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It is also certain that irL the time of Alexander New Ilium did exist, and was inhabited by Aeolians. (Demosth. c. Ariltocr. p. 671; Arrian, Anab. i. 11. § 7 1 Strub. xiii. p. 593, foll.) This new town, which is distinguished by Strabo from the famous ancient city, was not more than 12 stadia, or less than two English miles, distant from the sea, and was built upon the spur of a projecting edge of Ida, separating the basins of the Seamander and Simois. It was at first a place of not much importance (Strab. xiii. pp. 593, 601), but increased in the course of time, and was successively extended and embellished by Alexander, Lysimachns, and Julius Caesar. During the Mitbridatic War New llinm was taken by F imbria. in B. c. 85, on which occasion it suffered greatly. (Strab. xiii. p. 594: Appian, Mithrid. 53; Liv. Epit. lxxxiii.) It is said to have been once destroyed before that time, by one Charidemus (Plut. Sertor. 1.; Polyaen. iii. 14) : but we neither know when this happened, nor who this Char-idemus was. Sulla, however, favoured the town extremely, in consequence of which it rose, under the Roman dominion, to considerable prosperity, and enjoyed exemption from all tasres. (Plin. v. 33.) These were the advantages which the place owed to the tradition that it occupied the identical site of the ancient and holy city of Troy: for, it may here be observed, that no ancient author of Greece or Home ever doubted the identity of the site of Old and New Ilium until the time of Demetrius of Scepsis, and Strabo, who adopted his views; and that. even afterwards, the popular belief among the people of Ilium itself, as well as throughout the world generally, remained as firmly established as if the criticism of Demetrius and Strabo had never been heard of. These critics were led to look for Old Ilium further inland, because they considered the space between New Ilium and the coast far too small to have been the scene of all the great exploits described in the Iliad ; and, although they are obliged to own that not a vestigc of Old Ilium was to be seen anywhere, yet they assumed that it must have been situated about 42 stadia from the sea-coast. They accordingly fixed upon a spot which at the time bore the name of 'IMr'tw adv/m. This view, with its assumption of Old and New Ilium as two distinct places, does not in any way remove the difficulties which it is intended to remove ; for the space will still be found far too narrow, not to mention that it demands of the poet what can he demanded only of a geographer or an historian. On these grounds we, in common with the general belief of all antiquity, which has also found able advocates among modern critics, assume that Old and New Ilium occupied the same site. The statements in the Iliad which appear irreconcilable with this view will disappear if we bear in mind that we have to do with an entirely legendary story, which is little concerned about geograplfical accuracy.
The site of New Ilium (according to our view, identical with that of Old Ilium) is acknowledged by all modern inquirers and travellers to be the spot covered with ruins now called Kirmrlik, between the Villages of Kum-kim', Kalh'fatli, and Tchrblak, a little to the west of the last-mentioned place, and not far from the point where the Simois once joined the Seamander. Those who maintain that Old Ilium was situated in a difi'ercnt locality cannot, of course, be expected to agree in their opinions as to its actual site, it being impossible to fix upon any one spot agreeing in every particular with the poet‘s description. Respecting the nationality of the inhabitants
ILLI'BERIS or ILLIBERRIS (’IMEepis), a town in the country of the Sordones, or Sardones, or Sordi, in Gallia Aquitania. The first place that Hannibal came to after passing through the Eastern Pyrenees was Illiheris. (Liv. xxi. 24.) He must have passed by Bellegarde. Illiberis was near a small river Illiberis, which is south of another small stream, the Rnscino, which had also on it a town named Rnscino. (Strab. p.182.) Mela (ii. 5) and Pliny (iii. 4) speak of Illiberis as having once been a great place, but in their time being decayed. The road in the Antonino ltin. from Arelute (Arlee) through the Pyrenees to Juncaria passes from Ruscino (CostelRmm'llon) to Ad Centuriones, and omits Illiberis; but the Table places Illibcris between Buscino and Ad Centenarium, which is the same place as the Ad Centuriones of the Itin. [Gus-rumours, A11] Illibcris is Elna, on the river Tech.
