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forms a small plain, which is cultivated by the villagers of Siloam.
In the mouth of the southern valley which forms the continuation of these three valleys towards the Dead Sea, is a deep well, variously called the Well of Nehemiah, of Job, or Joell,- supposed to be identical with Enrogel, " the well of the spies," mentioned in the borders of Judah and Benjamin, and elsewhere (Josh. xv. 7, xviii. 16; 2 Sam. xvii. 17; 1 Kings, i. 9).
On the opposite side of the valley, over against the Mount of Otfence, is another high rocky hill, facing Mount Sion, called the Hill of Evil Council, from a tradition that the house of Annas the highpriest, father-in-law to Caiaphas (St. John, xviii. 13, 24), once occupied this site. There is a curious coincidence with this in a notice of Josephus, who, in his account of the wall of circumvallation, mentions the monument of Ananus in this part (v. 12. § 2); which monument has lately been identified with an ancient rockgrave of a higher class,—the Aceldama of ecclesiastical tradition, —u little below the ruins on this hill; which is again attested to be “the Potter‘s Field," by a stratum of white clay, which is still worked. (Schultz, Jerusalem, p. 39.)
This grave is one of a series of sepulchrcs excavated in the lower part of this hill ; among which are several bearing Greek inscriptions, of which all that is clearly intelligible are the words THC. AI‘lAC. C le., indicating that they belonged to inhabitants or communiti in Jerusalem. (See the Inscriptions in Krafl‘t, and the comments on his deciphermeuts in the Holy City, llemoir, pp. 56 —60).
Higher up the Valley of Hinnom is a large and very ancient pool, now called the Sultan’s (Birkel-csSultan), from the fact that it was repaired,and adorned with a handsome fountain, by Sultan Snliman IbuSelim, 1520—1566, the builder of the present citywall. it is, however, not only mentioned in the mediaeval notices of the city, but is connected by Nehemiah with another antiquity in the vicinity, called En-nclu' Darid. On Mount Sion, immediately above, and to the east of the pool, is a large and irregular mass of building, supposed by Christians, Jews, and Moslems, to contain the Tomb of David, and of his successors the kings of Judah. It has been said that M. do Saulcy has attempted an elaborate proof of the identity of the Tombs of the Kings, at the head of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, with the Tomb of David. His theory is inadmissable ; for it is clear, from the notices of Nehemiah,that the Sepulchres of David were not far distant from the Pool of “ Siloah," close to “ the pool thatwas made,"and, consequently, on that part of Mount Sion where theyare now shown. (Nohem. iii. 16—19.) The memory of David’s tomb was still preserved until the destruction of Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant. xiii. 8. § 4, xvi. 7. § 1; Acts, ii. 29), and is notimd occasionally in the middle ages. (See Holy City, vol. ii. pp. 505—513.) In the same pile of buildings, now occupied by the Moslems, is shown the Coenaculum where our Lord is said to have instituted the Last Supper. Epiphanius mentions that this church was standing when Hadrian visited Jerusalem (Pond. ct 111m. cap. xiv.), and there St. Cyril delivered some of his catecheticul lectures (Catech. xvi. 4). It was in this part of the Upper City that Titus spared the houses and city Wall to form barnclrs for the soldiers of the garrison. (Vide sup.)
Above the Pool of the Sultan, the Aqueduct of
Pontiac Pilate. already mentioned, crosses the Valley
of Hinnom on nine low arches; and, being carried along the side of Mount Sion, crosses the Tympoeon by the causeway into the Haram. The water is conveyed from Etham, or the Pools of Solomon, about two miles south of Bethlehem. (Josephus, B. J. i. 9. § 4-)
The mention of this aqueduct recalls a notice of Strabo, which has been perpetually illustrated in the history ofthe city; viz., that it was dvrbs pév eflobpow £K1'b! 5E warn-(MB! Bulmpbv . . . . . airrb [LEV cfiiibpov, rim 5% mlpr xalpay (x01! Avrde ital drubpov. (xvi. p. 723.) Whence this abundant supply was derived it is extremely diliicult to imagine, as, of course, the aqueduct just mentioned would be immediately cut oil" in case of siege ; and, without this, the inhabitants of the modern city are almost entirely dependent on rain-water. But the accounts of the various sieges, and the other historical notices, as well as existing remains, all testify to the fact that there was a copious source of living water introduccd into the city from without, by extensive subterranean aqueducts. The subject requires, and would repay, a more accurate and careful investigation. (See 11on City, vol. ii. p. 453—505.)
