« السابقةمتابعة »
the katavothra of the Arcadian valliea. The river win after enters a small lake, a few hundred yards ‘ in circumference, and surrounded with a great variety of aquatic plants; and it then formsamarsh extending to the sea-shore. The lake is now walled in. and the water is diverted into a small stream which turns some mills standing close to the seashore. This lake is evidently the Alcyonian pool of . Pausaniaa; for although he does not say that it is formed by the river Amymone, there can he no doubt of the fact. The lake answers exactly to the description of Pausanias, with the exception of being' larger; and the tale of its being unfathomable is still related by the millers in the neighbourhood. Pans-"mitts is the only writer who calls this lake the Aleyonian pool; other writers gave it the name of Lemaean; and the river Amytuone, by which it is formed, is likewise natned Lerna. The fountain of Amphiarans can no longer be identified, probably in coiimluence of the enlargement of the lake. The station of the hydra was under a palm-tree at the source of the Atnymone; and the numerous heads of the water-snake may perhaps have been suggested by the numerous sources of this river. Amymone is frequently mentioned by the poets. It is said to have derived its name from one of the daughters of Danaus. who was beloved by Poseidon; and the river gushed forth when the nymph drew out of the rock the trident of the god. (Hygin. Fab. 169.) Hence Euripides (Plioen. 188) speaks of I‘lmretfia’wm “Auuna’ma Mara. (Comp. Propert. ii. 26, 47; Ov. Met. ii. 240.)
(Dodwell, Cltuaicnl Tour, voL ii. p. 225; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 472. seq; Boblaye, He'chercltu, dc. p. 47; Mane, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 194; Ross, Reisen im Pelopotmes, p. 150; Curtius, l’eloponnesoa, vol. ii. p. 368, seq.)
LEROS (As'pos: Eth. As'ptos: Lerol), a small island of the Aegean, and belonging to the scattered islands called Sporades. It is situated opposite the Sinus laasius, on the north of Calymna, and on the south of Lepsia, at a distance of 320 stadia from Cos and 350 from lllyndua. (Slzuliam. Mar. Maym', §§ 246, 250, 252.) According to a statement of Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Leros was, like lcaros,colonised hyMilesians. (Strab.aiv.,p.635.) Thiswusprohublydone in consequence of a suggestionof Hecataeus; for on the breaking out of the revolt of the lonians against Persia, he advised his countrymen to erect a fortress in the island, and make it the centre of their operations, if they should be driven from Miletus. (Herod. v. 125; comp. Thucyd. viii. 27.) Before its occupation by the Milesians, it was probath inhabited by Dorians. The inhabitants of Leros were notorious in antiquity for their ill nature, whence l'hocylides sang of them :—
(Strab. x. p. 487, &c.) The town of Leros was situated on the west of the modern town, on the south side of the bay, and on the slope of a hill; in this locality, at least, distinct traces of a town have been discovered by Ross. (Reism auf (L Griech. Imeln, ii. p. H9.) The plan of Hecataeus to fortify Leros does not seem to have been carried into efi‘ect. Leros never was an independent community, but was governed by Miletus. as we must infer from inscriptions. which also show that Milcsians continued to inhabit the island as late as the time of the Romans.
Leroa contained a sanctuary of Artemis Parthenos,
in which, according to mythology, the sisters of liltrhmgcr were tmn>formed into guinea fowls (yeAsa-ypibes; Anton. Lib. 2; comp. Ov. Met. viii. 533, &c.), whence these birds were always kept in the sanctuary of the goddess. (Athcn. xiv. p. 655.) In a valley, about ten minutes' walk from the sea, a small convent still bears the name of Partheni, and at a little distance from it there are the ruins of an
. ancient Christian church, evidently built upon some
ancient foundation, which seems to have been that of the templeof Artemis Parthenos. “Thissmall island," says Ross, “though envied on account of its fertility, its smiling valleys, and its excellent harbours, is nevertheless scomed by its neighbours, who charL'e its inhabitants with niggmtlliness" (l. c. p. 122; comp. Blicklt, C0171. lmcrlpt. n. 2263: Ross, Inscrt'pt. ined. ii. 188.) [L. 8.]