Illiberis or llliberris is an Iberian name. There is another place, Climberris, on tho Gallic side of the Pyrenees, which has the same termination. [Acscn] It is said that berri, in the Basque, means “a town.” The site of Illiboris is fixed at Blue by the Itins.; and we find an explanation of the name Elm in the fact that either the name of lllibcris was changed to Helena or Elena, or Helena was a camp or station near it. Constans was murdered by Magnentius " not far from the Hispaniue, in a castrum namad Helena." (Eutrop. x. 9.) Victor’s Epitome (c. 41) describes Helena as a town very near to the Pyrenees; and Zosimus has the same (ii. 42; and Orosius, 29). It is said by some writers that Helena was so named after the place was restored by Constantine's mother Helena, or by Constantine, or by some of his children; but the evidence of this is not given. The river of Illiberis is the Twins of Mela, and Timon of Pliny, now the Tech. In the text of Ptolemy (ii. 10) the name of the river is written llleris.
Some geographers have supposed llliberis to be Colll'om-e, near Port Vendre, which is a plain mis—
lLLlTURGIS, ILlTURGIS, or ILITURGI (probably the ‘IAoup'yl: of Ptol. ii. 4. § 9, as well as the '“leup‘yei'a of Polybius, op. Steph. B. a. 0., and the ’lAvp'yla. of Appian, Hirp. 32: Elli. Illurgitani), a considerable city of Hispania Baeticu, situated on a steep rock on the N. side of the Baetis, on the road from Corduba to Castulo. 20 M. P. from the latter, and five days’ march from Carthage Nova. In the Second Panic War it went over to the Romans, like its neighbours. Costqu and Mentesa, and endured two sieges by the Carthaginians, both of which were raised; but, upon the overthrow of the two Scipios, the people of llliturgis and Castulo revolted to the Carthaginisns, the former adding to their treason the crime of betraying and putting to death the Romans who had fled to them for refuge. At last such is the Roman Vfl‘SiOD of their otfencc, for which a truly Roman vengeance was taken by Publiua Scipio, B.c. 206. After a defence, such as might be expected when despair of mercy was added to national fortitude, the city was stormed and burnt over the slaughtered corpses of all its inhabitants, children and women as well as men. (Liv. xxiii. 49, xxiv. 41, xxvi. 17, 41, xxviii. 19,20.) Ten years later it had recovered sufliciently to be again besieged by the Romans, and taken with the slaughter of all in adult male population. (Liv. miv. 10.) Under the Roman empire it was a considerable city, with the surname of FORUM J ULIUM- Its site is believed to have been in the neighbourhood of And'ujar, where the church of S. Potenciana now stands. (ltin. Ant. p. 403; Plin. iii. 1. s 3; Priscian. vi. p. 682, ed. Pntsch; Morales, Antig. p. 56, b.; Mentelle, Esp. Mod. p. 183; Laborde, Itin. vol. ii. p. 113; Flurez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 369-, Coins, ap. Florez, Med. voL iii. p. 81 ; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 16; Sestini, p. 56 ; Edithel, vol. i. p. 23 ; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 380.) [1% 5.]
ILLURCO or ILURCO, a town in the W. part of Hispania Baetica, near Pt'noa, on the river Cubl'llas. (lnscr. ap. Gruter, pp. 235, 406; Muratori, p. 1051, Nos. 2, 3; Florez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 98; Coins, up. Florcz, Med. do Esp. vol. ii. p. 472; Mimmet, vol. i. p. 17; Sestini, Med. lap. p. 57; Echhel, vol. i. p. 23.) [P. 5.]
ILLY'RICUM ('rb ’lMupimiv: Elk. and Alli. 'IMiipwr, “Winds, Illyrius, lllyricus), the eastern coast of the Adriatic sea.
l. The Name—The Greek name is ILLrius
('lMupls, Hecat. Fr. 65; Polyb. iii. 16; Strab. iipp. 108, 123, 129, vii. p. 317; Dionys. l‘cr. 96; llerodian, vi. 7; Apollod. ii. 1. §3; Ptol. viii. 7. § 1), but the more ancient writers usually employ the name of the people, oi ‘lMiipioi (e‘v 'roir ‘1AAuplots, Herod. i. 196, iv. 49; Scyl. pp. 7, 10). The name Imamu (’IAAvpia) very rarely occurs. (Stcpii. B. a. v.; Prop. i. 8. 2.) By the Latin writers it generally went under the name of “ Illyricum " (Cass. B. G. ii. 35, iii. 7; Varr. R. R. ii. 10. §7; Cic. ad Att. x. 6; Liv. xliv. 18, 26; Ovid, Twist. i. 3. 121; Mela, ii. :3. § 13; Tee. Ann. i. 5, 46, ii. 44, 53, Hist. i. 2, 9, 76; Flor. i. 18, iv. 2; Just. vii. 2; Snot. T172. 16; Vell. Pat. 109), and the general assent of geographers has given currency to this form.
