« السابقةمتابعة »
1831), the Indi and the Indus (Fragm. 174 and 178), the Argarrte (Fragm. 176), the people of Opia on the banks of the Indus (Fragm. 175), the Calaiiae, (Frugm. 177; Herod. iii. 38 ; or Cnlantiae, Herod. iii. 97). Gandara and the Gnndar'ri (F ragm. 178) and their city Caspapyrna (Fragm. 179: Caspatyrus, Herod. iii. 102, iv. 44), are mentioned, in company with other Eastern places. Further, it appears, from the testimony of Herodotus, that Scylax ot‘ Caryanda, who was sent by Dareius, navigated the Indus to Caspatyrus in Pactyice, and thence along the Erythraean sea by the Arabian gulf to the coast of Egypt (iv. 44); in the course of which voyage he must have seen something of India, of which he is said to have recorded several marvels (cf. Aristot. Polit. vii. l4; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. Tgan. iii. 14; 'I‘Zetz. Chil. vii. 144); though Klausen has shown satisfactorily, in his edition of the fragments which remain, that the Periplus usually ascribed to this Scylax is at least as late as the time of Philip of Macedon.
The notices preserved in Herodotus and the remains of Ctesirm are somewhat fuller, both having had opportunities, the one as u great traveller, the other as a resident for many years at the court of Artaxerxes, which no previous writers had had. The knowledge of Herodotus (11.0. 484—408) is, however, limited to the account of the satrapies of Dareius; the twentieth of which, he states, comprehended that part of India which was tributary to the Persians (iii. 94), the country of the most Eastern people with whom he was acquainted (iii. 95—102). To the S. of them, along the Indian Ocean, were, according to his view, the Asiatic Aethiopians (iii. 94); beyond them, desert. He adds that the Indians Were the greatest and wealthiest people known; he speaks of the Indus (on whose banks, as well as on those of the Nile, crocodiles were to be seen) as flowing through their land (iv. 44), and mentions by name Caspatyrus (a town of Pactyice), the nomadic Padai (iii. 99), and the Calatiae (iii. 83) or Calnntiae (iii. 97). He places also in the seventh satrapy the Gundarii (iii. 91) .[Gaxnsnau], a race who, under the name of Gandharas, are known as a genuine Sanscritspeaking tribe, and who may therefore be considered as connected with India, though their principal seat seems to have been on the W. side of the Indus, probably in the neighbourth of the present Cam dollar.
Ctesias (about 13.0. 400) wrote twenty-three books of Per-aim, and one of Indica, with other works on Asiatic subjects. These are all lost, except some fragments preserved by Photius. In his Per.rica he mentions some places in Bactria (Fragm. 5, ed. Biihr) and Cyrtaea, on the Erythraean sea (Fragm.40); and in his Indica Ire gives an account of the Indus, of the manners and customs of the natives of India, and of its productions, some of which bear the stamp of a too credulous mind, but are not altogether uninteresting or valueless.
‘On the advance of Alexander through Bnctriana to the banks of the Indus, a new light was thrown on the geography of India ; and the Greeks, for the first time, acquired with tolerable accuracy some knowledge of the chief features of this remarkable country. A number of writers—some of them ofiicore of Alexander's army—devoted themselves to a description of different parts of his route, or to an account of the events which took place during his progress from Babylon to the Hyplrusis; and to
the separate narratives of Beton and Diognetns, Nearchus, Onesicritus, Aristobulns, and Callisthenes, condensed and extracted by Strabo, Pliny, and Arrian, we owe most of our knowledge of India as it appeared to the ancients. None of the original works of these writers have been preserved, but the voyage of Nearchus (the most important of them, though the places in India he names are few in number) has been apparently given by Arrian (in his Indr'ca) with considerable minuteness. Nearchus seems to have kept a day-book, in which he entered the distances between each place. He notices Pattaln, on the Indus (from which he started), and Coreatis (perhaps the present Kura'chr'). Pliny, who calls this voyage that of Nearchus and Onesicritus, adds some few places, not noticed by Arrian (vi. 28. s. 26). Onesicritus himself considered the land of the Indians to be one-third of the whole inhabited world (Strab. xv. p. 691), and was the first writer who noticed Taprobane (Ceylon). (Ibid. p. 691.) Both writers appear, from Strabo, to have left interesting memorials of the manners and customs of the natives (Strab. xi. p. 517, xv. p. 726) and of the natural history of the country. (Strab. xv. pp. 693, 705, 716, 717 ; Aelian. 11m. A». xvi. 39, xvii. 6; Plin. vi. 22. s. 24, vii. 2. s. 2; Tzetz. Chil. iii. 13.) Aristobulus is so frequently qnotcd by Arrian and Strabo, that it is not improbable that he may have written a distinct work on India : he is mentioned as noticing the swelling and floods of the rivers of the Panjdb, owing to the melting of the snow and the rain (Strab. xv. p. 691), the mouths of the Indus (p. 701), the Brachmanes at Taxila (p. 714), the trees of Hyrcania and India (xi. p. 509), the rice and the mode of its tillage (xv. p. 692), and the fish of the Nile and Indus, respectively (xv. p. 707, xvii. p. 804).