Ll-ISBOS (Ae'trgos: Elli. and Adj. Aéoé’tor, Ae'ogurds, Aea€uurdt, Lesbius, Lesbicus, Lesbiacus: Aea'gis, Awgtds, Lesbis, Lesbias: in the middle ages it was named Mitylene, from its principal city : Geog. Rav. v. 21 : Suidas. s. c. ; Hicrocl. p. 686; Eustath. ad II. it. 129, 011. iii. 170: hence it is called by the modern Greeks Mitylen or Metelino, and by the Turks .lledilli or illedellu-Adaan'.) Like several other islands of the Aegean, Lesboe is said by Strabo, Pliny and others to have had various other names, lssa, Himerte, Lasia, I’elasgia, Aegira. Aetltiope, and lllacaria. (Strab. i. p. 160, v. p. 128; Plin. v.31 (39); Diod. iii. 55, v.81.)
Leshos is situated otl‘ the coast of Mysia, exactly opposite the opening of the gulf of Adramyttium. Its northern part is separated from the mainland near Asses [Assos] by a channel about 7 miles broad; and the distance between the south-eastem extremity and the islands of Arginusae [AROINUSAE] is about the same. Strabo reckons the breadth of the fonner strait at 60 stadia, and Pliny at 7 miles: for the latter strait see Strab. xiii. pp. 616, 617, and Ken. l/cll. i. 6. 15—28. The island lies between the parallels of 38° 58' and 39° 24'. Pliny states the circumference as l68 miles, Strabo as 1100 stadia. According to Choiscul-Gouffier, the latter estimate is rather too great. Scylax (p. 56) assigns to Lcsbos the seventh rank in size among the islands of the Mediterranean sea.
In shape Leshos may be roughly described as a triangle, the sides of which face respectively the NW., the N11, and the SW. The northern point is the promontory of Argennum, the western is that of Sigrium (still called Cape Sign) the south-eastern is that of Males (now called Zciloun Bom‘oun or Caps 8!. diary). But though this description of the island as triangular is generally comet, it- must be noticed that it is penetrated far into the interior by two gulfs, or sea-locks as they may properly be called, on the south- western side. One of these is Port Hiero or Part Olivier, “one of the best. harbours of the Archipelago," opening from the sea about 4 miles to the westward of Cape Malea, and extending about 8 miles inland among the mountains. It may be reasonably conjectured that its ancient name was Portus Hieraeus ; since Pliny mentions a Lesbian city called Hiera, which was extinct before his time. The other arm of the sea, to which we have alluded, is about half-way between the fonner and Cape Sigriutn. It. is the "beautiful and extensive basin, named Port Cai'uni," and aneiently called Euripus Pyrrhaeus. From the extreme narrowness of the entrance, it is less adapted for the purposes of a harbour. Its ichthyology is repeatedly mentioned by Aristotle as remarkable. (llist. Animal. v. 10. §2, v.13. §10, viii. 20. 5'15, is. 25.
8. § The surface of the island is mountainous. The principal mountains were Ordymnus in tho W.,Olympus in the S., and Lepethymnus in the N. Their clevations, as marked in the English Admiralty Charts, are respectively, 1780, 3080, and 2750 feet. The excellent climate and fine air of Lesbos are celebrated by Diodorus Siculus (v. 82). and it is still reputed to be the must healthy island in the Archipelago. (l‘uuly's Sailing Directory, p. 154.) Tacitus (Ann. vi. 3) calls it “insula nobilis et amoena." Agates were found there (Plin. xxxvii. 54), and its quarries produced variegated marble (xxxvi. 5). Tile wholesome Lesbian wines (“innocentis poculu Lesbii," Hor. Carm. i. 17, 21) were famous in the ancient world; but of this a more particular account is given under METHYMNA. The trade of the island was active and considerable; but here again we must. refer to what is said concerning: its chief city )lv'rru-nva. At. the present day the figs of Lesbos are celebrated; but its chief exports are oil and gall-nuts. The population was estimated, in 1816, at 25,000 Greeks and 5000 Turks.