2. Extent and Limita—The Roman lllyricum was of very different extent from the lllyris or 01 ‘th'Ipioi of the Greeks, and was itself not the same at all times, but must be considered simply as an artificial and geographical expression for the her. derers who occupied the E. coast of the Adriatic, from the junction of that gulf with the louic sea, to the estuaries of the river P0. The earliest writer who has left any account of the peoples inhabiting this coast is Scylax; according to whom (0. 19—27) the Illyrians, properly so called (for the Liburnians and Istrians beyond them are excluded), occupy the sea-coast from Lihuruia to the Chaouians of Epirus. The Bulini were the northernmost of these tribes, and the Ainontini the southernmost. Herodotus (i. 196) includes under thc name, the Heneti or Yeneti, who lived at the head of the gulf; in another passage (iv. 49) he places the Illyrians on the tributary streams of the Murat-a in Seroia.
It is evident that the Gnllic invasions, of which there are several traditions, threw the whole of these districts and their tribes into such confusion, that it is impossible to harmonise the statements of the Periplus of Scylax, or the for later Scymnus of Chios, with the descriptions in Strabo and the Roman historians.
In consequence of this immigration of the Gauls, Appian has confounded together Gauls, Thracians, I’neonians, and Illyrians. A legend which he records (Illyr. 1) makes Celtns, Illyrius, and Gals, to have been three brothers, the sons of the Cyclops I’olypheinns, and is grounded probably on the interinixture of Celtic tribes (the Boii, the Scordisci, and the Taurisci) among the Illyrians: the lapodca, a tribe on the borders 'of Istria,are described by Strubo (iv. p. 143) as half Celts, half lllyrinns. On a rough estimate, it may be said that, in the earliest times, lllyricum was the coast between the Naro (Newton) and the Drilo (Drin), bounded on the E. by the Triballi. At a later period it comprised all the various tribes from the Celtic Taurisci to the Epirots and Macedonians, an'd eastward as far as Moos-in, including the Veneti, Pannoninns, Dalmatians, Durdani, Autariatae, and many others. This is lllyricuin in its most extended meaning in the ancient writers till the 2nd century of the Christian era: as, for instance, in Strabo pp. 313—319), during the reign of Augustus, and in Tacitus (Hist. i. 2, 9, 76, ii. 86; comp. Joseph. B. J. ii. 16), in his account of the civil wars which preceded the fall of Jerusalem. When the boundary of Rome reached to the Danube, the “ Illyricus Limes" (as it is designated in the “ Scriptures Historinc Augustac"), or “ lllyrian frontier," comprised the following provinces: —Noricum, Panuonia Superior, l’aunonia
. D 2 .
Inferior, Mocsia Superior, Moesia Inferior, Dacia, and to Roman lllyricnm; as Lrssus, which was situated Thrace. This division continued till the time of r at the mouth of the Drilo, was fixed upon by the Constantine, who severed from it Lower Moesia and Romans as the border town of the lllyrians in the Thrace, but added to it Macedonia, Thessaly, Achaia, 8., beyond which they were not allowed to sail with
Old and New lipirus, Praevalitana, and Crete. At , their privateers.
Internal communication in this
this period it was one of the four great divisions of , lllyricum was kept up by the VIA CArmAvrA or the Roman empire under a “ Pracfectus Pruetorio,“ ; EGNATIA, the great line which connected Italy and and it is in this signification that it is used by the , the East—Rome, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. later writers, such as Sextus Rufus, the “ Auctor ‘ A road of such importance, as Colonel Leake re
Notitiae Dignitatum Irnperii," Zosirnus, Jornandm, and others. At the final division of the Roman empire, the so-called “Illyricum Orientale," containing the provinces of Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Hellas, New Epirns,Crete,and Praevalitana,was incorporated with the Lower Empire; while “lllyricum Occidentale " was united with Rome, and embraced Noricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia, Savia, and Valeria Ripensis.
A. ILLYRIS BARBARA or ROMANA, was separated from Istrirt by the small river Arsia (Ana), and bounded S. and E. by the Drilo, and on the N. by the Savus; consequently it is represented now by part of Croatia, all Dalmatia, the Herzegovina, Monte-Negro, nearly all Bosnia, and part of A lbam'a.
