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sucarao (Viuuch, near Udbr'na); Cnuxm-rua (Grnchatz). [E. B. J.]

IAPY’GIA (Iatvyie), was the name given by the Greeks to the SE. portion of Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea, but the term was used with considerable vagueness, being sometimes restricted to the extreme SE. point or peninsula, called also Mes!apia, and by the Romans Calabria; at other times extended so as to include the whole of what the Romans termed Apulia. Thus Scylex describes the whole coast. from Lucania to the promontory of Drion (Mt. Gargunus) aa comprised in Iapygirt, and even includes under that appellation the cities of Illotopontum and Heraclea on the gulf of Tarentum, which are usually assigned to Lucania. Hence he states that their coast-line extended fora space of six days and nights' voyage. (Scyl. § I4. p. 5.) Polyhius at a later period used the name in an equally extended sense, 50 as to include the whole of Apollo (iii. 88), as well as the Messapian peninsula; but he elsewhere appears to use the name of Iapygians as equivalent to the Roman term Apulians, and distinguishes them from the Messapians (ii. 24). This is, however, certainly contrary to the usage of earlier Greek writers. Herodotus distinctly applies the term of Iapygia to the peninsula, and calls the Messapians an Iapygian tribe; though he evidently did not limit it to this portion of Italy, and must have extended it, at all events, to the land of the Peuoetians, if not of the Daunians also. (Herod. iv. 99, vii. 170.) Aristotle also clearly identifies the Iapygianrt with the Messapians (Pol. v. 3), though the limits within which he applies the name of Iapygia (lb. vii. IO) cannot be defined. Indeed, the name of the Inpygian promontory (1‘1 fiat-pa 1‘; 'Iarrrryfn), universally given to the headland which formed the extreme point of the peninsula, aufiiciently proves that this was considered to belong to Iapygia. Strabo confines the term of Iapygia to the peninsula, and says that it was called by some Irrpygia, by others Illcssnpia or Calabria. (Strab. vi. pp. 281, 282.) Appian and Dionysius Pericgetcs, on the contrary, follow Polybius in applying the name of Iapygia to the Roman Apulia, and the latter expressly says that the Iapygian tribes extended as far as Hyrium on the N. side of Mt. Gar-ganus. (Appian, Ann. 45; Dionys. I’er. 379.) Ptolemy, as usual, follows the Roman writers, and adopts the names then in use for the divisions of this part. of Italy: hence he ignores altogether the name of Iapygia, which is not found in any Roman writer as a geographical appellation; though the Latin poets, as usual, adopted it from the Greeks. (Virg. Aen. xi. 247; Ovid, diet. xv. 703.)

We have no clue to the origin or meaning of the name. of Iapygians, which was undoubtedly given to the people (IAPYGES, 'ldrrr/yer) before it was applied to the country which they inhabited. Niebulrr (vol. i. p. 146) considers it as ctymologically connected with the Latin Apulue, but this is very doubtful. The name appears to have been a general one, including several tribes or nations, among which were the Messapiane, Sallentini, and Pencetians: hence Herodotus calls the Messapians, Iapygiaus (’Ifirrv'yes Meantime“, vii. I70); and the two names are frequently interchanged. The Greek mythographers, as usual, derived the name from a hero, Iapyx, whom they represented as a son of Lycaon, a descent probably intended to indicate the I’clzwgic origin of the Iapygians. (Anton. Liberal. 3i; Plin. II. a. 16.) For a further account of


the national attinities of the difl‘erent tribes in this part of Italy, as well as for a description of its physical geography, see the articles Arena and CALABarn. [1% H. 13.]

