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'the inside. The Gnlli failed to force the lines both on the inside and the outside. But the attack on the camp of Reginns and Rebilus was desperate, and ‘Labienus was sent to support them. Neither ramparts nor ditches could stop the fierce assault of the enemy. Labienus summoned to his aid the soldiers from the nearest posts, and sent to tell Caesar what he thought ought to be done. His design was to sally out upon the enemy, as Caesar had ordered him to do, if he could not drive them of from the lines.

The place where the decisive struggle took place is easily seen from the Ant Alesiae ; and it is accurately described by Caesar (B.G. 83, 85). This is the hill (15.) which slopes down to the plain of the Lose. The upper part of the slope opposite to the Ar: Alesiae is gentle, or “lenitcr declivis" (c. 83); but the descent from the gentle slope to the plain of the Lose, in which the railway runs, is in some parts very steep. Caesar could draw his lines in such a way as to bring them along the gentle slope, and comprise the steep and lower slope within them. But there would still be a small slope downwards from the upper part of the hill to the Roman lines; and this is this gentle slope downward which be describes in c. 85, as giving a great advantage to the Gallic assailants under Vergasillaunus (“ Exiguum loci ad declivitateni fastigium magnum hobet momentum ”).

The mountain behind which Vergasillaunus hid himself after the night’s march is the part of the mountain west of Cressl'yny. The camp of chinns and Robilus being on the south face turned to Alesia, they could see nothing of Vergasillaunus and his men till they came over the hill top to attack the lines. Vere-ingetorix, from the Ar: Alesine (c. 84), could see the attack on Reginus‘ camp, and all that was going on in the plain. He could see everything. Caesar’s position during the attack of Vergesillsunus wee one (idoneus locus) which gave him a view of the fight. He saw the plain, the “ superiors tnunitioncs,” or the lines on the mountain north-west of Alesia, the Ant Alcsiae, and the ground beneath. He stood therefore on the hill south of Alcsia, and at the western end of it.

Caesar, hearing from stienns how desperate was the attack on the upper lines, sent. port of his cavalry round the exterior lines to attack Vergasillaunus in the rear. The cavalry went round by the east end of Alesia. They could not go round the west end, for they would have crossed the plain outside of the lines, and the plain was occupied by the Galli. Nor could they have got up the bill on that side without some trouble; and they would not. have come on the rear of the enemy. It. is certain that they went by the east end, and upon the heights round Alesia, which would take a much longer time than Caesar's rapid narrative would lead us to suppose, if we did not know the ground.

When Caesar sent the cavalry rcluid Alesia, he went to the aid of Lubienus with four cohorts and some cavalry. The men from the higher ground could see him as he come along the lower ground (cc. 87, 88). He came from the hill on the south of Alesia, between his lines along the plain, with the Ar: Alcsia on his right, from which he men in the town Were looking down on the furious battle. The scarlet cloak of the proconsnl told his men and the enemies who was coming. He was rcccived with a about from both sides, and the shout was answered from the circumvallntion and all the lines. The


Roman soldier throws his pila aside ; and the sword begins its work. All at once Caesar's cavalry appears in the rear of Vergasillsunus : “ other cohorts approach; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry meet the fugitives; there is a great slaughter; "and the victory is won. The Galli who were on the outside of the fortifications desert their camp, and the next day Vercingetorix surrenders Alcsis. The fight of Alesia was the but great adult at the united Galli against Caesar. They never recovered from this defeat; and from this time the subjugation of Gallia, though not yet quite completed, was near and certain. ,

Ales-in was a town during the Roman occupation of Gnlliu; but the plateau has long since been deserted, and there is not a trace of building upon it. Many medals and other antiquities have been found by grabbing on the plateau. A vignoron ot' Alike possesses many of these rare things, which he has found; afine gold medal of Nero, some excellent bronze medals of Trojan and Faustino, and the wcllknown medal of Ncmsusus (Nimer), called the “ plt'd. de bicbe." He has also a stcelynrd, keys, and a variety of other things.

The plan of Cassini is tolerably correct; correct enough to make the text of Caesar intelligible.[G.L.]

MANDUESSEDUM, a Roman station in Britain (ILAnt. p. 470), the site of which is supposed to be occupied by M'ancester in W'arm'ckshire. [0. R. 5.]