Illyris Romano was divided into three districts, the northern of which was IAPvDrA, extending b‘. as far as the Tedanius (Zermagna); the strip of land extending from the Arsia to the Titins (Lo Kerka) was called LIBURNIA, or the whole of the north of what was once Venetian Dalmatia; the territory of the DaurA'rAa was at first comprehended between the Naro and the Tilurus or Nestus: it then extended to the Titins. A list of the towns will be found under the several heads of IAPYDIA, LlnunrvrA, and DALMA'nA.
B. ILLYRIS GRAECA, which was called in later times Errnus NOVA, extended from the river Drilo to the SE., up to the Ceraunian mountains, which separated it from Epirus Proper. On the N. it was bounded by the Roman Illyricum and Mount Scordns, on the W. by the Ionian sea, on the S. by Epirus, and on the E. by Macedonia; comprehending, therefore, nearly the whole of modern Albania. Next to the frontier of Chnonia is the small town of AMANTIA, and the people of the AMANTIANS and BunLrorvas. They are followed by the TAULAn'rrr, who occupied the country N. of the Aous—the great river of S. Macedonia, which rises in Mount Lacmon, and discharges itself into the Adriatic—as far as Epidamnus. The chief towns of this country were AI’OLIJONIA, and EPIDAMNUS or DYRRHAcrrwru. In the interior, near the Macedonian frontier, there is a considerable lake, LAcus LYCHNITIS, from which the Drilo issues. Ever since the middle ages there has existed in this part the town of Achrida, which has been supposed to be the ancient chrmmus, and was the capital of the Bulgarian empire, when it extended from the Euxine as far as the interior of Aetolia, and comprised S. Illyricum, Epirus, Acamania, Aetolis, and a part of Thessaly. During the Roman period the DASSARETAE dwelt there; the neighbouring country was occupied by the AUTAmA'rAn', who are said to have been driven from their country in the time of Cassander, when they removed as fugitives with their women and children into Macedonia. The Annual and PABTrrrxr dwelt N. of the Autariatae, though not at the same time, but only during the Roman period. SCODRA (Scutari), in later times the capital of Praevalitana, was unknown during the flourishing period of Grecian history, and more properly belongs
marks (North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 311), and on which the distance had been marked with milestones soon after the Roman conquest of Macedonia, we may believe to have been kept in the best order as long as Home was the centre of a vigorous authority; but it probably shared the fate of many other great establishments in the decline of the empire, and especially when it. became as much the concern of the Byzantine as of the Roman government. This fact accounts for the discrepancies in the Itineraries: for though Lychnidus, Heracleiu, and Edessa, still continued, as on the Candavian Way described by Polybius (up. Sir-ab. vii. pp. 322, 323), to be the three principal points between Dyrrhachiurn and Thessalonica (nature, in fact, having strongly drawn that line in the valley of the Genusus), there appears to have been a choice of routes over the ridges which contained the boundaries of Illyricurn and Macedonia. By comparing the Antonine Itinerary, the Peutingerian Table, and the Jerusalem Itinerary, the following account of stations in. lllyricum is obtained:—
Dyrrhachium or Apollouia.
3. Physical Geography. —- The Illyrian range of mountains, which traverses Dalmatia under the name of Mount Prolog, and partly under other names (Mons Albius, Bebiua), branches of? in Camiola from the Julian Alps, and then, at a considerable distance from the sea, stretches towards Venetia, approaches the sea beyond Aquileia near Trieste, and forms Istris. After passing through Istria as alofty mountain, though not reaching the snow line, and traversing Dalmatia, which it separates from Bosnia, it extends into Albania. It is a limestone range, and, like most mountains belonging to that formation, much broken up; hence the bold and picturesque coast runs out into many promontories, and is flanked by numerous islands.