IAPY’GIUM PROMONTO'IIIUM ('Akpa 'lenruyin: Capo Sta. Maria dt' Leuca), a headland which forms the extreme SE. point of Italy, as well as the extremity of t e long peninsula or promontory that divides the gulf of Tarentum from the Adriatic sea. It is this long projecting strip of land, commonly termed the heel of Italy, and designated by the Romans as Calabr'ia, that. was usually termed by the Greeks Iapygia, whence the name of the promontory in question. The latter is well described by Strabo as a rocky point extending far out to sea towards the 51-1., but inclining a little towards the Lacinian pmrnontory, which rises opposite to it, and together with it encloses the gulf of 'l'arentum. He states the interval between theoc two headlands, and consequently the width of the Tarcntine gulf, at its entrance. at about 700 stadia (70 G. miles), which slightly exceeds the truth. Pliny calls the same distance 100 M. P. or 800 stadia; but the real distance does not exceed 66 G. miles or 660 stadia. (Strab. vi. pp. 258, 281 ; I’lin. iii. II. a. 16; Pm]. iii. 1. § 13; Polyb. X. l.)

The same point was also not nnfrcquently termed the Salcntine promontory (PROMONTORIUM SammTINUM, Mel. ii. 4. § 8; Flu]. l. 0.), from the people of that name who inhabited the country immediately adjoining. Sallust applies the same name to the whole of the Calabrinn or Messapian peninsula. (Sall. ap. Serv. adAen. iii. 400.) Its modern name is derived from the ancient church of Sta. Maria di Leora, situated close to the headland,and which has preserved the name of the ancient town and port of Leuca; the latter was situated immediately on the W. of the promontory, and afforded tolerable shelter for vessels. [Lenora] Hence we find the Athenian fleet, in n. c. 415, on its way to Sicily, touching at the Iapygian promontory after crossing .from Corcyra ('l'huc. vi. 30, 44); and there can be no doubt that this was the customary course in proceeding from Greece to Sicily. . H. 8.]

IA'RDANUS ('Idpoavor), a river on the N. coast of Crete, near the banks of which the Cydonians dwelt. (Horn. 0d. iii. 292.) It is identified with the rapid stream of the Platamli, which rises in the White Mountains, and, after flowing between the Ritr'zitc villages of Tbc'riso and La'kr' or inlrue, runs through a valley formed by low hills, and filled with lofty platanes; from which it obtains its name. The river of Plalum'a' falls into the sea, nearly opposite the islet of llu'ghr'os Theddlwroe, where there is good

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coast of Pontna, 130 stadia to the north-east of Po~ lemonium; it is the moat projecting cape on that crust, and forms the terminating point of the chain of Mount Paryadres. it was believed to have received its name from the fact that Jason had landed there. (Strab. xii. p. 548; Arrian, Peripl. p. 17; Anonym. Pen'pl. p. 11; Ptol. v. 6. § 4 ; Xenoph. Anab. \‘i. 2. § 1, who calls it 'Iaoovia dn'r‘h.) It still bears the name Jasoon, though it is more commonly called Cape Bona or Vona, from a town of the same name. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 269.) The Asinet'a, called a Greek acropolis by Scylax (p. 33), is probably no other than the Jasonium. [L. 8.]

IASPIS. [Connemara]

IASSII ('1n'wum), mentioned by Ptolemy as a population of Upper Pannonia (ii. 14. 2). Pliny's tonn of the name (iii. 25) is Iast'. He places them on the brave. [R. G. L.]

lASSUS, or IASUS (Indoor, or '1aoos: Elli. 'tmou'ls), a town of Caria, situated on a small i>land close to the north coast of the huian bay, which derives its name from Iassus. The town is said to have been founded at an unknown period by Argire colonists ; but as they had sustained severe losses in a war with the native Carians, they invited the son of Neleus, who had previoust founded Miletus, to come to their assistance. The town appears on that. occasion to have received additional settlers. (Polyb. xvi. 12.) The town, which appears to have occupied the whole of the little island, had only ten stadia in circumference; but. it nevertheless acquired great wealth (Thncyd. viii. 28), from its fisheries and trade in fish (Strab. xiv. p. 658). Atter the Sicilian expedition of the Athenians, during the Peloponnesian war, Iassus was attacked by the Lacedaemoniana and their allies; it was governed at the time by Amorges, a Persian chief, who had rerolted from Darius. It was taken by the Lacedaemonians, who captured Amurges, and delivered him up to Tissaphernes. The town itself was destroyed on that occasion; but must have been rebuilt, for we afterwards find it besieged by the last Philip of Macedonia, who, however, was compelled by the Romans to restore it to Ptolemy of Egypt. (Polyb. xvii. 2; Liv. xxxii. 33; comp. Ptol. v. 2.§ 9; Plin. v. 29; Stud. Mar. Mayn. 274, 275; Hierocl. p. 689.) The mountains in the neighbourhood of lassus furnished a beautiful kind of marble, of a blood-red and livid white colour, which was used by the ancients for ornamental purposes. (Paul. Silent. Ecphr. S. Soph. ii. 213.) Near the town was a sanctuary of Hmtias, with a statue of the goddess, which, though standing in the open air. was believed never to be touched by the rain. (Polyb. xvi. 12.) The same story is related, by Strabo, of a temple of Artemis in the same neighbourhood. Inssus, as a celebrated fishing place, is alluded to by Athenaeus (iii. p. 105, xiii. p. 606). The place is still existing, under the name of Askem or Asyn Kalasi. Chandler (Tr-m eels in A1. Min. p. 226) relates that the island on which the town was built is now united to the main