Subsequently to these writers,—probably all in the earlier part of the third century 13. 0., — were some others, as Megasthenes, Dairnnchus, Patroclcs and Tirnosthenea, who contributed considerably to the increasing stock of knowledge relative to India. Of these, the most valuable additions were those acquired by Megasthenes and Daimnchus,who were respectively ambassadors from Seleucus to the Courts of Sandrocottus (Chandragupta) and his successor Allitrochades (Strab. ii. p. 70, xv. p. 702; Plin. vi. 17. 5.21), or, as it probably ought to be written, Amitrochadcs. Megnsthenes wrote a work often quoted by subsequent writers, which he called 1d 'Ivourd (Athen. iv. p. 153; Clem. Alex. Slrom. i. p. 132 ; Joseph. 0. Apion. i. 20, Antiq. x. 11. I), in which he probably embodied the results of his observations. From the fragments which remain, and which have been carefully collected by Schwanbeck (Megan/rend Indica, Bonn, 1846), it appears that he was the first to give a tolerany accurate account. of the breadth of Indira—making it about 16,000 studio. (Arrian, iii. 7, 8; Strub. i. p. 68, xv. p. 689),—to mention the Ganges by name, and to state that it was larger than the Indus (Arrian, v. 6, 10, India. 4, 13), and to give, besides this, some notice of no less than fifteen tributaries of the Indus, and nineteen ot' the Ganges. He remarked that India contained 118 nations, and so many cities that they could not. be numbered (Arrian, Indie. 7, 10); and observed (the first among the Greeks) the existence of castes among the people (Strab. xv. p. 703; Action, Ind. 11, 12; Diod. ii. 40, 41; Solin. c. 52), with some peculiarities of the Indian religious system, and of the Brachmanes (or BWL'I— nuns). (Strab. xv. pp. 711—714; Clem. Alex. Sly-ma. i. 131.) Again Daimachus, who lived for a long time at Palibothra (Strab. ii. p. 70), wrote a work upon India, which, though according to Strabo .full of fables, must also have contained much valuable information. Patrocles, whom Strabo evidently deemed a writer of veracity (Strab. ii. p. 70), as the admiral of Seleucus, sailed upon the Indian Ocean, and left an account, in which he stated his belief that India was the same breadth that Me~ gasthenes had maintained (Strab. ii. p. 69. xv. p. 689); but also that it could be circumnavigated— an erroneous view, which seems to have arisen from the idea, that the Caspian Sea and the Northern Ocean were connected. (Strab. ii. p. 74, xi. p. 518.)
With the establishment of the mathematical schools at Alexandria, commenced a new aera in Grecian geography; the first systematic arrangement of the divisions of the earth’s surface being made by Eratosthenes (B.c. 276—161), who drew a series of parallels of latitude—at unequal distances, however —-throngh a number of places remotely distant from one another. According to his plan, his most southern parallel was extended through Toprobane and the Cinnamon coast (the SE. end of the Arabian Gulf); his second parallel (at an interval of 3400 stadia) passed though the S. coast of India, the mouths of the Indus and Meroé'; his third (at an interval of 5000 stadia) passed through Palibothra and Syene; his fourth (at a similar interval) connected the Upper Ganges, Indus, and Alexandria; his fifth (at an interval of 3750 stadia) passed through Thina (the capital of the Seres), the whole chain of tho Emodns, Imaus, Paropamisus, and the island of Rhodes. (Strab. i. p. 68, ii. pp. 113—132.) At the same time he drew seven parallels of longitude (or meridians), the first of which passed through the E. coast of China, the second through the months of the Ganges, and the third through those of the Indus. His great geographical error was that the intersection of his meridians and latitudes formed right angles. (Strab. ii. pp. 79, 80, 92, 93.) The shape of the inhabited portion of the globe he compared to a Macedonian Chlamys extended. (Strab. ii. p. 118, xi. p. 519; Macrob. Somn. 501)). ii. 9.) The breadth of India between the Ganges and Indus he made to be 16,000 stadin. T aprobane, like his predecessors, he held to be 5000 stadia long.