These islands appear to have originated on the breaking up of the lower grounds by some violent action, leaving their‘limest/one summits above water. From the salient position of the promontory terminating in Punta della Planca, they are divided into two distinct groups, which the Greek geographers called Aasva'rrnrts and Lrnvnnrnrts. They trend NW. and SE., greatly longer than broad, and form various fine channels, called “ canale," and named from the nearest adjacent island : these being bold, with scarcely 'a hidden danger, give ships a secure passage between them. Chemo, Osem, Lucia, Sansego (Absyrtides), abound with fossil bonus. The boue-breccia of these islands appears to be the same conglomerate with those of Gibraltar, Cerigo, and other places in the Mediterranean. The Liburnian group (Argvpridcs nicer, Strab. ii. p. 124, vii. pp. 315, 317; “ Liburnicae lnsuloe," Plin. iii. 30), LISSA (Grease), Brut'rrrA (Bram), Isa/1 (Lissa), Mam-rs (Melada), COBCYRA Nrona (Canola), PHAROB (Lesina) and OLYNTA (Solta), have good ports, but are badly supplied with drinkable water, and are not fertile. Tire mountainous tract, though industrioust cultivated towards the shore, is for the most part, as in the days of Strabo (l. 0.), wild, rugged, and barren. The want of water and the arid soil make Dalmatia unfit for agriculture; and therefore of old, this circumstance, coupled with the excellency and number of the harbours, made the natives more known for piracy than for commercial enterprise. A principal feature of the whole range is that called Monte-Negro(Czemag01-a), consisting chiefly of the cretaoeous or Mediterranean limestone, so extensively developed from the Alps to the Archipelago, and remarkable for its craggy character. The general height is about 3000 feet, with a few higher summits, and the slopes are gentle in the direction of the inclination of the “strata,” with precipices at the outcroppings, which give a fine variety to the scenery.
There is no sign of volcanic action in Dalmatia; and the Nymphaeum near Apollonia, celebrated for the flames that rose continually from it, has probably no reference to anything of a volcanic nature, but is connected with the beds of asphaltum, or mineral pitch, which occur in great abundance in the nummulitic limestone of Albania.
The coast of what is now called Middle Albania, or the lllyrian territory, N. of Epirus, is, especially in its N. portion, of moderate height, and in some places even low and unwholesorne, as far as AULQN (Vulom or At'lona), where it suddenly becomes rugged and mountainous, with precipitous clitl's descending rapidly towards the sea. This is the Kbimara range, upwards of 4000 feet high, dreaded by ancient mariners as the Acro-Ceraunian promontory. The interior of this territory was mrrch superior to N. lllyricum in productiveness: though mountainous, it has more valleys and open plains for cultivation. The sea-ports of Epidamnus and Apollonia introduced the luxuries of wine and oil to the barbarians; whose chiefs learnt also to value the woven fabrics, the polished and carved metallic work, the tempered weapons, and the pottery which was furnished them by Grecian artisans. Salt fish, and, what was of more importance to the inland residents on lakes like that of Lychnidus, salt itself, was imported. In return they supplied the Greeks with those precious commodities, cattle and slaves. Silver mines were also worked nt DAMAB'HL‘M. Wax and honey were probably articles of export ; and it is a proof that the natural products of Illyria were carefully sought out, when we find a species of iris peculiar to the country collected and sent to Corinth, whereits root was employed to give the special flavour to a celebrated kind of aromatic nnguent. Grecian commerce and intercourse not only tended to civilise the S. Illyrians beyond their northern brethren, who shared with the Thracian tribes the custom of tattooing their bodies and 0f ofi'ering human sacrifices; but through the intro
duction of Grecian exiles, made them acquainted with Hellenic ideas and legends, as may be seen by the tale of Cadmus and Harmonia, from whom the chiefs of the lllyrian Enehelees professed to trace their descent. (Comp. Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. iv. pp. 1—10, and the authorities quoted there; to which may be added, Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. pp. 38—42; J. F. Neigebaur, Die Sudelaven, Leipzig, 1851; Niebuhr, Lost. on Etlmog. and Geog. vol. i. pp. 297—314; Smyth, The Mediterranean, pp. 40—45; Hahn, Albanesische Studien, Wien, 1854.)
4. Race and National Character.—Suficient is not known either of the language or customs of the Illyrians, by which their race may be ascertained. The most accurate among the ancient writers have always distinguished them as a separate nation, or group of nations, from both the Thracians and Epirots.