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land by a small isthmus. Part of the city walls still exist, and are of a regular, solid, and handsome structure. In the side of the rock a theatre with many rows of seats still remains, and several inscriptions and coins have been found there. (Comp. Spun and Wheler, Voyages, vol. i. p. 361.)

A second town of the name of lassus existed in Cappadocia or Armenia Minor (Ptol. v. 7.§ 6), on the north-east of Zoropassus. [L. 5.]

IASTAE (’tiiorat, Ptol. vi. 12), a Scythian tribe, whose position must be sought for in the neighbour~ hood of the river lastus. B. J.]

lAS'l‘Ub' ('leor), a river which, according to Ptolemy (vi. 12), was, like the Polytimetus (Kc/tile), an afliuent of the Caspian basin, and should in fact be considered as such in the sense given to a denomination which at. that time embraced a vast and complicated hydraulic system. [Jaxmn'rsj Von Humboldt (Asie Centrale, vol. ii. p. 263) has identified it. with the Kizil-Deria, the dry bed of which may be traced on the barren wastes of Kizil Kuum in W. Turkistan. - It is no unusual circumstance in the sandy steppes of N. Asia for rivers to change their course, or even entirely to disappear. Thus the Kizil-Deria, which was known to geographers till the commencement of this century, no longer exists. (Comp. Levohine, Hordes et Slcppco des Kirghiz anaks, p.456.) [1-1. B. J.]

IAST US, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 14. §2) as falling into the Caspian between the Jaik and the Oxus. It is only safe to call it one of the numerous rivers of Independent Tartary. [1L G. L.]

IASUS. 0151151.]

IA'TlI ('ia'rmt, l’tol.'vi. 12. §4), a people in the northern part of Sogdiana. They are also mentioned by Pliny (vi. 16. s. 18); but nothing certain is known of their real position.

IATINUM (“Munro”), according to Ptolemy (ii. 8.§ 15) the city of the Meldi, a people of Gallia Lugdunensia. It is supposed to be the same place as the Fixtuinum ot' the Table [FIXTUINL‘M], and to be represented by the town of Jim“: on the 110m. Walckenner, who tmsts more to the accuracy of the distances in the Table than we safely can do, says that the place Fixtuinum has not in the Table the usual mark which designates a capital town, and that the measures do not carry the position of Fixtuinum as far as Mean-r, but only as far as Montbout. He conjectures that the word Fixtuinum may be a con'uption of Fincs Iatinorum,and accordineg must be a place on the boundary of the little community of the Meldi. This conjecture might be good, if the name of the people was latini, and not Meldi. . L.]


IATRA or IATRUM (’larpév), a town in Moesia, situated at the point where the river latrus or Iantrua empties itself into the Danube, a few miles to the east of Ad Novas. (Procop. dc Aed. iv. 7 ; Theophylact. vii. 2 ; Notit. Imp. 29, where it is erroneously called Latra ; Geogr. Rav.. iv. 7, where, as in the I’eut. Tab" it bears the name Laton.) [L 5.]

lA'l'RUS (in the Part. Tab. lam-nus), a river traversing the central part of Mocsia. It has its sources in Mount Haemus, and, having in its course to the north received the waters of several tributaries, falls into the Danube ClOoc by the town of intro. (Plin. iii. 29, where the common reading is Ieterus ; Jomand. (111.18, Geogr. Rav. iv. 7.) it is probably the same as the Athrys ('Aepvr) mentioned by Herodotul (iv.49). Its modern name islanlra. [L.b'fl

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river of Central Asia which now bears the name of Syr-Daria, or Yellow River (Daria is the generic Tartar name for all rivers, and .Slyr:“yc|law"), and which, watering the barren steppes of the Kirghiz-Cossack, was known to the civilised world in the most remote ages.