Hipparchus (about n.c.150), the father of Greek astronomy, followed Patrocles, Daimachus, and Megastheues, in his view of the shape of India; making it, however, not so wide at the S. as Eratosthenes had made it (Strab. ii. pp. 77,81), but much wider towards the N., even to the extent of from 20,000 to 30,000 stmdia (Strab. ii. p. 68). Taprnbane he held not to be an island, but the commencement of another continent, which extended onward to the S. and W.,—following, probably, the idea which had prevailed since the time of Aristotle, that Africa and SE. India were connected on the other side of the Indian Ocean. (Mela, iii. 7. § 7; Plin. vi. 22. s. 24.) Artemidorns (about n.c. 100) states that the Ganges rises in the Montes Emodi, flows S. tle it. arrives at Gauge, and then E. by Palibothra to its months (Strab. xv. p. 719): Taprobane he considered to be about 7000 stadia long and 500 broad (Stcph. B.). The whole breadth of India, from the Ganges to the Indus, he made to be 10,000 stadia. (Plin. vi. 19. s. 22.)
T he greater part of all that was known up to his
time was finally reduced into a consistent shape by Strabo (B. c. 66—A.n. 36). His view of India was not materially different from that which had been the received opinion since Eratosthencs. He held that it was the greatest and most Eastern land in the world, and the Ganges its greatest stream (ii. p. 130, xv. pp. 690, 719); that it stretched S. as far as the parallel of Meroe, but not so for N. as Hipparchus thought (ii. pp. 71, 72, 75); that it was in shape like a lozenge, the S. and E. being the longest sides. Its greatest breadth was 16,000 stadia on the E., its least 13,000 on the W.; its greatest length on the 8., 19,000 stadia. Below the S. coast he placed Taprobane. which was, in his opinion, not less than Great Britain (ii. p. 130, xv. p. 690). Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela, who were contemporaries, added somewhat to the geographical knowledge previously acquired, by incorporating into their worlrs the results of different expeditions sent out during the earlier emperors. Thus, Pliny follows Agrippa in making India 3300 M. P. long, and 2300 M. I’. broad, though he himself snggests a diiferent and shorter distance (vi. 17. s. 21); while, after Seneca, he reckoned that it contained 118 peoples and 60 rivers. The Emodus, Imaus, Paropamisus, and Caucasus, he connected in one continued chain from E. to W., stating that S. of these great mountains, the land was, like Egypt, one vast plain (vi. 18. s. 22), comprehending many wastes and much fruitful land (vi. 20. s. 23). For a fuller notice of Tsprobane than had been given by previous writers, he was indebted to the ambassadors of the emperor Claudius, from whom he learnt that it had towards India a length of 10,000 stadia, and 500 towns,—one, the capital, Palaesimundum, of vast size. The sea between it and the continent is, he says, very shallow, and the distance from the nearest point a journey of four days (vi. 22. s. 24). The measurements of the distances round the coast of India he gives with some minuteness, and in some instances with less exaggeration than his predecessors.