The ancient Illyrians are unquestionably the ancestors of the people generally known in Europe by the name Albanians, but who are called by the Turks “ Arnauts," and by themselves “ Skipetares,” which means in their language “ mountaineers," or “ dwellers on rocks," and inhabit the greater part of ancient lllyricum and Epirus. They have a pcculiar language, and constitute a particular race, which is very distinct from the Slavonian inhabitants who border on them towards the N. The ancients, as has been observed, distinguished the 1]lyrians from the Epirots, and have given no intimations that they were in any way connected. But the Albanians, who inhabit both lllyricum and Epirus, are one people, whose language is only varied by slight modifications of dialect. The lllyrians appear to have been pressed southwards by Slavorrian hordes, who settled in Dalmatia. Driven out from their old territories, they extended themselves towards the S., where they now inhabit :nany districts which never belonged to them in former times, and have swallowed up the Epirots, and extinguished their language. According to Schut'urik (8100. Alt vol. i. p. 31) the urodcm Albanian population is 1,200,000.
Ptolemy is the earliest writer in whose works the name of the Albanians has been distinctly recognised. He mentions (iii. 13. § 23) a tribe called Aumxr (’AAéavoi) and a town ALDANUI’ULIS (‘AAé’avhoArs), in the region lying to the E. of the Ionian sea; and from the narrres of places with which Albanopolis is connected, it appears clearly to have been in the S. part of the lllyrian territory, and in modern Albania. There are no means of forming a conjecture how the name of this obscure tribe came to be extended to so considerable a nation. Tire latest work upon the Albanian language is that of F. Bitter vorr Xylander (Die Spraclre der Albanesen oder Skllipetaren, 1835), who has elucidated this subject, and established the principal facts upon a firm basis. An account of the positions at which Xylander arrived will be found in Prichard (The Physical History of filanlcind, Vol. iii. pp. 477— 4s2)
As the Dalmatian Slaves have adopted the name Illyrians, the Slavonian language spoken in Dalmatia, especially at Rogues, is also called lllyrian; and this designation has acquired general currency ; but it must always be remembered that the ancient lllyrians were in no way connected with the Slave races. In the practice of tattooing their bodies, and offering human sacrifices, the lllyrians resembled the Thraciuus (Strab. vii. p. 315; Herod. v. 6): the custom of one of their tribes, the Dalmatians, to ILWB a new division of their lands every eighth year (Strnb. 1.0.), resembled the well-known practice of the Germans, only advanced somewhat further towards civilised life. The author of the Periplus ascribed to Scylax (L c.) speaks of the great influence enjoyed by their women, whose lives, in consequence, he describes as highly lieentious. The Illyrian, like the modern Albanian Skipetar, was always ready m fight for hire; and rushed to battle, obeying only the instigation of his own love of fighting, or vengeance, or love of blood, or craving for booty. But as soon as the feeling was satisfied,“ overcome by fear, his rapid and impetuous rush was succeeded by an equally rapid retreat or flight. (Comp. Grote, Hist. qureece, vol. vi. p. 609.) They did not fight in the phalanx, nor were they merely 44ml; they rather formed an intermediate class between them and the phalanx. Their arms were short spears and light javelins and shields (“peltastae"); the chief weapon, however, was the 'LéXLUPG, or Albanian knife. Dr. Arnold has remarked (Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. 495),—“ The eastern coast of the Adriatic is one of those ill-fated portions of the earth which, thoth placed in immediate contact with civilisation, have remained pcrpctually barbarian." But Scymnus of Chios (comp. Arnold, vol. iii. p.477), writing of the Illyrians about a century before the Christian era, calls them “a religious people, just and kind to strangers, loving to be liberal, and desiring to live orderly and soberly.” After the Roman conquest, and during its dominion, they were as civilised as most other peoples reclaimed from barbarism. The emperor Diocletian and St. Jerome were both Illyrians. And the palace at Spalato is the earliest existing specimen of the legitimate combination of the round arch and the column; and the modern history of the eastern shor of the Adriatic begins with the relations established by Heraclius with the Serbs or W. Slaves, who moved down from the Carpathians into the provinces between the Adriatic and the Danube. The states which they constituted were of considerable weight in the history of Europe, and the kingdoms, or bannats, of Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Raseia, and Dalmatia, occupied for some centuries is political position very like that now held by the secondary monarchical states of the present day. The people of Nareuta, who had a republican form of government, once disputed the sway of the Adriatic with the Venetians; Raguaa, which sent her Argosiea (Ragosics) to every coast, never once succumbed to the winged Lion of St. Mark; and for some time it seemed probable that the Scrvian colonies established by Heraclius were likely to take a prominent part in advancing the progress ‘of Enropean civilisation. (Comp. Finlay, Greeceunder the Romans, p. 409.)