The exploits of Cyrus and Alexander the Great have inscribed its name in history many centuries before our aera. If we are to believe the traditionary statements about Cyrus, the left bank of this river formed the N. limit of the vast dominion of that conqueror, who built a town, deriving its name from the founder [Crnnscmrra], upon its banks; and it was upon the right bank that he lost his life in battle with Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae. Herodotus (i. 201—216), who is the authority for this statement, was aware of the existence of the Syr-Daria ; and although the name Juxartes, which was a denomination adopted by the Greeks and followed by the Romans, does not appear in his history, yet the Arnxes of Herodotus can be no other than the actual Syr, because there is no other great river in the country of the Massagctac. Much has been written upon the mysterious river called Araxes by Herodotus; M. De Guignes, Fosse, and Gatlerer, suppose that it is the same as the Oxus or AmouDam'a ; M. De la Nance sees in it the Araxes of Armenia; while Bayer, St. Croix, and Larclicr, couceive that under this name the Volga is to be understood. The true solution of the enigma seems to be that which has been suggested by D‘Anvillc, that the Arases is an appellatirc common to the Amou, the Armenian Area, the Volga, and the Syr. (Comp. Arum-:3, p. 188; Mc'm. de I’Acad. (Ice 1mm: vol. xxxvi. pp. 69—85; Heeren, Asiat. Nations, vol. ii. p. 19, trans.) From this it may be concluded, that Herodotus had some vague acquaintance with the Syr, though he did not know it by name, but confounded it with the Araxcs; nor was Aristotle more successful, as the Syr, the Volga, and the Don, have been recognised in the description of the Anxes given in his Meteorologle (i. 13. § 15), which, it must be recollected, was written before Alexander‘s expedition to India. (Comp. Ideler, Meteorologia Vet. Graecor. et Rom. ad I. 0., Hero], 1832; St. Croix, Emmett Critique dc; Hist. d.'li€1. p. 703.)

A century alter Herodotus, the physical geography of this river-basin became well known to the Greeks, from the expedition of Alexander to Bactria and Sogdiana. In B. c. 329, Alexander reached the Jaxartes, and, afler destroying the seven towns or fortresses upon that river the foundation of which was ascribed to Cyrus, founded a city, bearing his own name, upon its banks, Aura/mnuma ULTIMA (K/wjenll). (Q. Curt. vii. 6; Arrian, Anab. iv. 1. § 3.)

After the Macedonian conquest, the Syr is found in all the ancient geographers under the fonn Jaxnrtes: while the country to the N. of it bore the general name of Scythia, the tracts between the Syr and Amou were called 'i'ransoitiana. The Jaxartcs is not properly a Greek word, it was borrowed by the Greeks from tho Barbarians, by whom, as Arrian (Anal). iii. 30. § 13) asserts, it was called 'Orxantes (Olefin/rm). Various etymologies of this name have been given (St. Croix, Eramen Critique (Ies Hist. d'AIez. § 6), but they are too uncertain to be relied on: but whatever be the derivation of

’ the word, certain it is that the Syr appears in all

ancient writers under the name Juxartes. Some, indeed, confounded the Jaxartcs and the '1‘ana'is,and that purposely, as will be seen hereafter. A few E have confounded it with the Oxus; while all, without

exception, were of opinion that both the Janrtea and the One discharged their waters into the Ca:pian, and not into the Sea of Aral. It seems, at first sight, curious,to those who know, the true position of these rivers, that the Greeks, in describing , their course, and determining the distance of their 1 respective “embouchuros,” should have taken the Sea of Aral for the Caspian, and that their mistake should have been repeated up to very recent times. You Humboldt (Arie Centrale, vol. ii. pp. 162—297) —-to whose extensive inquiry we owe an invaluable digest of the views entertained respecting the geography of the Caspian and 0xus by classical, Arabian, and European writers and travellers, along with the latest investigations of Russian scientific and military men — arrives at these conclusions respecting the ancient junction of the Aral, Oxus, and Caspian:

1st. That, at a period before the historical era, but nearly approaching to those revolutions which preceded it, the great depression of Central Asia—the concavity of Twan —- may have been one large interior sea, connected on the one hand with the Enxine, on the other hand, by channels more or less broad, with the Icy Sea, and the [Jul/rash and its adjoining lakes.

2nd. That, probably in the time of Herodotus, and even so late as the Macedonian invasion, the Aral was merely a bay or gulf of the Caspian, connected with it by a lateral prolongation, into which the Oxus flowed.

3rd. That, by the preponderance of evaporation over the supply of water by the rivers, or by diluvial deposits, or by Plutonic convulsions, the Aral and Caspian were separated, and a bifurcation of the Oxus de\'clopcd,- one portion of its waters continuing its course to the Caspian, the other tenninating in the Aral.

4th. That the continued preponderance of evaporation has caused the channel communicating with the Caspian to dry up.

At present it must be allowed that, in the absence of more data, the existence of this great Aralo-Caspian basin within the “historic period," must be a moot point; though the geological appearances prove by the equable distribution of the same peculiar organic remains, that the tract between the Aral and the Caspian was once the bed of an united and continuous sea, and that. the Caspian of the present day is the small residue of the once mighty AndoCaspisn Sea.

Strabo (xi. pp. 507—517) was acquainted with the true position of this river, and has exposed the errors committed by the historians of Alexander (p. 508), who confounded the mountains of the Plropamisus—or Paropanisus, as all the good MSS. of Ptolemy rend (Aaie Centrale, vol. i. pp. 114—118) -—with the Caucasus, and the Jaxartes with the 'l'ana'i's. Allthis was imagined with a view of enlting the glory of Alexander, so that the great conqueror might be supposed, after subjugating Asia, to have arrived at the Don and the Caucasus, the scene of the legend where Hercules unbound the chains of the tire-bringingr Titan.

Tho Jaxartes, according to Strabo (p. 510), took its rise in the mountains of India, and he determines it as the frontier between Sogdiana and the nomad Scy


thians (pp. 514, 517), the principal tribes of which were the Stone, Dahae, and Massagetac, and adds (p. 518) that its “ embouchure " was, according to Paticclcs, 8t) {sirasangs from the mouth of the Oxus. Pliny (vi. 18) says that the Scythinns called it “ Silis," probably a form of the name Syr, which it now bears, and that Alexander and his soldiers thought that it was the Tanal's. It has been conjectured that the Alani, in whose language the word tan (Tan-ai's, Dan, Don) signified a river, may have brought this appellative first to the 1%., and then to the W. of the Aralo-Caspian basin, in their migrations, and thus have contributed to confirm an error so flattering to the vanity of the Macedonian conquerors. (Arie Centralc, vol. ii. pp. 254, 291; comp, Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 500.) Pomponiua Mela (iii. 5. § 6) merely states that it watered the vast countries of Scythia and Sogdiana, and discharged itself into that E. portion of the Caspian which was called Scythicus Sinus.

Arrian, in recounting the capture of Cyropolis (Anab. iv. 3. 4), has mentioned the curious fact, that the Macedonian army entered the town by the dried-up bed of the river; these desiccations are not rare in the sandy steppes of Central Asia, — as for instance, in the sudden drying up of one of the arms of the Jaxartes, known under the name of Tnnghi-Dan'a, the account of which was first brought to Europe in 1820. (Comp. Joum. Geog. Soc. vol. xiv. pp. 333—335.)