MANDU'RIA (Muddpmvfiteph. B. : El]!- MavdupTuoxz Manduria), an ancient city of Calabria, in the territory of the Snlentines, situated at the distance of 24 miles E. of Tsrentum. Its name has obtained some celebrity from its being the scene of the death of Archidamus, king of Sparta, the son of Agesilaus, who had been invited to Italy by lhO Tarentines, to assist them against their neighbours the Messapians and Lucam'aus; but was defeated and slain in a battle under the walls of Msnduria, which was fought on the same day with the more celebrated battle of Cbueronea. 3rd Aug.,B. C. 338. (Plat. Ages. 8, who writes the name Mammy; T heopomp. up. Athen. xii. p. 536; Diod. xvi. 63, 88; Pans. iii. 10. § 5.) This is the first notice we find of the name of Manduria: it would appear to have been a Mcssapian (or rather perhaps a Salentine) city, and apparently a. place of considerable importance; but the only other mention of it that occurs in history is in the Second Punic War, when it revolted to the Carthsginians, but was taken by assault by Fabius Maximus, just before he recovered Tarentnm, B. O. 209. (Liv. xxvii. 15.) We have no account of its late on this occasion, but it would seem certain that. it was severely punished, and either destroyed or at lcust reduced to s degraded condition; for we find no mention of it as a municipal town under the Romans; and Pliny omits its name in his list of towns in this part of Italy, though he elsewhere (ii. 103. s. 106) incidentally notices it as “oppidum in Selentino.” The name is again found in the Tabula, which places it at. the distance of 20 M. P. from anemum, an interval less than the truth, the actual distance being 20 geog. miles, or at least 24 Roman miles. (Tab. Peat.)

The existing ruins are considerdble, especially those of the ancient walls, great part of the circuit. of which is still preserved: they are built of large rectangular blocks, but composed of the soft and porous stone of which the whole neighbouring country consists; and in their original state appear to have formed a double circuit of walls, with n

broad street or way between the two, and a ditch on the outside. At present they are nowhere more .
than six feet in height. The modem town of .llan- ‘
duria (a flourishing place, with about 6000 inha-
bitants) does not occupy the site of the ancient city;
the latter having been destroyed by the Saracens,
the few remaining inhabitants settled at a place
called Cara! Nuovo, which appellation it retained
till towards the close of the eighteenth century, when,
having grown into a. considerable town. it resumed,
by royal license, its ancient name of Mandarin.
(Swinburne, Trareh, vol. i. p. 222; Romanelli, vol. i.
p.53; Giustiniani, Die. Geogr. vol. v. p. 338.)
Pliny mentions the existence at Mandarin of a
well orlspring of water, which was always full to
the brim, and could not be either increased or
diminished in quantity. This natural curiosity is
still shown by the inhabitants of Mandarin, and
has been described by several recent travellers; it
is said that it preserves a constant equality in the
level of its waters, notwithstanding any addition
that may be made to them or any quantity that
may be withdrawn,—-a statement exactly coinciding
with that of Pliny. (Plin. ii. 103. s. 106; Swin-
burne, Travels, vol. i. p. 223; K. Craven, TrarrLs,
pp. 165—167.) The expression used by that author,
who calls the basin or reservoir of the water “ lacus,"
has given rise to the erroneous notion that there
existed a lake in the neighbourhood of Mnnduria,
for which there is no foundation in fact. 11.13.]
MANIMI, a tribe of the Lygii, in the north ~east of
Germany ('l'ac. Germ. 43). They occupied the
country south of the Burgundiones, and appear to be
the same as the Otnanni (‘Ouawol) of Ptolemy (ii.
11. 18: Zeusa, Die Denise/ten, p. 124). [L.S.]
IllANI’TAE (Maui-rat), an inland tribe of Arabia
Felix, situath west of the Thanuetae, and south of
the Salapeni, north of the “ inner Franl-tincense"
country (1‘, Jvrbr Zhupuolpdpor, Plol.vi. 7. §23). The
position of Ptolemy's “Manitae,” west of his Kata-
nitae, and of Zame: Mons, together with the near
resemblance of name, implies their being the same
with the Mazeyne of Burclthardt, the most eastern
of the Harb tribes, situated on the borders of Karym
in the line of country between Medina and Duraye/i.
(Forster, Geog. anrabia, vol. ii. p. 249.) [G. W.]
MA'NIUS SlNUS (Maine: mbhror, Scyl. p. 8),
that part of the sea of! the coast of Dalmatia into
which the river Naro discharged itself, and in which
the Liburnian group of islands is situated. In
modern times it bears no distinctive name. [E.B.J.]
MANIJA'NA) Mavhlavn. fl Map/\lava, l’tol. iv.
2. §25), an inland town of Mnuretania, upon the
position of which there is a great disagreement be-
tween Ptolemy and the author of the Itinerary. The
first places it 10' to the W. of OI'PIDUM Novmt,
and the latter 18 M. P. to the E. of that place. The
modern Illiliana, on the slopes of the Lesser Atlas,
preserving the ancient name, may be presumed to
represent the old town, both of Ptolemy and the
Itinerary, in which a Christian community was
established. (Augustin. Ep. ecxxxvi.; Moreelli,
Africa Christiana, vol. i. p. 211.) Shaw (Tra-
vels, pp. 62—6-1) found remains of Roman archi-
tecture, and a “ cippus” with an inscription
which he refers to some of the descendants of
On. Pompeius (Barth, ll’andemngen, pp. 58,
207.) E. B. J.
MANLIA'NUS SALTL‘S. [loosen/1.]
MANNARITIUM, in north Gollin, is placed by