Tradition says that the first inhabitants of Lesbos were Pelasgiaas: and Xanthrm was their legendary leader. Next came lonians and others. under Macarcus, who is said by Diodonis (v. 80) to have introduced written laws two generations before the Trojan war. Last were the Aeolian settlers, under the leadership of Lesbus, who appcars in Strabo under the name Graus, and who is said. to have married Methymna, the daughter of lilacareus. Mytilcne was the elder daughter. This is certain, that. the early history of Lcsbos is identical with that of the Acolians. Strabo regards it as their central seat (axiom! pmpéonis, xiii. pp. 616, 622). In mercantile enterprise, in resistance to the Persians, and in intellectual eminence, the insular Aeolians seem to have been favourably contrasted with their brethren on the continent. That which Horace calls “Aeolium cannon" and “Aeoliae tides" (Cam. ii. 13. 24, iii. 30. 13) was due to the genius of Lesbos: and Nicbuhr‘s expression regarding this island is, that it was “the pearl of the Aeolian race." (Lectures an Ancient Ethnology and Groyraphy, vol. i. p. 218.)
Lesbos was not, like several other islands of the Archipelago, such as Cos, Chios and Samos, the territory of one city. We read of six Aeolian cities in Lesbos, each of which had originally separate prmcssions and an independent government, and which were situated in the following geographical order. vaerA (now Moliuo) was on the north, almost immediately opposite Assos, from which it mu separated by one of the previously mentioned straits. Somewhere in its neighbourhood was ARISHA, which, however, was incorporated in the Mcthymnaean territory before the time of Herodotus (i. 151). Near the western extremity of the island were ANTISSA and Enos-ans. The former was a little to the north of Cape Sigrium, and was situated on a small island, which in Pliny‘s time (ii. 91) was connected with Lesbos itself. The latter was on the south of the promontory, and is still known under the name of Erim', a modern village, near which ruins have been found. At the hcnd of Port Coloni was l’YrmuA, which in Strabo's time had been swallowed up by the sea, with the exception of a suburb.
(Strab. xiii. p. 618; see Plin. v. 31.) The name of Peru is still attached to this district according to l’oc-ocke. On the eastern shore, facing the mainland, was leTlLENE. Besides these places, we must. mention the following:-- Hit-IRA, doubtless at the head of Port Olivier, said by l’liny to have been destroyed before his day; AGAIIEDE, a village in the neighbourhood of Pyrrha; Name. in the plain of Methymna ; Anorrws, between Mctbymna and Mytilene; and Pouuar. a site mentioned by Stephanus B. Most of these places are noticed more particularly under their respective names. All of them decayed, and became unimportant, in comparison with Methymna and l\lytilene, which were situated on good harbours opposite the mainland, and convenient for the coasting-trade. The annals of Lcsbos are so entirely made up of events affecting those two cities, especially the latter, that we must refer to them for what does not bear upon the general history of the island.
From the manner in which Lesbos is mentioned both in the Iliad and Odyssey (11. xxiv. 544, Oil. iv. 342), it is evident that its cities were populous and flourishing at a very early period. Tin-y had also very large possessions on the opposite coast. Lesbos was not included in the conquests of Croesus. (Herod. i. 27.) The severe defeat of the Lesbians by the Samians under Polycrates (iii. 39) seems only to have been a. temporary disaster. It is said by Herodotus (i. 151) that at. first they had nothing to fear, when Cyrus conquered the territories of Croesus on the mainland.- but afterwards, ilrith other islanders, they seem to have submitted voluntarily to Harpagus (i. 169). The situation of this island on the very confines of the great struggle between the Persians and the Greeks was so critical, that its fortunes were seriously affected in every phase of the long conflict, from this period down to the peace of Antalcidas and the campaigns of Alexander.