Ptolemy (vi. 12. § 1) has fixed mathematically the sources, as well as the “embouchnre,” of the Jaxartes. According to him the river rises in lat. 43° and long. 125°, in the mountain district of the Comm! (7') dpuvi, Kant-"Mu, § 3: M1124 Trig/l), and throws itself into the Caspian in lat. 48° and long. 97°, carrying with it the waters of many afiluents, the principal of which are called, the one Bascit'rls (Ban-011s, §3), and the other DEMUS (Afipos, § 3). He describes it u watering three countries, that of the " Sacne," “ Sogdiana,” and “ Scythia intra Imaum." 1n the first of these, upon its right bank, were found the COMARI (deapoi) and CARATAE (Kapdrai, vi. 13. 3); in the second, on the left bank, the Asiasas (‘Ame'o-eis) and DRKPSIANI (Apalaowm'), who extended to the Oxus, the TACIIORI (Téxapoi), and 1111‘" ('Ici'nnl, vi. 12. § 4); in Scythia, on the N. bank of the Syr, lived the JAXarrran (’lafdpral), a numerous people (vi. 14.§ 10). and near the “ embouchnre," the Amacar: (’Apcdmu, vi. 14. § 13). Ainmianus Marcellinus (xxiii. 6. § 59), describing Central Asia, in the upper course of the Jaxartes which falls into the Caspian, speaks of two rivers, the Anaxa'rrs and Drama (probably the Demus of Ptolemy), “ qui per jugs vallesqne praccipites in campestrem planitiem dccurrentes Oxiam nomine paludein efiiciunt longe lateqne difi‘nsam." This is the first intimation, though very vague, as to the formation of the Sea of Aral, and requires a more detailed examination. [OXIA Paws]

The obscure Geographer of Ravenna, who lived, as it is believed, about the 7th century A. 0., mentions the river Jaxartes in describing Hyrcania.

Those who wish to study the accounts given by mediaeval and modem travellers, will find much valuable information in the “ Dissertation on the River .Iaxartcs " annexed to Levchine, Hordes e! Steppe: do: Kirghiz-Kuzakv, Paris, 1840. This same writer (pp. 53—70) has described the course of the Syr‘Drmia, which has its source in the mountains of


Kachkar-Davan, a branch of the range called by the Chinese the " Mountains of Heaven," and, taking a NW. course through the sandy stcppes of KizilKoum and Kara-Koum, unites its waters with those of the Sea ofAral, on its E. shores, at the gulf of Kamecklou-Bnchi. B. J.]

JAXAMATAE (’Iafaudfu, 'IaEapu'i-mi, ’lfo/Mfrm, lxomatar, Amm. Marc. nii. 8. §31; Exomutae, Val. Flacc. Argomut. vi. 144, 569) a people who first appear in history during the reign of Satyrus 111., king of Bosporus, who waged war with Tirgatao, their queen. (l’olyaen. viii. 55.) The ancients attribute them to the Sarinatian stock. (Scymn. Fr. p. 140; Anon. Pen'pl. Eur. p. 2.) Pomponins Mela (i. 19. § 17) states that they were distinguished by the peculiarity of the women being as tn'ed warriors as the men. Ptolemy (v. 9) has placed them between the Don and Volga, which agrees Well with the position assigned to them by the authors mentioned above. In the second century of our era they disappear from history. Schafarik (Slav. All. yo]. i. p. 340), who considers the Sarmatians to belong to the Median stock, connects them with the Median word “ mat " = “ people," as in the termination Sauromatac; but it is more probable that the Sannatians were Slavonians. B. J.]