With Mariuus of Tyre and Claudius Ptolemaeus, in the middle of the second century,- the classical knowledge of geography may be said to terminate. The latter, especially, has, in this branch of knowledge, exercised au influence similar to that of Aristotle in the domain of the moral and physical sciences. Both writers took a more comprehensive view of India than had been taken before, owing in some degree to the journey of a Macedonian trader named Titianus, whose travels extended along the Taurus to the capital of China (Ptol. i. 11. § 7), and to the voyage of a sailor named Alexander, who found his way across the Indian Ocean to Cattigara (Ptol. i. 14. § 1), which Ptolemy places in lat. 8° 30’ S., and between 170° and 180° E. long. Hence, his idea that the Indian Ocean was a vast central sea, with land to the S. Tapmbane he held to be four times as big as it really is (vii. 4), and the largest island in the world; and he mentions a cluster of islands to the NE. and S. (in all probability, those now known as the Maldives and Laccadives). In the most eastern part of India, beyond the G14qu Bengal, which he terms the Golden Chersoncsus, he speaks of IABADIUB and Mauroun; the first of which is probably that now known as Java, While the name of the second has been most. likely preserved in Manilla. The main divisions of India into India intro Gangem and India extra Gary/em, have been adopted by the majority of subsequent geographers, from Ptolemy. Subsequent to this date, there are few works which fall within the range of classical geography, or which have added any information of real value on the subject of India ; while most of them have borrowed from Ptolemy, whose comprehensive work was soon a texka in the hands of learned men. From Agathemerus (at the end of the second century) and Dionysius Periegctes (towards the end of the third century) some few particulars may be gleaned: -—as for instance, from the latter, the establishment of the Indo-Scythi along the banks of the Indus, in Scinde and Guzerat ,- and, from a work known by the name of Perile Maria Erylhraei (the date of which, though late, not certainly determined), some interesting notices of the shores of the Indian Ocean. Festus Avienus, whose paraphrase of Dionysius Peril-gates supplies some lacunae in other parts of his work, adds nothing of interest to his metrical account of Indian Geography.
Such may serve as a concise outline of the progress of knowledge in ancient times relative to India. Before, however, we proceed to describe the country itself under the various heads of mountains, rivers, provinces, and cities, it will be well to say a few words on the origin of the name lama, with some notice of the subdivisions which were in use among the earlier geographers, but which we have not thought it convenient in this place to perpetuate.
The names Innus, Isms, are no doubt derived from the Sanscrit appellation of the river, Sirulhu, which, in the plural form, means also the people who dwelt along its banks. The adjoining countries have adopted this name, with slight modifications: thus, Hendu is the form in the Zend or old Persian, Iluddu in the Hebrew (Esther, i. 1, viii. 9). The Greek language softened down the word by omitting the h, hence 'Ivbos, 'lvdia; though in some instances the native name was preserved almost unchanged, as in the 2000s of the I’eriplns Maris Erythraei. Pliny bears testimony to the native form, when he says, “ Indus incolis Sindus appellatus" (vi. 20. s. 23).
The great divisions of India which have been usually adopted are those of Ptolemy (vii. I. § 1), into,—(I)India intro Gangem, a vast district, which was bounded, according to that geographer, on the W. by the I’aropamisadae, Arachosia, and chrosia; on the N. by the Imans, in the direction of the Sogdiani and Sam; on the E. by the Gauges, and on the S. by a partoi' the Indian Ocean: and (2) India ezlm Ganng (Ptol. vii. 2. § I), which was bounded on the W. by the Gangs; on the N. by Scythia and Serica; on the E. by the Sinae, and by a line extended from their country to the Me'ydMs di-rur (Gulf of Siam); and on the S. by the Indian Ocean. and a line drawn from the island of Menuthias (Ptol. vii. 2. § I), whence it appears that Ptolemy considered that the Ganges flowed nearly due N. and S. We have considered that this division is too arbitrary to be adopted here; we merely state it as the one proposed by Ptolemy and long current among geographers. The later ecclesiastical writers made use of other terms, as it Judd-repel; 'lvdw, in which they included even Arabia (Socrat. H. E. i. 19; Theod. i. 23; Theoph. i. 35), and 1') 801611! ’lvfita (Sozomen, ii. 23).
The principal mountains of India (considered as a whole) were : —the eastern portion of the Paropamisns (or Hindi-Kurd), the Imaus (llaimava), and the Emodns (now known by the generic name of the Hiuuilaya.) To the extreme E. were the Montes
Scmanthini, the boundary of the land of the Since, the Montes Damassi, and the Bepyrrhus M. (probably the present Naralaa ‘11.). An extension of the M. Damassi is the Masandrus M. (now Main-Mara). In India t'utra Gangem Ptolemy mentions many mountains, the names of which can with difficulty be supplied with their modern representatives: as the Orudii LL, in the S. extremity of the land between the 'I‘yndis and the Chaberus; the Uxentus M., to the N. of them; the Adiathrus LL; the Bittigc M. (probably the range now known as the GM"), and the M. Vindius (unquestionably the preset“ Vindhya), which extend NE. and SW. along the N. bank of the .Ye-rbudlla ,- M. Sardonix (probably the present Saulpura); and M. Apocopa (perhaps the present Aravelli).