the Antonino ltin. on a road which leads from

andunnm through Trajectum (Utrecht) to Carve [Cnnvo]. It is 15 M. 1’. from Trajectum to Mannnritium. and 16 M. P. from Mannaritium to Carvo. Mannaritium may be Maaren. But other places have been suggested. [G. L.] MANltALl (MdupaAoi, Ptol. v. 10. § 6), a. people on the coast of Culchis, whose name has been traced in the modern Mingrelia. [11. B. J MANTALA, a place in Gallia Narbonensis. on the road from Vienna( Viennc) to Darantasia (Moutiers en T armlaiae). It is the next station after Lemincnm [lelxcust], and 16 M. P. from it. The Antonino ltin. and the Table agree as to the position of Mantala. The site of the station Mantala may be, as D'Anville suggests, at a place on the Isére, named Grasi, which is commanded by an old building named Alontailleu. [G. L.] MANTIANA LACUS. [Austria/1.] MANTINEIA (Mar-rivals: 15th. Maw-rivetinhlantinensis: Paleo'poli), one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia, situated on the borders of Argolis, S. of Orchomenus, and N. of Tegea 1t: territory was called MANTINICE (Mwwudy). The city is mentioned in the llomeric catalogue as Mavrive'rl 3pa'rsnrfi, and, according to tradition, it derived its name from Mantineus,a son of Lycaon. (Hum. II. ii. 607; Pol. ii. 56; Pans. viii. S. 4.) Mantineia originally consisted of four or five distinct villages, the inhabitants of which were collected into one city. (Xen. JIeIL v. 2. § 6, seq.; Strab. viii. p. 337; Diod. xv. 5.) If Strabo is correct in stating that this incorporation was brought about by the Argircs, we may conjecture, with Mr. Grote, that the latter adopted this proceeding as a mains of providing some check upon their powerful neighbours of Tegea. The political constitution of Illantineia is mentioned by l’olybius as one of the best in antiquity; and the city had acquired so great a reputation at an early period, that the Cyrenaeans. in the reign of Battus Ill. (11.0. 550—530), when weakened by internal seditions, were recommended to apply to the Illantineians, who sent to them Demonax to settle their constitution. (Pol. vi. 48; Herod. iv. 161.) Some time before the Persian wars, Mantineia, like the other Arcadian towns, had acknowledged the Spartan supremacy; and accordingly the Mantineiana fought against the Persians as the allies of Sparta. Five hundred of their citizens fought at Thermopylae, but their contingent arrived on the field of Plenum immediately after the battle. (Herod. vii. 202, ix. 77.) In the l’eloponnesian War, Mantineia was at first a member of the Peloponnesian confederacy; but several causes tended to estrange her from the Spartan alliance. Mantineis and Tegca were, at this time, the two most important Arcadian states, and were frequently engaged in hostilities. In B. c. 423, they fought a bloody and indecisive battle, which is mentioned by Thucydidcs (iv. 134). Tegea, being oligarchically governed, was firmly attached to Sparta; whereas Mantineia, from her possessing a democratical constitution, as well as from her hatred to Tegea, was disposed to desert Sparta on the first favourable opportunity. In addition to this, the Mantineians had recently extended their dominion over the Parrhasians and had garrisoned a fortress at Cypsela, near the site where Megalopolis was afterwards built. Well aware that the Lacedaemonians Would not allow them to retain their recent acquisitions, as it was the policy of Sparta to prevent the increase of any political power in the Peloponnesus, the Manti~