5. H Mary—The Illyrians do not appear in history before the Peloponnesinn War, when Brasidas and Perdiccas retreated before them, and the lllyrinns, for the first time, probably, had to encounter Grecian troops. (Thuc. iv. 124—128.) Nothing is heard of these barbarians afterwards, till the time of Philip of Macedon, by whose vigour and energy their incursions were first repressed, and their country partially conquered. Their collision with the Maccdoninns appears to have risen under the following circumstances. During the 4th century before Christ a large immigration of Gallic tribes from the westward was taking place, invading the territory of the
more northerly Illyrians, and driving them further to the south. Under Bardylis the lllyrians, who had formed themselves into a kingdom, the origin of which cannot be traced, had extended themselves over the towns, villages, and plains of W. Macedonia (Diod. xvi. 4; Theopomp. Fr. 35, ed. I)idot.; Cic. de Of ii. I]; Phot. Bibl. p. 530, ed. Bekkcr; Liban. Oral. xxriii. p. 632). As soon as the young l'hilip of Macedon came to the throne, he attacked these hereditary enemies B. C. 360, and pushed his successes so vigorously, as to reduce to subjection all the tribes to the E. of Lychnidus. (Comp. Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. xi. pp. 302—304.) A state was formed the capital of which was probably near Rogues, but the real Illyrian piratm with whom the Romans came in collision, must have occupied the N.of Dalmatia. Rhodes was still a maritime power; but by n.(:. 233 the Illyrinns had become formidable in the Adriatic, ravaging the coasts, and disturbing the navigation of the allies of the Romans. Envoy: were sent to Teuta, the queen of the Illyrians, demanding reparation: she replied, that piracy was the habit of her people, and finally had the envoys murdered. (Polyb. ii. 8; Appian, Illyr. 7; Zonar. viii. 19; comp. Plin. xaxiv. l1.) A Roman army for the first time crossed the Ionian golf, and concluded a peace with the lllyrians upon honourable terms, while the Greek states of Corcyra, Apollonia, and Epidauinus, received their liberty as a gift from Rome.
On the death of Tents, the traitor Demetrius of l’haros made himself guardian of Pincus, son of Agron, and usurped the chief authority in Illyricum : thinking that the Romans were too much engaged in the Gallic wars, he ventured on several piratical acts. This led to the Second Illyrian War, 11.0. 219, which resulted in the submission of the whole of Illyricurn. Demetrius fled to Macedonia, and l’ineus was restored to his kingdom. (Polyhiii. 16,18 ; Liv. axii. 33; App. lllyr. 7, 8; Flor. ii. 5; Dion Cass. xxxiv. 46, 151 ; Zonar. viii. 20.) Pincus was succeeded by his uncle Sccrdilaidas, and Seerdilaidas by his son Pleuratus, who, for his fidelity to the Roman cause during the Macedonian War, was rewarded at the peace of 196 by the addition to his territories of Lyclinidus and the Parthini, which had before belonged to Macedonia (Polyb. xviii. 30, xxi. 9, xxii. 4; Liv. xxxi. 28, xxxii. 34.) In the reign of Gentius, the last king of Illyricum, the Dalmatae revolted, B. c. 180 ; and the praetor L. Anicius, entering Illyricum, finished the war within thirty days, by taking the capital Scodra (Scutafi'), into which Gentius had thrown himself, 3.0. 168. (l’olyb. xxx. 13; Liv. xliv. 30 —32, xlv. 43; Appian. [III/1'. 9; Eutrop. iv. 6.) Illyricum, which was divided into three parts, became annexed to Rome. (Liv. xlv.26.) The My tory of the Roman wars with DALMATIA, IAPYDIA, and Lrnrmnut, is given under those heads.
In B. c. 27 Illyricum was under the rule of a procunsul appointed by the senate (Dion Cass. liii. 12): but the frequent attempts of the people to recover their liberty showed the necessity of maintaining a strong force in the country ; and in n.c. ll (Dion Cass. liv. 34) it was made an imperial province, with P. Cornelius Dolabella for “ legatus " (“ leg. pro. pr.," Orclli, Inscr. no. 2365, comp. no. 3128; Tue. Hist. ii. 86; Marquardt, in Becker's Ro'm. All. vol. iii. pt. i. pp. [IO—I15). A large region, extending far inland towards the valley of the Save and the Drove, contained bodies of soldier-y,