JA'ZYGl'ZS, IA'ZYGES (’lafiryes, Staph. B. Iazyx), a people belonging to the Samiatian stock, whose original settlemean were on the Palus Macotis. (Ptol. iii. 5. § 19: Strab. vii. p. 306 ; Arrian, Anab. 1, 3; Amm. Marc. xxii. 8. § 31.) They were among the barbarian tribes armed by Mithridates (Appian, Mitlzr. 69); during the banishment of Ovid they were found on the Danube, and in Bessarabia and Wallachia (Ep. oz Pout. i. 2, 79. iv. 7,9, Trist. ii. 19. 1.) in a. D. 50, either induced by the rich pastures of Hungary, or forced onwards from other causes, they no longer appear in their ancient seats, but in the plains between the Lower T heiss and the mountains of Transylvania, from which they had driven out the Dacians. (Tnc. Ann. xii. 29; Plin. iv. 12.) This migration, probably, did not extend to the whole of the tribe, as is implied in the surname “ Metanastae;" henceforward history speaks of the IAZYGES METANASTAE (’la’fv-yes oi Me-mvdo'rm), who were the Sarmatians with whom the Romans so frequently came in collision. (Comp. Gibbon, c. xviii.) In the second century of our era, Ptolemy (iii. 7) assigns the Danube, the Theiss, and the Carpathians as the limits of this warlike tribe. and enumerates the following towns as belonging to them: -—- USCENUM: (Ofiamvov); BORMANL‘M or Gmuuaxun (Bbppawov, al. I‘dpaaimv); Anna-m or ABm'ra ('Aéln-ra, aL 'Aera); TRISSUM (Tpumdv); Cannancn (KbMum'); PARCA (flaipna); P1588111)! (He'acnov); and PARTISCUM (fldp'rwnav). These tovms were, it would seem, constructed not by the Iazyges themselves, who find in tents and waggons, but by the former Slave inhabitants of Hungary; and this supposition is confirmed by the fact that the names are partly Keltic and partly Slavish. Manncrt and Reichard (Forbiger, vol. iii. p. 1111) have guessed at the modern representatives of these places. but Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 514) is of opinion that no conclusion can be safely drawn except as to the identity of Pest!» with Pcssium, and of Potiuja with Partiscnm.

The lazygcs lived on good terms with their neighbours on the “I, the German Quldi (Tac. Hist. iii. 5), with whom they united for the purpose of subjugating the native Slaves and resisting the power of Rome. A portion of their territory was taken from them by Decebulus, which, after Trujan's Dacinn conquests, was incorporated with the Roman dominions. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 10, 11.) Pannonia and Moesia were constantly exposed to their inroads; but, AJ). 171, they were at length driven from their last holds in the province, and pushed across the Danube, by M. Aurelius. In mid-winter they returned in great numbers, and attempted to cross the frozen stream; the Romans encountered them upon the ice, and inflicted a severe defeat. (Dion Cass. lxxi. 7, 8, 16.) At a later period, as the Roman Empire hastened to its fall, it was constantly exposed to the attacks of these wild hordes, who, beaten one day, appeared the next, plundering and laying waste whatever came in their way. (Amm. Marc. xvii. 12, 13, axis. 6.) The word “ peace" was unknown to them. (Flor. iv. 12.)

They called themselves “ Sarmatae Limignntes,” and were divided into two classes of freemeu and slaves, “ Sarmatao Liberi," “ Snrmatae Scrvi," Ammianus hlnrcellinus (xvii. 13. § 1) calls the subject class “ Limigantes" (a Word which has been falsely explained by “ Limitanei "), and St. Jerome (CM-an.) says that the ruling Sarmatians had the title “ Arcagarantes." By a careful comparison of the accounts given by Dion Cassius, Ammianus, Jerome, and the writer of the Life of Constantine, it may be clearly made out that the Sarmatian lazyges, besides subjugating the Getae in Dacia. and on the Lower Danube, had, by force of arms, enslaved a people distinct from the Getue, and living on the Theiss and at the foot of the Carpathians. Although the nations around them were called, both the ruling and the subject race, Sarmatians, yet the free Sarmatians were entirely distinct from the servile population in language, customs, and mode of life. The Iazyges, wild, bold riders, scoured over the plains of the Danube and Theiss valleys on their unbroken horses, while their only dwellings were the waggons drawn by oxen in which they carried their wives and children. The subject Sarmatians, on the other hand, had wooden houses and villages, such as those enumerated by Ptolemy (l. 0.); they fought more on foot than on horseback, and were during seamen, all of which peculiarities were eminently characteristic of the ancient Slaves. (Schafarik, vol. i. p. 250.)