The Lesbians joined the revolt of Aristagoras (Herod. vi. 5, 8), and one of the most memorable incidents in this part of its history is the consequent hunting down of its inhabitants, as well as those of Chios and 'l'enedos, by the Persians (Herod. vi. 31; Acsch. Per-s. 881). After the battles of Salamis and Mycale they boldly identified themselves with the Greek cause. At first they attached thcmselvea to the Laccdaemoninn interest: but before long they came under the overpmvering influence of the naval supremacy of Athens. in the early part of the Peloponnesian War, the position of Lesbos was more favourable than that of the other islands: for, like Corcyra and Chios, it was not required to furnish a money-tribute, but only a naval contingent (Thuc. ii. 9). But in the course of the war, Mytilene was induced to intrigue with the Lacedaemonians, and to take the lead in a great revolt. from Athens. The events which fill so large a portion of the third book of Tbucydides—the speech of Cleon, the change of mind on the part of the Athenians, and the narrow escape of the Lesbians from entire massacre by the sending of a second ship to overtake the first— are perhaps the most memorable circumstances connected with the history of this island. The lands of Lesbos were divided among Athenian citizens (Kimpofixor), many of whom, however, according to Boeclth, rctunied to Athens, the rest remaining as a garrison. ltlcthymna had taken no part in the revolt, and was exempted from the punishment After the Sicilian expedition, the Les ians again wavcred in their allegiance to Athens; but. the result was unim~
purtant ('l'hucyd. viii. 5, 22, 23, 82, 100). It was near the coast of this island that the last great naval victory of the Athenians during the war was won, that of Conan over Callicratidas at Arginusae. On the destruction of the Athenian force by Lysander at Aegospotami, it fell under the power of Sparta; but it was recovered for a time by T hrasybulus (Xi-n. Hell. iv. 8. 28—30). At the peace of Antulcidas it was declared independent. From this time to the establishment of the Macedonian empire it is extremely difiicult to fix the fluctuations of the history of Lesbos in the midst of the varying influences of Athens, Sparta, and Persia.
After the battle of the Giunicus, Alexander made a treaty with the Lesbians. Memnon the Rhodiun took Mytilene and fortified it, and died there. Afterwards Hegelochns reduced the various cities of the island under the Macedonian power. (For the history of these transactions see Arrinu, .4 let. iii. 2: Curt. llt'st. Alex. iv. 5.) In the war of the Romans with Perseus, Labeo destroyed Antissa for aidng the Macedonians, Ind incorporated its inhabitants with those of Methymnn (Liv. xlv. 31. Hence perhaps the true explanation of l’liny's remark, l. c.). In the course of the Mithridatic War, Mytilene incurred the displeasure of the Romans by delivering up M'. Aquillius (Vell. Pat. ii 18; Appinn, Mitbr. 21). It was also the last city which held out after the close of the war, and was reduced by M. Minucius Thermna,—an occasion on which Julius Caesar distinguished himself, and earned a civic crown by saving the life of a soldier (Liv. Epit. 89; Suet. Can. 2; see Cic. contra Rull. ii. 16). Pompey, however, was induced by Theophanee to make Mytileue a free city (Veil. Pat. L 0.; Strub. xiii. p. 617), and he left there his wife and son during the campaign which ended at Phursalia. (Appiau, B. C. ii. 83; Plut. Pomp. 74, 75.) From this time we are to regard Lesbos as l part of the Roman province of Asia, with Mytilene distinguished as its chief city, and in the enjoyment of privilege more particularly described elsewhere. We may mention here that a few imperial coins of Lesbce, as distinguished from those of the cities, are extant, of the reigns of M. Aurelius and Commodus, and with the legend KOINON AECBIQN (Eckhcl,vol. ii. p. 501 ; Mionnet, vol. iii. pp. 34. 85).