Besides the other authorities cited or referred to in the course of this article, the principal modern sources for the topography of Jerusalem are the followingz—Dr. Robinson's Biblical Researches, vols. i. and ii ; \Villiams‘s Holy City,- Dr. Wilson's Lands qf the Bible; Dr. E. G. Schultz, Jerusalem; W. Krafl't, Die Topographic Jemalems; Carl Bitter, Die Erdbands can Asien, (j~c., Palfi-rlina, Berlin, 1852, pp. 297—508: Dr. Titus T obler, Golgotha, 1851; Die Siloahquelle and die Oelberg, 1852; Denkbldmr mu Jemalem, 1853; F. de Saulcy, Voyage aulom' de la Mer Morte, tom. 2. [(1. W.]
Etrnria, directly opposite to the Mons Argentnrius and the port of Cosa. It is, next to live, the most considerable of the islands near the coast of Etruria, being 6 miles long by about 3 in breadth, and consists of a group of mountains of considerable elevation. Hence Rutilius speaks of its “ silvoen cacuminu." (Iain. i. 325.) From that author we learn that, when Rome was taken by Alaric (A. D. 410), a number of fugitives from the city took refuge in lgilinm, the insular position of which url'orded them complete security. Caesar also mentions it, during the Civil War, in conjunction with the neighbouring port of (lose, as furnishing a few vessels to Domitius, with which that general sailed for Massilin. (Cues. B. C. i. 34; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12 ; Mela, ii. 7. § 19.) It is evident, therefore, that it was inhabited in ancient as well as modern times. 11.3.] IGLE'TES, IGNE’TES. [lllSPAXlA._] IGULLIO'NES, in European Sur'matia, mentioned by Ptolemy as lying between the Stavani and Coistohoci, and to the east of the Venedi (iii. 5. § 21). Now the Stavani lny south of the Galindae and Sndini, populations of which the locality is known to be that of the Galinditae and Sudovitae of the middle ages, i. e. the parts about the Spirding-aee in East Prussia. This would place the lgulliones in the southern part of Lithuania, or in parts of Grodno, Podolia, and Vol/rym'a, in the country of theJazwingi of the thirteenth century,-—there or thereabonts. Zenss has allowed himself to consider some such form as ’l-rv'nluves as the truer reading; and, so doing, identifies the names, as well as the localities, of the twa populations (‘I-nrrylwv, Jncwiny),—tlrc varieties of form being very numerous. The Jacwt'nga were Lithuamhm—Lithnanians as opposed to Slovenian; ,and in this lies their ethnologiurl importance, inasmuch ns the southward extension of that branch of the Snnnatian stock is undetermined. (See Zeuss, I. v. Jamingi.) [11. G. L.] IGU'VIUM ('l'yorii'ov: Ethlguvinns: Gubbio), an ancient and important town of Umhria, situated on the W. slope of the Apcnnincs, but not far from their central ridge. and on the lett of the Via Flaminia. Its existence as an ancient Umbrian city is sufiiciently attested by its coins, as well as by a remarkable monument presently to be noticed; but we find no mention of it in history previous to the period of its subjection to Rome, and we only learn incidentally from Cicero that it enjoyed the privileged condition of a “ foederatn civitas,” and that the terms of its treaty were of a highly favourable character. (Cic. pro Balb. 20, where the reading of the older editions, “Fulginatium,” is certainly erroneous: see Orelli, ad Zoo.) The first mention of its name occurs in Livy (xiv. 43, where there is no doubt we should read Iguviuln for “ Igiturvium ") as the place selected by the Roman senate for the confinement of the lllyrian king Gentius and his sons, when the people of Spoletiurn refused to receive them. Its natural strength of position, which was evidently the cause of its selection on this occasion, led also to its barring a conspicuous part in the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, when it was occupied by the proctor Minucius Thermos-with five cohorts; but on the approach of Curio With three cohorts, Thermos, who was apprehensive of _a revolt ot' the citizens, abandoned the town wrthout resistance. (Gees. B. C. i. 12; Cic. ad Att. vii. 13, 1:.) Under the Roman dominion lguviurn seems to have lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town: we find it noticed in an inscription as