neians formed an alliance with Argos, Elie, and Athens, in B. c. 421, and thus became involved in war with Sparta. (Thue. v. 29, 33, 47.) This war was brought to a close by the decisive battle fought near Mantineia, in June, 418, in which the Argives, Mantineians, and Athenians were defeated by the Lacedaemonians under Agis. This battle was fought to the S. of Mantineia, between the city and the frontiers of Tegca, and is the first of the five great battles bearing the name of Mnntincia. The blantineians now concluded a peace with Sparta, renouncing their dominion over the districts in Arcadia, which they had conquered. (Thnc. v. 65, seq., 81.)

Mantineia continued an unwilling ally of Sparta for the next. 33 years; but in the second year after the peace of Antalcidas, which had restored to the Spartans a great part of their former power, they resolved to crush for ever this obnoxious city. Accordingly, they required the Mantineians to raze their walls; and upon the refusal of the latter, they marched against the city with an army under the command of their king Agesipolis (n. c. 385), alleging that the truce for 30 years had expired, which had been concluded between the two states after the battle of 418. The Mantineians were defeated in battle, and took refuge in their city, prepared to withstand a siege; but Agesipolis having raised an embankment across the river Ophis, which flowed through Mantineia, forced back the waters of the river, and thus caused an inundation around the walls of the city. These walls, being built of unbaked bricks, soon began to give way; and the Mantineians, fearing that the city would be taken by assault, were obliged to yield to the terms of the Spartans, who required that the inhabitants should quit the city, and be dispersed among the villages, from the coalescence of which the city had been originally formed. (Ken. Hell. v. 2. §§ 6, 7; Diod. av. 5; Ephorus, ap. Haqmcrat. s. v. Marrwc'aw atomurpds; Pol. iv. 27; Pans. Vlll. S. §7, Of the forces of Mautineia shortly before this time we have an account from the orator Lysins, who says that the military population or citizens of Mantineia were not less than 3000, which will give 13.000 for the free population of the Mantincian territory. (Lysias, up. Dionys. p. 531; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 416.)

The Mantineians did not long remain in this dispersed condition. When the Spartan supremacy was overthrown by the battle of Leuctra in 371, they again assembled together, and rebuilt their city. They took care to exclude the river fmm the new city, and to make the stone substructions of the walls higher than they had been previously. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 3; Pans. viii. 8. § 10; Leake, Marco, vol. iii. p. 73.) The Mantineians took an active part in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy, and in the foundation of Megalopolis, which followed immediately after the restoration of their own city; and one of their own citizens, Lycomedes, was the chief promoter of the scheme. But a few years afterwards the .‘Lmtineinns, for reasons which are not distinctly mentioned, quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with their inveterate enemies the Spartans. In order to put down this new coalition, l-Ipuminondas marched into the Pcloponnesua; and Mantineia was again the scene of another great battle (the second of the five alluded to above), in which the Spartans were defeated, but which was rendered still more memo


rable by 'the death of Epaminondas. (ch. Hell. vii. 5; Diod. xv. 84.) The site of this battle is described below. The third and fourth battles of Mantincia are only incidentally mentioned by the ancient writers: the third was fought in 295, when Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated Arcllidamus and the Spartans (Plut. Demelr. 35) ; the fourth in 242, when Aratus and the Achacans defeated the Simtans under Agis, the latter falling in the bottle. (Pans. viii. 10.§ 5, seq.)