In the new division of provinces under Constantine, Lesbos was placed in the Provinth Imularum (Hierocl. p 686, ed. Wesseliug). A few detached notices of its fortunes during the middle ages are all that can be given here. 11.». 802, the empress Irene ended herextraordinary life here in exile. Le Beau, Hist. du Baa Empire, vol. xii. p. 400.) In the thirteenth century, eontemporaneously with the first crusade, Lesbcs began to, be afl'ected by the Turkish conquests: Tzachas, Emir oi Smyrna. succeeded in taking Mytilene, but failed in his attempt on Methymua. (Anna Comn. Alex. lib. vii. p. 362, ed. Bonn.) Alcxis,‘howcver, sent an expedition to retake Mytilene, and was successful (Ib. ix. p. 425). In the thirteenth century Lesbos was in the power of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, but it was recovered to the Greeks by Jounnes Ducss Vatatzea, emperor of Nicaea (see his life in the Diet. of Biography). In the fourteenth century Jeannes Palaeologus gave his sister in marriage to Francisco Gateluuio, and the island of Lcsbos as a dowry; and it continued in the possession of this family till its final absorption in the Turkish empire (Ducas, Hist. Byzant. p. 46, ed. Bonn). It
On the 15th of August,'
appears, however, that these princes were tributary to the Turks (1b. p. 328). In 1457, Mahomet ll. made an unsuccessful assault on Mcthymna, in Cullsequence ofa suspicion that thc Lesbians had aided the Catalan buocaneers (Ib. p. 388; see also Vertot, lIist. dc FOrdre dc JIolle, ii. 258). He did not actually take the island till 1462. The history of the annalist- Ducas himself is closely connected with Lesbos: he resided there after the full of Constantinople; be conveyed the tribute from the rcigning Gateluzzio to the sultan at Adrianople; and the last paragraph of his history is an unfinished account of the final catastrophe of the island.
This notice of Lesbos would be very incomplete, unless something were said of its intellectual eminence. In reference to poetry, and especially poetry in connection with music, no island of the Greeks is so celebrated as Lesbos. Whatever other explanation we may give of the legend concerning the head and lyre of Orpheus being carried by the waves to its shores, we may take it as an expression of the fact that here was the primitive seat of the music of the lyre. Insches, the cyclic mitten-01,: native of Pyrrha, ers the first of its series of poets. 'l'crpander, though his later life was chiefly connected with the I’cloponnesus, was almost certainly a native of Lesboe, and probably of Antissa: Arion, of Methymna, appears to have belonged to his school; and no two men were so closeiy connected with the early history of Greek music. The names of Alcaeus and Sappho are the most impciishalile elements in the renown of Mytilcne. The latter was sometimes called the tenth Muse (as in Plato's epigrnm, Emma}; Aco'é'tiQev h Sud-r11) ; and I school of poetesses (Lesbiadum turba, Ovid, lIer. xv.) seems to have been formed by her. Here,without entering into the discussions, by \Yelcker and others, concerning the character of Sappho herself, we must state that the women of Lesbos were as famous for their profligacy as their beauty. Their beauty is celebrated by Homer (ll. ix. 129, 27]), and, as regards their profligacy, the proverbial expmsion Moéia’g‘siv aflixes a Worse stain to their island than xpnrig‘civ does to Crete.
Lesbos seems never to have produced any distinguished painter or sculptor, hut Hellanicus and Theophanes the friend of Pompey are worthy of being mentioned among historians; and Pittacus, Theophrastus, and Cratippus are known in the annals of philosophy and science. l’ittncus was famous also as a. legislator. These eminent men were all natives of Mytilene, with the exception of Theophrastus, who was born at Eresus.
The fullest account of Lcsbos is the treatise of S. L. Plehn, Lesbiacorwn Liber, Berlin, 1826. In this work is a map of the island; but the English Admiralty charts should be consulted, especially Nos. 1654- and 1665. Forbiger refers to reviews of Plehn's work by Meier in the Hall. Ally. Lit. Zeit. for 1827, and by O. Miiller in the Goett. Gel. Anz. for 1828: also to Lander's Beitri'rye cur Kunde der lmel Labor, IIamb. 1827. Information regarding the modern condition of the island will be obtained from Pococke, Tunruefort, Richter, and Prokesch. [J . S. IL]
LE'SORA MONS (Mont Lozére), a summit of the Ce'vennes, above 4800 feet high, is mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris (Conn. 24, 44) as containing the source of the Turnia (Tarn):—
“ Hinc to Lesora Caucasum Scytharum Vinceus aspiciet citnsquo Tarnis."