one of the “ sv. populi Umbriae ' (Orcll. laser. 98), as well as by Pliny and Ptolemy (Plin. 14. s. 19:, Ptol. 1. § 53), and it is probable that in Strabo also we should read 'l'yoriwv for the corrupt name 'lrovpow of the MSS. and earlier editions. (Strab. v. p. 227; Cluver. Ital. p. 626.) But its secluded position in the mountains, and at a distance of some miles from the litre of the Via Flaminia, was probably unfavourable to its prosperity, and it does not seem to have been a. place of much importance. Silins Italicus speaks of it as very subject to fogs (viii. 459). It curly became the see of a bishop, and retained its episcopal rank throughout the middle ages, when it rose to be a place of considerably more importance than it had enjoyed under the Roman empire.
The modern city of Gubbio contains no ruins of ancient date; but about 8 miles to the E. of it, at a place now called La Sc/tiryyia, on the line of the ancient Flarnininn Way, and just at the highest point of the pass by which it crosses the main ridge of the Apcnnines, some vestiges of an ancient temple are still visible, which are supposed with good reason to be those of the temple of Jupiter Apcnninus. This is represented in the Tabula Pentingeriana as existing at the highest point of the pass, and is noticed also by Chrndian in describing the progress of Honorius along the Flaminiun Way. (Claudiau, dc V1. Com. 1101:. 504_; Tab. Paul.) The oracle consulted by the emperor Claudius “in Apennino" (Treb. Poll. Cloud. 10) may perhaps have reference to the same spot. Many bronze idols and other small objects of antiquity have been found near the ruins in question; but a far more important discovery, made on the same site in 1444, was that of the celebrated tables of bronze, commonly known as the Tabulae Eugubinae, which are still preserved in the city of Gubbio. These tables, which are seven in number, contain long inscriptions, four of which are in Etrusnan characters, two in Latin, and one partially in Etruscan and partially in Latin characters; but the language is in all cases apparently the same, and is wholly distinct from that of the genuine Etruscan monuments on the one hand, as well u from Latin on the other, though exhibiting strong traces of affinity with the older Latin forms, as well as with the existing remains of the Oscnn dialects. There can be no doubt that the language which we hero find is that of the Umbrians themselves, who are represented by all ancient writers as nationally distinct both from the Etruscans and the Subcllian races. The ethnological and linguistic inferences from these important monuments will be more fully considered under the article Umnma. It is only of late years that they have been investigated with care; early antiquaries having formed the most extravagant theories as to their meaning: Lunzi had the merit of first pointing out that they evidently related only to certain sacrificial and other religious rites to be celebrated at the temple of Jupiter by the lguviaus themselves and some neighbouring communities. The interpretation has since been carrin out, as far as our imperfect knowledge will permit, by chsius, Gt'ntefend, and still more recently in the elaborate work of Aufreoht and Kirchhofi'. (Lanzi, Saggio di Lin/Jun Etmca, vol. iii. pp. 657—768 ; Lepsius, dc Tabulis Eugubinis, 1833; Imfl‘ijllimd Umbricae et Oscae, Lips. l84l; Grotefend, Rudimenta Linyuae L'mbricae, Hannov. l835—1839; Aufrccht u. Kirchhoff, Die Umbrl'selwn Sprach. llmknu'ilmz 4to. Berlin, 1849.) In the still in]:
perfect state of our knowledge of the inscriptions in question, it is somewhat hazardous to draw from them positive conclusions as to proper names; but it seems that we may fairly infer the mention of several small towns or communities in the immediate neighbourhood of Iguvium. These were, however, in all probability not independent communities, but pagi, ra' villages dependent upon Iguvium itself. Of this description were: Akorunin or Acerronia (probably answering to the Latin Aquilonia), Clavernia (in Lat. Clavenna), Curia or Cureia, Casilum, J uviscum, Museia, Pierium ('1’), Tarsina, and Trebla or Trepla. The last of these evidently corresponds to the Latin name Trebia or Trebula, and may refer to the Umbrian town of that name: the Cureiati of the inscription are evidently the same with the Curintes of Pliny, mentioned by him among the extinct communities of Umbria (l’lin. iii. 14. s. 19); while the names of Museia and Casilum are said to be still retained by two villages called Museia and Casilo in the immediate neighbourhood of Gubbio. Chiaserna, another neighbouring village, is perhaps the Claverna of the Tables.