Mantineia continued to be one of the most powerful towns of Arcadia down to the time of the Achaean League. It at first joined this league ; but it subsequently deserted it, and, together with Orchomenus and Tegea, became a member of the Aetolinn confederacy. These three cities at a later time renounced their alliance with the Aetolinr.s, and entered into a close union wrth Sparta, about B. c. 228. This step was the immediate Cause of the war between the Achnenns and the Spartans, usually called the Cleomenic War. In 226, Arntus surprised Mantineia, and compelled the city to receive an Aclntean garrison. The Mantineians soon afterwards expelled the Achneans, and again joined the Spmtans ; but the city was t ken a second time, in 222, by Antigonus Doson, wrom the Achaeans had invited to their assistance. It was now treated with great severity. It was abandoned to plunder, its citizens were sold as slaves, and its name changed to Antigoneia (’Av-rt'ydvua), in compliment to the Macedonian monarch (Pol. ii. 57, serp; Plut. Amt. 45; Pans. viii. 8.§ 11). In 207, the plain of Mantineia was the scene of a fifth great battle, between the Achaenn forces, commanded by Philopoemen, and the anedaemoninns, under the tyrant Machanidas, in which the latter was defeated and slain. An account of this battle is given by Polybius, from whom we learn that the Achaean army occupied the entire breadth of the plain S. of the city, and that their light-amted troops occupied the hill to the l']. of the city called Alesium by Pansanias. The Lacedaemonians were drawn up opposite to the thaeans ; and the two armies thus occupied the same position as in the first battle of Mantineia, fought in the Peloponnesinn War. (Pol. xi. 11.) The Mantineisns were the only Arcadian people who fought on the side of Augustus at the battle of Actium. (Pans. viii. 8. § 12.) The city continued to bear the name ofAntigoneia till the time of Hadrian, who restored to it its ancient appellation, and conferred upon it other marks of his favour, in honour of his favourite. Antinous, because the Bithynians, to whom Antinona belonged, claimed descent from the Msntineians. (Pans. viii. 8. l2, viii.9. § 7.

The territory of Mantineia was bounded on the W. by Mt. Maenalus, and on the E. by Mt. Artemisium, which separated it from Argolis. Its northern frontier Was a low narrow ridge, separating it from Orchomenia; its southern frontier, which divided it from Tegentis, was formed by a narrow part of the valley, hemmed in by a pmjecting ridge from Mt. Maennlus on the one side, and by a similar ridge from Mt. Artemisius on the other. (See below.) The territory of lilantincia forms part of the plain now called the plain of Tripolilzd,from the modern town of this name, lying between the ancient Mantineia and Tcgca, and which is the principal plat-e in the district. This plain in about 25 English miles in length, with a breadth varying from 1 to 8, and includes, besides the territory of Mantineia, that of Orclromenns and Caphyae on the N., and that of 'l'egca and Prrllnntium on the S. The distance between Msntincia and Tegca is about 10 English 1 miles in a direct line. The height of the plain where Muntinein stood is 2067 feet above the level of the sen. Owing to its situation, Mantineia was a place of great military importance, and its territory Wins the scene of many important battles, as has been already related. It stood upon the river Ophis, nearly in the centre of the plain of Tripolide as to length, and in one of the narrowest parts as to breadth. It was enclosed between two ranges of hills, on the E. and the \V., running parallel to bits. Artemisium and Mrrenalns respectively. The eastern hill was called Ant-:sturu ('AAfimov, Pans. viii. 10. § 1), and between it and Artemisinm lay the plain called by Puusaniua (viii. 7. § 1) 1b tip'ybv wedlov, or the “Uncultivnted Plain." (viii. 8. § l.) The range of hills on the W. had no distinct name: between them and Mt. Maenalus there was also a plsin called Alcimedon ('Mxtpédwv, l’nus. viii. l2. ’ 2.)

9 Msrrtineia was not only situated entirely in the plain, but nearly in its lowest part, as appears by the course of the waters. In the regularity of its fortifications it differs from almost all other Greek cities of which there are remains, since very few other Greek cities stood so completely in a plain. It is now called Paleopoli. The circuit of the walls is entire, with the exception of a small space on the N. and W. sides. In no place are there more than three courses of masonry existing above ground, and the height is so uniform that. we may conclude that the remainder of the walls was constructed of unbuked bricks. The city had 9 or 10 gates, the approach to which was carefully defended. Along the walls there Were towers at regular distances. Lcuke reckoned 118 towers, and says that the city was about 2} miles in circumference; but Ross makes the city considerably larger, giving 129 or 130 as the number of the towers, and from 28 to 30 studio, or about 3% English miles, as the circuit of the city. The walls of the city are surrounded by a ditch, through which the river Ophis flows. This stream is composed of several rivulcts, of which the most important rises on Mt. Alesium, on the E. side of the city : the different rivulets unite on the NW. side of the town, and flow westward into a. krrtnrtithra. Before the capture of Msntineia by Agesiptdis, the Oplris was made to flow through the city ; and it is probable that all the water-courses of the surrounding plain were then collected into one channel above the city. Of the buildings in the interior of the city, described by Pausaniss, few remains are left. Nearly iu the centre of the city are the ruins of the theatre, of which the diameter was about 240 feet; and west of the theatre, Ross observed the foundations of the temple of Aphrodite Symmachiu, which the Mmtineinns erected to commemorate the share they had taken in the battle of Actium. (Pans. viii. 9. § 6.)