The pastures on this mountain produced good cheese in l’liny's time (H. N. xi. 42), as they do now. i'llunt Lozr‘re gives its name to the French department Lozére. [G. L.]
LESSA (Afitma), a village of Epidauria, upon the confines of the territory of Argos, and at the foot of Mount Arachnaeum. Pausanias saw there a temple of Athena. The ruins of Lcssa are situated upon a hill, at the foot of which is the village of Lyl'u'rio'. On the outside of the walls, near the foot of the mountain, are the remains of an ancient pyramid, near a church, which contains some Ionic Columns. (Pans. ii. 25. 10; Leake, Mar-ea, vol. ii. p. 419; Boblaye, lfécherchm, g‘c. p. 53 ; Curtius, Peloponnesns, vol. ii. p. 418.)
LE’SURA, a branch of the Mosella (Morel), mentioned by Ansonius (1110301111, v. 365). He calls it “eailis,” a poor, ill-fed stream. The resemblance of name leads us to conclude that it is the Leaer or Live, which flows past Wiltlich, and joins the filmed on the left bank. [G. L.]
LETANDROS, a small island in the Aegacan sea, near Amorgos, mentioned only by Pliny (iv. 12. a. 23).
LETE (A'r'rt-n: Eth. Amai‘os), a town of Mace.donia, which Stephanus B. asserts to have been the native city of Xearchns, the admiral of Alexander the Great; but in this he is certainly mistaken, as Nearchus was a Cretan. (Comp. Am'an, Ind. 18; Diod. xix. 19.) B. J.]
the distance of 180 stadia from Elis, and 120 from Olympia. It was said to have been founded by Letreus, a son of Pclops. (Pans. vi. 22. § 8.) Together with several of the other dependent townships of Elia, it joined Agis, when he invaded the territories of Elie; and the Eleians were obliged to surrender their supremacy over Letrini by the peace which they concluded with the Spartans in 3.0-. 400. (Ken. Hell. iii. 2. 25, 30.) Xenophon (l. c.) speaks of Letrini, Amphidoli. and Margancis as Triphylinn places, although they were on the right bank of the Alpheius; and if there is no corruption in the text. which Mr. Grote thinks there is (Hist. of Greece, vol. ix. p. 415), the word 'l'riphylian must be used in a loose sense to signify the dependent townships of Elis. The Ae'rptuaiat you are mentioned by Lycopltron (158). In the time of Pausanias nothing remained of Letrini except a few houses and a temple of Artemis Alphciaea. (Pants. 1. c.) Letrini maybe placed at the villace and monastery of St. John, between Pyrgn and the port, of Katdkolo, where, according to Leake, among many fragments of antiquity, a part of a large statue was found some years ago. (Leake, Norm, vol. ii. p. 188; Boblaye, p. 130, &c.; Curtius, PeIoplmnesos, vol. i. p. 72.)
Ll‘lVACI, a people in Caesar’s division of Gallia, which was inhabited by the Belgae. The Levaci, with some other small tribes, were dependent on the Nervii. (B. G. v. 39.) The position of the Lewci is unknown. [G. L]
LEVAE FANUM, in Gallia Belgica is placed by the Table on the mad from Lngdunum Batavorum (Leiden) to Noviomagus (Nymegen). Levao Fannm is between Fletio (Vleuten) and Carve; 25 M. P. from Fletio and 12 from Carvo. [Canva] D‘Anville, assuming that he has fixed Carvo right. supposes that there is some omission of places in the Table between Fletio and Carvo, and that we cannot, rely upon it. He conjectures that chae Fanum may be a little beyond Intrsteede, on the bank opposite to that of the Batavi, at a place which he calls Liven-duel (vallis Levae), this chu being some local divinity. \Vulckenaer fixes chae Fannm at Lecrsum. [G. L]
Ll'lUCA ('rd Aeuxd, Strab.: Leona), a small town of Calnbria, situated close to the Iapygian promontory. on a small bay immediately to the \V. of that celebrated headland. Its site is clearly marked by an ancient church still called Sm. Min-id di Leuca, but known also as the Madonna (11' Finisterm, from its situation at the extreme point. of Italy in this direction. The lapygian promontory itself is now known as the Capo di Lenca. Strabo is the only author who mentions a town of this name (vi. p. 28]), but Lucnn also notices the “secreta littora Leucae” (v. 375) as a port frequented by shipping; and its advantageous position, at a point where so many ships must necessarily touch, would soon create a town upon the spot. it was probably never a municipal town, but a large village or borgo, such as now exists upon the spot. in consequence of the double attraction of the port and sanctuary. (Rampoldi, Corog'r. dell” ltult'n, vol. ii. p. 442.)