The coins of Iguvium, which are of bronze, and of large size (so that they must be anterior to the reduction of the Italian As), have the legend uwvrsr, which is probably the original form of the name, and is found in the Tables, though we here meet also with the softened and probably later form “ ljovina," or “ Iioviua.” [E. H. 13.]
ILA, in Scotland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 5) as the first river south of the Berubium Promontorium: Firth nfDornoch. [R G. L.]
ILARAU'GATAE. [HISPANIA; hence-res]
ILARGUS, a river of Rhaetia Sccunda, flowing from west to east, and emptying itself into the Danube. (Pedo Albinov. Eleg. ad Liv. 386, where the common reading is Itargus; others read Isargus, and regard it as the same as the river Atagis ("A-rays) mentioned by Stmbo, iv. p. 207, with Groakurd‘s note, vol. i. p. 356.) It would, however, appear that Ilargus and Isargus were two different rivers, since in later writers we find, with a slight change, a river Ililara (Vita S. Magni, 18), answering to the modern Iller, and another, Ysarche (Act. S. Cassiani, ap. Resch. Ame. Sabfrm. iv. 7), the modern Elisach, which flows in a southern direction, and empties itself into the Athesis. [L. 5.]
ILA'TTIA ('IAa-r'rla, Polyb. up. Staph. B. e. 12.), a town of Crete, which is probably the some as the Eut'rus 0f Pliny (iv. 12). Some editions read Clatus, incorrectly classed by him among the inland towns. (Hock, Kreta, vol. i. p. 432.) B. J.]
ILERCA’ONES ('IAepKdoves, Ptol. ii. 6. 16, 64; Ilercaoneuscs, Liv. xxii. 21; Illurgavonenses, Cacs. B. C. i. 60: in this, as in so many other Spanish names, the c and g are interchangeable), a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, occupying that portion of the sea-coast of EDETANIA which lay between the rivers Unnna and Issues. Their exact boundaries appear to have been a little to the N. of each of these rivers. They possessed the town of Dcrtosa (TOTIOIG), on the left bank of the Iberus. and it was their chief city. [Demos/t] Their other towns, according to Ptolemy, were: -- ADEBA ("anew Amposta f), TIARIULIA (TraprouMa : Teari Julicnses, up. Plin. 3. s. 4; Trayguera),
Brscanors (Brampyls; Biscargitani civ. Rom, Plin. : Ben-us), SIGARRA (Zi'yafipa: Segarra, Mama, Hisp. ii. 8), CARTHAGO Vmus (Kapx-qbrhr 1a.).aud: Carla Virja, Marca,ibid.), and TIII-IAVA (Gratin). Ukert also assigns to them, on the N. of the Iberus, TRAJA CAPIT.\,OLEASTRU1\I, 'l‘annaco, and other places, which seem clearly to have belonged to the COSETANI. The name of their country, luzncavoxta, occurs on the coins of their city quna. [P. S.] ILERDA (’IM'pBa, and rarely EiAépBa; Hilerda, Anson. Episl. xxv. 59: Elk. 'IAepEirar, Ilcrdenses: Lerida), the chief city of the ILERGE'I‘ES, in Hispania-Tarraconensis, is a. place of considerable importance, historically as well as geographically. It stood upon an eminence, on the right (\V.) bank of the river SICORIS (Segre), the principal tributary of the Ebro, and some distance above its confluence with the CINGA (Cinca); thus commanding the country between those rivers, as well as the great road from Tarraco to the NW. of Spain, which here crossed the Sicoris. (ltin. Ant. pp. 391, 452.) Its situation (propter t'psius loci Wtunilatem, Caes. B. C. i. 38) induced the lcgntcs of Pompey in Spain to make it the key of their defence against Caesar, in the first year of the Civil War (3.0. 