The principal promontories in India are:—in the extreme E., I’romontorinrn Magnum, the Western side of the Sinus Magnus; lilalaei Colon, on the S. coast of the golden peninsula; Promontorium Aureac Chersonesi, the southern termination of the Sinus Subaracns, on the western side of the Chemoncsus; Cory or Calligicnm, between the S. Argaricus and the S. Colchicus, near the SW. end of the peninsula ofllindostdn; Comsria (now C. Comorin), the most southern point of Hindustan ,- Calae Carias (or Callicaris), between the towns Anamagara and Muziris; Simylla (or Semylla, the southern end of the S. Barygazenus, perhaps the present C. St. John), and Maleum.
In the same direction from E. to W. are the following gulfs and bays :—- the Sinnsllagnus (now Gulf quiam); S. Perimnlicus, and Ssharicus, on the E. and W. side of the Chersonesns Anrea; S. Gangcticus (Bay of Bengal), 5. Argaricus, opposite the N. end of Taprobane (probably Polk; Bay); S. C-olchicus (Bay of Manaar); S. Barygazenus (Gulf of Cambay), and S. Canthi (most likely the Gulf of Cutch).
The rivers of India are very numerous, and many of them of great size. The most important (from E. to W.) are the Dorias (Salven ?) and Donna: (the Irrawaddy), the Chrysoana, Bcsynga, the Tocosanna (probably the present Awaken), and the Catabcda (now Curmsul); the Ganges, with many tributaries, themselves large rivers. [Saxons] Along the W. side of the Bay of Bengal are the Adarnas (Brahmini), Dosaron (Mahnnéxli), Maesolus (Gotlu'va'ri), Tyndis (Kistna), and the Chaberis or Chaberus (the Ca'veri). Along the shores of the Indian Ocean are the Nanagnna (Tarty), the Namadus (Narmadz' orNerbudda), and lastly the Indus, with its several tributarim. [INDU8.]
The towns in India known to the ancients were very numerous; yet it is remarkable that but few details have been given concerning them in tho diti'crent authors of whose works fragments still remain. Generally, these writers seem to have been content with a simple list of the names, adding, in some instances, that such a place was an important mart for commerce. The probability is. that, even so late as Ptolemy, few cities had reached sufficient importance to command the productions of an extensive surrounding country; and that, in fact, with one or two exceptions, the towns which he and others enumerate were little more than the head places of small districts, and in no sense capitals of great empires, such as Ghazna, Del/ti, and Calcutta have become in later periods of Indian history. Beginning from the extreme E. the principal states and towns mentioned in the ancientwriters are: I’erimnla
on the E. coast of the Golden Chersonesus (in the neighbourhood of filalacca); Taeola (perhaps Tami or Taroy); Triglyphon, in the district of the C_\'rrhadine, at the month of theBraJlmupuh-a (now T iperaji or Tn'pura); and Cnttigsra, the exact position of which has been much disputed among geographers, but which Lassen has placed conjecturally in Bomeo. Sorthwanl of Triglyphon are a number of small districts, about which nothing certain is known, as Chalcitis, Basnnnrae, Cucobne, Ind Aminachae, the Indraprathne, and Iberingae; and t0 the W., along the swumphmd at the foot of the Himdlaya chain, are the Tiladae, Passslnc,Cor:ncsli,und the 'l'scaraai. All the above may be considered as belonging to India extra Gangem.