Strabo tells as (l. c.) that the inhabitants of Leuoa showed there a. spring of fetid water. which they pretended to have arisen from the WUlltlds of some of the gilnts which had been expelled by Hercules from the Pltlegraean plains, and who had taken and hence gave the name of Leurnnsm to all the surrounding district. The same story is told, with some variations, by the pseudo-Aristotle (dc Mirab. 97); and the name of Leutarnia is found also in Lycophron (Alex. 978), whose expressions, however, would have led us to suppose that it was in the neighbourhood of Siris rather than of the Iapygian promontory. Tzetzes (ad loo.) calls it a city of Italy, which is evidently only an erroneous inference from the words of his author. The Laternii of Scylax, whom he mentions IL‘! one of the tribes that inhabited lapygia, may probably be only another form of the same name, though we meet in no other writer with any allusion to their existence as a real people. [ll H. 8.] l.l-IUCA,the name given by Pomponius Meht(i.16), to a. district on the west of ll:|licar|mssus,bctween that city and Myudns. Pliny (H. N. v. 29) mentions a. town. Leucopolis, in the same neighbourhood, of which. however, nothing else is known to us. [L. 8.]
LEUCAE 0r LI'IUCE (Aeilmu, Anilrrl), a. small town of Ionia, in the neighbourhood of Phocaea, was situated, according to Pliny (v. 3]), “ in promontorio quod insula fuit." From Scylnx (p. 37) we learn that it was a place with harbours. According to Diodorus (xv. 18) the Persian admiral Tnchos founded this town on an eminence on the sea coast, in 5.0. 352 ; but shortly aflcr,when Tachos had died, the Clammenians and Cymaeans quarrelled about its possession, and the former succeeded by a stratagem in making themselves masters of it. At a later time Leucae became remarkable for the battle fought in its neighbourhood between the consul LiciniusCrassus and Aristonicus, 3.0. 18L (Strab. xiv. p. 646: Justin, xxxvi. 4.) Some have supposed this place to be identical with the Lcuconium mentioned by Thncydides (viii. 24) ; but this is impossible, as this latter place must be looked for in Chios. The site of the ancient Leucae cannot be a matter of doubt, as a village of the name of Lei-kc, close upon the sea, at the foot of a hill, is evidently the modern representative of its ancient namesake. (Arundell, Seven Churches, p. 295.) [L. 3.]
Ll'IUUAl-l (An‘mai), a town of Laconia situated at the northern extremity of the plain Leuce, now called Phiru'lci, which extended inland between .Acriae and Asopus on the eastern side of the La.coninn gulf. (l’olyb. v. 19; Liv. xxxv. 27; Strab. viii. p. 363; Lcakc, Alarm, vol. i. p. 226, scq.; Boblayc, Récherchcs, dc. p. 95; Curtius, Peloponneaos. vnl. ii. p. 290.)
LEUCARUM, a town in Britain, mentioned in the Itinerary as being 15 miles from lsca Dumnnniorum, and [5 from Nidum. T he difiiculties involved in this list (viz. that of the 12th Itinerary) are noticed under Muumunmu. The Mommth Britannica suggests both Gkutonbm-y in Somersetshire, and L'irfllmr in Glamorganshire. [R G. L.]