49). Afranius and Petreius threw themselves into the place with five legions; and their siege by Caesar himself, as narrated in his own words, forms one of the most interesting passages of military history. The resources exhibited by the great general, in a contest where the formation of the district and the very elements of nature seemed in league with his enemies, have been compared to those displayed by the great Duke before Badajoz; but no epitome can do justice to the campaign. It ended by the capitalation of Afranius and Petrcius, who were conquered as much by Caesar‘s generosity as by his strategy. (Caes. B. C. i. 38, et seq.; Flor. iv. 12; Appian, B. C. ii. 42; Vol]. Pat. ii. 42; Suet. Cues. 3-1; Lucan, Pharsal. iv. 11, 144.) Under the empire, Ilerda was a very flourishing city, and a municipium. It had a fine stone bridge over the Sicoris, on the foundations of which the existing bridge is built. In the time of Ausonius the city had fallen into decay; but it rose again into importance in the middle ages. (Strab. iii. p. 161; Horst.
EDE'I‘AKI and Csurrnem on the S., the Vascosrs panions of Aeneas, who settled in the island, and on the W., on the N. and NE. the small peoples at I remained there in quiet until they were compelled
by the Africans, who subsequently occupied the coasts of Sardinia, to take refuge in the more rugged and inaccessible mountain districts of the interior. (Paus. x. 17. This tale has evidently originated in the resemblance of the name of Ilicnses, in the form which the Romans gave it, to that of the Trojans; and the latter part of the story was invented to account for the apparent anomaly of a people that had come by sea dwelling in the interior of the island. What. the native name of the llienscs was, we know not, and we are wholly in the dark as to their real origin or cthnical affinities: but. their existence as one of the most. considerable tribes of the interior at the period of the Roman conquest, is well ascertained ; and they are repeatedly mentioned by Livy as contending against the supremacy of Rome. Their first insurrection, in 3.0.181, was repressed, rather than put down, by the proctor M.Pinariue; and in 11.0. 178, the Ilicnscs and lialari, in conjunction, llld waste all the more fertile and settled parts of the island; and were even able to meet the consul Ti.Sempronius Grncchus in a pitched battle, in which, however, they were defeated with heavy loss. In the course of the following year they appear to have been reduced to complete submission; and their name is not again mentioned in history. (Liv. x1. 19, 34, xli. 6, 12, 17.)
The situation and limits of the territory occupied by the Ilicnses, cannot be determined: but we find them associated with the Balari and Corsi, as inhabiting the central and mountainous districts of the island. Their name is not found in Ptolemy, though he gives a. long list of the tribes of the interior.
Many writers have identified the llienscs with the Iolacnses or Iolai, who are also placed in the interior of Sardinia; and it is not improbable that they were really the same people, but ancient authors certainly make a distinction between the two. [15. H. B.]