Again, from the line of coast fi'om E. to W., the first people along the western mouths of the Ganges are called the Ganguridse, with their chief town Gange (in the neighbourhood of the modern Calcutta); the Culingse, with their chief towns Parthalis and Dandnguls (the latter probably Celina» panama, about halfway between Maluinadr' and Godlimri); the Maesoli and Mnesolia, occupying nearly the same range of coast as that now called the Circars, with the capital Pitynda, and Contaooesyls (Ma-rulipattana .') and Alusygns on the seacoast; W. of the Maesolus (Goddmri), the Arrarni, with the chief town Making“ (probably Mandarrig'a, the present Madras). Then follow the Soand Bati. till we come to the land of Pandion (Harbimms pipe), which extends to the southern extremity of the peninsula of Hindustdn, and was a district of great wealth and importance at the time ofthe Periplus. (Peri'pl. pp. 31, 33.) There can be no doubt that the hind of l’undion is the same as the Indian I’rinrlja, and its capital Modum the present Mathm-a. Within the same district were Argon (whence the S. Arguricus derives its name), the Carei, and the Colchi. At the SW. end of the peninsula were Cottinra (Cochin), and Comttrin, whence the promontory Comoria derivu its name. Following the western coast, we arrive at Limyricu (Peripl. pp. 30, 36), undoubtedly in the neighbourhood of Mangalore, with its chief towns Csrura (most likely Coimbatore, where a great quantity of Roman coins have been dug up during the last fifteen yurs) and 'l‘yndis (in the neighbourhood of Goa); and then Musopale, Nirrae, and Mandagura; all places on the sen-chst, or at no great distance from it. Somewhat further inland. within the district known generically at the time of the Periplus by the name of Dachiuabades (Dakhinabbdda, or Deccan), was the district of Ariaca (’Aplcxu 2116:1159, Ptol. l. 6, 82; cf. I'eripl. p. 30), with its chief town llippacum (Neude'ra or Hydrubad,“ nounsRitter has imagined,the ee&pxtllarrgabrc); Baetam, Simylla (on the coast near Bauein), Omenagern (undoubtedly the celebrated fortress Ahmed-vulgar), and ngsra (Peripl. p. l9), the prurent Deoghir. Further N., the rich commercial state of Larice appears to have extended from the Narnndus (Nurmadd or Nehbsdda) to Barygaza (Hannah) and the Gulf of Cambay. Its chief town was, in Ptolemy‘s time, Owne (Oujein or l/finyim'), a place well known to the antiquaries of India for the vast numbers of the mliest Indian coinage Iy found n its ruins: hlinnngara, the position of which is doubtful, and Barygazs, the chief emporium of the commerce of \Vestern India. North of Lsrice was Syrestrene (Saumhtran), to the west of the Gulf of Cambay; and still further to the westward, at the mouths of
the Indus, Paltalene (Lower Scr'nde, and the neighbourhood of Kura'cbr'), with its capital lettaln (Po'takn)
It is much more difficult to determine the exact site of the various tribes and nations mentioned in ancient authors as existing in the interior of the country, than it -is to ascertain the corresponding modern localities of those which occupied the seacoast. Some, however, of them can be made out with sufi‘icient certainty, by comparison of their classical names with the Sanscrit records, and in some instances with the modern native appellations. Following, then, the course of the Indus northwards, we find, at least in the times of Ptolemy and- of the Periplus, a wide-spread race of Scythian origin, occupying both banks of the river, in s district called from them, Inno-Smr-UA. The exact limits of their country cannot now be traced; but it is probable that they extended from Psttalene on the S. as far as the lower ranges of the Hindi-Kash,—in fact, that their empire swude over the whole of modern Scr'nde and the Punjth ; a view which is borne out by the extensive remains of their Topes and coinage, which are found throughout these districts, and especially to the northward, near the head waters of the three western of the Five Rivers. A great change had no doubt taken place by the successful invasion of a great horde of Scythiam towards the close of the second century B. c., as they are known to have overthrown the Greek kingdom of Bactriann, at the same time efliwing many of the names of the tribes whom Alexander had met with two centuries before, such as the Aspnsii, Assaceni, Massimi, Hippasii; with the towns of Acedera, Daedxls, Massage, and Emholima, which are preserved in Arrinn, and others of Alexander's historinns.
Further N., along the bases of the Psropsmisus, Imsus, and Emodus, in the direction from W. to E., we find mention of the Ssmpatse, the district Suastene (new Served), and Gorysea, with the towns Gory: snd Dionysopolis, or Nagara (now Nagar); and further 15., between the Susstus and the Indus, the Gandsme (one. doubtless. of the original seats of the Grmdluz'rus). Following the mountain-range to the E., we come to Cuspiris (now Caellmr'r, in earlier times known, as we have seen, to Herodotus, under the name of Caspatyrus). Southward of Cal/amis- was the territory of Verse, with its capital Trails, In place of importance so early as the time of Alexander (Arrisn, v. 8), and probably indicated now by the extensive remsins of Manilcydln (Burnes, Travels, rol. i. p. 65), if, indeed, these are not too much to the eastward. A little further 5. was the land of Pandous (Hudéou xoipa, doubtless the representative of one of the Pandavs dynasties of early Hindu history), during the time of Alexander the territory of the king Porus. Further eastward. were the state Cylindrino, with the sources of the Sulledge, Jumns, and Ganges; and the Gangani. whose territory extended into the highest range of the llima'laya.