LEUOAS (Aeunais), a place in Bithynia, on the river Galina, in the south of Nicaea, is mentioned only by Anna Comnena (p. 470), but can be easily identified, as its name is still borne by a neat little town in the middle of the beautiful valley of theGnllus. (Lenke. Asia/llt'nar, pp. l2,l3.) [L.S.]
LliUCAS, LEUCA'DIA (Aer/mix, Thain. Xen., Strub. ; Aeuxuoia, Thuc. Liv. : Elk. Asimddtor), an island in the Ionian sea, separated by a narrow channel from the coast of Acarnania. It was originally part. of the mainland, and as such is described by Homer, who calls it the Acte or peninsula of the
mainland. ('Avr'rl; irrelpaw, 0dv xxiv. 377; comp. Strab. x. pp. 45l, 452.) Homer also mentions its well-fortified town Neurons (Nripuros, l. 0.) Its carliest inhabitants were lxlcges and Telebonns (Strab. rii. p. 322), but it was afterwards peopled by Acnrnanians, who retained possession of it till the middle of the seventh century n.c., when the Corinthians, under Cypselus, founded a new town near the isthmus, which they called Leucm, where they settled 1000 of their citizens, and to which they removed the inhabitants of the old town of Ncricus. (Stub. l. c. ; Scylu, p. 13 ; Thuc. i. 30 ; Plut~ Them. ‘24; Scymn. Chins, 464.) Scylax says that the town was first called Epileucadii. The Corinthian colonists dug a canal through this isthmus, and thus converted the peninsula into an island. (Strab. l. c.) This canal, which was called Dioryctus, and was, according to Pliny, 3 stadia in length (Aidpwrros, l’olyb. v. 5; Plin. iv. 1. s. 2), was after filled up by deposits of sand; and in the Pcloponncsian War, it was no longer available for ships, which during that period were conveyed across the isthmus on more than one occasion. (Thuc. iii. 81, iv. 8.) It was in the same state in n. c. 218; for l’olybius relates (v. 5) that Philip, the son of Demetrius, had his galleys drawn across this isthmus in that year; and Livy, in relating the. siege of Leucas by the Romans in 11.0. 197, says, “ Lcucadia, nunc insula, et vadoso freto quod pcrt'ossum manu. est, ab Acarnania divisa" (xxxiii. 17). The subsequent restoration of the canal, and the construction of a stone bridge, both of which were in existence in the time of Strabo, were no doubt the work of the Romans; the canal um probably restored soon after the Roman conquest, when the Romans separated Leucas from the Acarnanian coiif'cdomcy, and the bridge was perhaps constructed by order of Augustus, whose policy it was to facilitate communications throughout his dominions.
Lencedia is about 20 miles in length, and from 5 to 8 miles in breadth. It resembles the Isle of Man in shape and size. It consists of a range of limestone mountains, terminating at its north-eastern extremity in a bold and rugged headland, whence the coast runs in a south-west direction to the promontory, anciently called Leucates, which has been corrupted by the Italians into Cape Ducalo. The name of the cape, as well as of the island, is of course derived from its white cliffs. The southern shore is more soft in aspect, end more sloping and cultivated than the rugged rocks of the northern coast ; but the most populous and wooded district is that opposite Acarnania. The interior of the island wears everywhere a. rugged aspect. There is but little cultivation, except where temces have been planted on the mountain sides, and covered with vineyards. The highest ridge of the mountains rises about 3000 feet above the sea.
Between the northern com-t of Lcucndia and that of Acarnania there is at prcscnt a lagoon about 3 miles in length, while its breadth varies from 100 yards to a mile and a half. The lagoon is in most parts only about 2 feet deep. This part of the coast requires a more particular description, which will be rendered clearer by the accompanying plan. At the north-eastem extremity of Leucadia a lida, or spit, of sand, 4 miles in length, sweeps out towards Acarnania. (See Plan, A.) On an isolated point opposite the extremity of this sandbank, is the fort. of Santa Manna, erected in the middle ages by one of the Latin princes, but repaired