1'Lll’A. 1. ('Iht'lra, Strab. iii. pp. 141, seq.; 'IMf-tra. h Aaimz he'yéA-n, Ptol. ii. 4. § 13; Ilipa cognomine Illa, Pliu. iii. 1. s. 3, according to the corrupt reading which Sillig's last edition retains for want of a better: some give the epithet in tho form Ilpa : Harduin reads Ilia, on the authority of an inscription, which is almost certainly spurious, up. Gruter, pp. 351,305, and Muratori, p. 1002), a city of the Turdetani, in Hispania Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Hispalis. It stood upon the right bank of the Baetis (Guadalquivir), 700 studia from its mouth, at the point up to which the river was navigable for vessels of small burthen, and where the tides were no longer discernible'. [Barns] On this and other grounds it has been identified with the Roman ruins near Periflflm'. There were great silver mines in its neighbourlnxxl. (Strab. l.c., and pp.174,175; Plin. 1.0.; llin.AnL_ p.411; Liv. xxxv. 1; Florez, Esp. S. vol. vii.
sion by an account of the investigations of modern travellers and scholars to identify the site of the famous city. Our most ancient authority are the Homeric poems; but we must at the very outset remark, that we cannot look upon the poet in every respect as a careful and accurate topographcr; but that, admitting his general accuracy, there may yet he points on which he cannot be taken to account as if it had been his professed object to communicate information on the topography of Troy.
The city of Ilium was situated on a. rising ground, somewhat above the plain between the rivers Scamander and Simois, at a distance, as Strabo asserts, of 42 stadia from the coast of the Hellespont. (Hum. 11. xx. 216, fob; Strab. xiii. p. 596.) That it was not quite in the plain is clear from the epithets ill/quimrra, ninety-Ii, and 6¢pudmoa. Behind it, on the south-east, there rose a hill, forming a branch of Mount Ida, surmounted by the acropolis, called Pergamum (16 flc'pryauwv, Hum. 11. iv. 508, vi. 512; also rd. Uc'pryapa, Soph. Phil. 347, 353, 611 ; or, 1'] Hénapor, Hom. II. v. 446, 460.) This fortified acropolis contained not only all the temples of the gods (If. iv. 508, v. 447,512, vi. 88, 257, xxii. 172, &c.), but also the palaces of Primn and his sons, Hector and Paris (11. vi. 317, 370, 512, vii. 345). The city must have had many gates, as may he in~ ferred from the expression m'iotu minat (ll. ii. 809, and elsewhere), but only one is mentioned by name, viz., the Exam! that, which led to the camp of the Greeks, and must accordingly have been on the north-_ west part of the city, that is, the part just opposite the acropolis (1!. iii. 145, 149, 263, vi. 306, 892, xvi. 712, &c.). The origin of this name of the “ left gate" is unknown, though it may possibly have reference to the manner in which the signs in the heavens were observed ; for, during this process, the priest tumedv his face to the north, so that the north-“mt would, be on his left hand. Certain minor objects alluded to in the Iliad, such as the tombs of llus, Aesyctcs, and Myrinc, the Scopie and Erineus, or the wild fig-tree, we ought. probably not attempt to urge very strongly : we are, in fact, prevented from attributing much weight to them by the circumstance that the inhabitants of New Ilium, who believed that their town stood on the site of the ancient city, boasted that they could show close to their walls these doubtful vestiges of antiquity. (Stmb. xiii. p. 599.) The walls of Ilium are described as Iofty and strong, and as flanked with towers; they were fabled to have been built by Apollo and Poseidon (II. i. 129, ii. us, 288, iii. 153, 384, ass, vii. 452, viii. 519). These are the only points of the topography of Ilium derivable from the Homeric poems. The city was destroyed, according to the common tradition, as already remarked, about B. c. 1184; but afterwards we hear of a new Ilium, thOugh we are not informed when and on what site it was built.‘ Herodotus (vii. 42) relates that Xerxes, before invading Greece, ofi'cred sacrifices to Athena at Pergamum, the ancient acropolis of Prism; but this does not quite justify the inference that the new town of Ilium was then already in existence, and all that we can conclude from this passage is, that the people at that time entertained no doubt as to the sites of the ancient city and its acropolis. Strabo (xiii. p. 601) states that Ilium was restored during the last dynasty of the Lydian kings; that is, before the subjugation of Westem Asia by the Persians : and both Xenophon (lleIlen. i. 1. § 4) and Scylax (p. 35) seem to speak of Ilium as a town actually existing in their days.