The Slaves often rose against their masters, who sought an alliance against. them among the Victofali and Quadi. (Ammian. l. 0.; Euseb. Vii. Constant. iv. 6.) The history of this obscure and remarkable warfare (A. n. 334) is given by Gibbon (c. xviii.; comp. Le Beau, Baa Empire, vol. i. p. 337; Manso, chen Constantino, p. 195). In A. D. 357—359 a new war broke out, in which Constantius made a successful campaign, and received the title “ Sar

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Benga and Baha'i, were defeated before Singidunnm (Belgrade) by Theodoric the Ostrogoth. (Jormmd. do Rob. Get. 55; comp. Gibbon, c. xxxix.; Le Beau, vol. vii. p. 44.) The hordes of the Huns, chidae, and Goths broke the power of this wild people, whose descendants, however, concealed themselves in the desert districts of the 'Theiss till the arrival of the Mugyars.

Another branch of the Sarmatian Iazyges were settled behind the Carpathians in Podlackia, and were known in history at the end of the 10th century of our en; it is probable that they were among


the northern tribes vanquished by Hermanric in A. D" 332—350, and that they were the same people as those mentioned by Jomandes (de Reb. Get. 3) under the corrupt form INAL'NXES.

There is a monograph on this subject by Hennig (Comment de Reblu lazygum S. lazvingorum, Regiomont, 1812); a full and clear account of the fortunes of these peoplm will be found in the German translation of the very able work of Schafurik, the historian of the Slavish races.

In 1799 a golden dish was found with an inscription in Greek characters, now in the imperial cabinet of antiquitiw at Vienna, which has been referred to the lazygcs. (Von l-lnmmer, Osman. Gem/t. vol. iii. p. 726.) [l‘L B. J.]

IBAN ('16av, Ccdren. vol. ii. p. 774), a city which Cedrcnus (L 0.) describes as the mctropolisof Vusbourngan (pl-rrrpdrohu Bl aim roii Banapanda).

The name survives in the modern Vrin. St. Martin, the historian of Armenia (Mom. m l'Armenie, vol. i. p. 117), says that, according to native traditions, Vdn is a very ancient city, the foundation of which was attributed to Semiramis. Ruined in course of time, it. was rebuilt by a king called Van, who lived a short time before the expedition of Alex~ ander the Great, and who gave it his name; but, having again fallen into decay, it was restored by Yugh-Arshag (anarsases), brother to Arsases, and first king of Armenia ot' the race of the Arsasidae. In the middle of the 4th century after Christ it was captured by Sapor 11. (Bitter, Erdlamdc, vol. ix. pp. 787, 981; London Geog. Jomml, vol. viii. p. 66.) [An'rrnwrrA BUANAJ [15. B. J.]

lBl-IR. [Int-zaps]

IBE'RA, a city of Hispania Citcrior, mentioned only by Liv , who gives no explicit account of its site, further than that. it was near the lberus (Ebro), whence it took its name; but, from the connection of the narrative, we may safely infer that it was not far from the sea. At the time referred to, namely, in the Second Panic War, it was the wealthiest city in those parts. (Liv. xxiii. 28.) The manner in which Livy mentions it seems also to warrant the conclusion that it was still well known undcr Augustus. Two coins are extant, one with the cpigrnph mun. muth JULIA on the one side, and tnERCAvosm on the other; and the other with the head of Tiberius on the obverse, and on the reverse the epigraph M. 11. .1. ILERCAVOXIA; whence it appears to have been made a municipium by Julius, or by Augustus in his honour, and to have been situated in the territory of the ILERCAONES- The addition man-r. on the latter of these coins led Harduin to identify the place with Dertosa, the site of which, however, on the left bank of the river, does not agree with the probable position of Ibera. Flores supposes the allusion to be to a treaty between Ibera and Dertosa. The ships with spread sails, on both coins, indicate its maritime site, which modern geographers seek on the S. side of the delta of the Ebro, at S. Carlos de lo Rapita, near Amposta. Its decay is easily accounted for by its lying out of the great high road, amidst the malaria of the riverdelta, and in a position where its pon would be choked by the alluvial deposits of the Ebro. It seems probable that the port is now represented by the Salinas, or lagoon, called Pucrto de los Alfaqun, which signifies Port of the Jaws, i. e. of the river. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Hurduin, ad lac. ; Marca, Ilisp. ii. 8; Florez, Med. do Esp. vol. ii. p. 453; Scstini,

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