The territory of Mantineia is frequently described by the ancient writers, from its having been so often the seat. of war; but it is difficult, and almost impossible, to identify any of the localities of which we find mention, from the disappearance of the sanctuaries and rnontunents by which spots are indicated, and also from the nature of the plain, the topography of which must have been frequently altered by the


change of the water-courses. On the latter subject a few words are necessary. The plain of Tripolitzci, ,

of which Mont-inice formed part, is one of those valleys in Arcadia, which is so completely shut in by mountains, that the streams which flow into it have no outlet except through the chasms in the mountains, called katavothra. [ARCADIA-1 The part of the plain, which formed the territory of Mrrntineia, is so complete a level, that there is not, in some parts, a sufficient slope to carry off the waters ; and the land would be overflowed, nnlerar trenches were made to assist the course of the waters towards some one or other of the katavothra which nature has provided for their discharge. (Pol. xi. 1].) Not only must the direction of these trenches hare been sometimes changed, but even the course of the streams was sometimes altered, of which we have an interesting example in the history of the campaign of 418. it appears that the regulation of the nrountsin torrent on the frontiers of Mantinice and Tegeatis was a frequent subject of dispute and even of war between the two states ; and the one frequently inundated the territory of the other, as n mns of annoyance. This was done in 418 by Agis, who let the waters over the plain of Montineia (Thuc. v. 65). This rivar can only be the one called Oplris by the Geographers of the French Commission. It. rises a little N. of Tegea, and after flowing through Togeatis falls now into a katavdthra north of the hill Scope. In general the whole plain of Mantineia bears a very different. rrspect from what it presented in antiquity; instead of the wood of oaks and corktrees, described by l’uusrrnias, there is new not a. single tree to be found; and no poet would now think of giving the epithet of “ lovely“ (t‘parsrrn’i) to the naked plnin, covered to a great extent with stagnant water, and shut; in by gray treeless rocks. (Ross, Reisen int Pcloponnes, p. 128.)

About a mile N. of the ruins of hlnntincia is an isolated hill called Gurtzzilt'; north of which again, also at the distance of about a mile, is another bill. The latter was probably the site of the ancient Mantineia, and was therefore called Fronts (I‘l-rdArs) in the time of l’ausnnias (viii. 12. § 7). This appears to have been one of the five villages from the inhu_ bitants of which the city on the plain was peopled.

There were several roads leading from Mantineis. Two of these roads led north of the city to Orr-home< nus: the more easterly ofthe two passed by Ptolis,just mentioned, the fountain of Alulcomeneiu, and a de‘ serted village named Manna (Maipa), 3O studio from Ptolis; the road on the west {weed over Mt. Anchisia, on the northern slope of which was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which formed the boundary between Mrrntinice and Orcbomenia. (Pans. viii. l2.

§5—9, comp. viii. 5. § ll.)

A road led frrhn Muntineia on the W. to Mot-bydrinm. It passed through the plain Alcimedon, which was 80 stadia from the city, above which was Mount Ostradna; then by the fountain Cissn, and, at the distance of 40 stadia from the fountain, by the small place PETROSACA (1‘7 He'rpoadxa), which was on the confines of the Mantineian and Megalopolitsn territories. (Pans. viii. l2. 2—4.)

'l'wo roads led from Mantineis southwards.—the one SE. to Tegea, and the other SW. to l’allantirrm. On the left of the road to Tegea, called Xums (Eel/ls) by Polybius (xi. 11. § 5), just outside the gates of Mantineia, was the hippodrome, and a little further on the stadium, above which rose Mount Alesium: at the spot where the mountain curved was the temple of Poseidon Hippius, which was 7 studio from the city, as we learn from l’oly

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