginisns, to establish themselves at Leontini. The Geioans and Culnarinmns followed their example the next year: the Leontine exiles of Syracuse at the same time took the opportunity to return to their native city, and declare themselves independent, and the treaty of peace concluded by Dionysius with Himilco, in n. c. 405, expressly stipulated for the

« السابقةمتابعة »