Many small states and towns are mentioned in the historians of Alexander's campaigns along the upper Pmy'a'b, which we cannot here do more than glance at, as P ' ‘il (Plulchaldvah'), Nicnea.Bucephala, the Glaucnnitae, and the Sibae orSibi. Following next the course of the Ganges, we meet with the Dactichnc, the Nanichae, l’rasincs; and the Mandaiao, with its celebrated capital Palibothrn(beyond all doubt the present Pa'lalémlru, or Pablo), situated at the junction of the Ersnnoboss (Hiraiy'a'vaha) and the Ganges; with some smaller states, as the Surasenae. and the towns Methora and Clisobra, which were subject to the Pmsii. Southward from Palibothra, in the interior of the plain country, dwelt the Cocconagae, on the banks of the Adamas, the Sabdrae, the Salaccni, the Drillophyllitac, the Adeisathri. with their capital Sagida (probably the present Sohagpur), situated on the northern spurs of the Vindhya, at no great distance from the sources of the Sonus. Between the Sonus and the Ganges were the Belingae. In a NW. direction, beyond the Sense and the Vimlhya, we find a territory called Sandrabatis, and the Gymnosophistae, who appear to have occupied the country now called Sirhind, as far as the river Sutledge. The Caspeiraei (at least in the time of Ptolemy; see Ptol. vii. I. § 47) seem to have extended over a considerable breadth of country, as their sacred town Modura (Mdoaupa i7 ra'iv 3:80) was situated, apparently, at no great distance from the Nerbudda, though its exact position has not been identified. The difficulty of identification is much, indeed, increased by the error of reckoning which prevails throughout Ptolemy, who held that the coast of India towards the Indian Ocean was in a straight line B. and W. from Taprobaue and the Indus, thereby placing Nanaguna and the Namadus in the same parallel of latitude. On the southern spurs of the Vindhya, between the Namadus and Nanaguna, on the edge of the Deccan, were the Phyllitae and Gondsli; and to the E. of them, between the Bittigo M. and the river Chaberus (Cdveri), the nomad Sorae (25pm vopdder), with a chief town Sora, at the eastern end of M. Bittigo. To the southward of these, on the Chaberus and Solen, were several smaller tribes, the Brachlnaui Magi, the Ambastae, Bettigi or Bitti, and the Tabassi.
All the above-mentioned districts and towns of any importance are more fully described under their respective names.
The ancients appear to have known but. little of the islands which are now considered to form part of the East Indies, with the exception of Taprobane or Ceylon, of which Pliny and Ptolemy have left some considerable notices. The reason is, that it was not till a much later period of the world’s history that the Indian Archipelago was fully opened out by its commercial resources to scientific inquiry. Besides Ceylon, however, Ptolemy mentions, in its neighbourhood, a remarkable cluster of small islands, doubtless (as we have remarked before) those now known as the Laccudives and Maldives; the island of Iabadins (Java), below the Chersonesus Aurea; and the Satyrorum Insulae, on the same parallel with the S. end of this Chersonesus, which may perhaps answer to the Anamba or Natuna islands.
0f the government of India, considered as a whole, comparatively little was known to the Greek writers; indeed, with the exception of occasional names of kings, it may be asserted that they knew nothing E. of Palibothra. Nor is this strange; direct connection with the interior of the country ceased with the fill of the GraecmBactrian empire; from that period almost all the information about India which found its way to the nations of the Wmt was derived from the merchants and others, who made voyages to the different out-ports of the country. It may be worth while to state briefly here some of the principal rulers mentioned by the Greek and Roman writers; promising that, previous to the advance of Alexander, history is on these subjects
silent. Previous, indeed, to Alexander, we have nothing on which we can rely. There is no evidence that Darius himself invaded any part of India, though a portion of the NW. provinces of Bactria may hava paid him tribute, as stated by Herodotus. The expeditions ot' Dionysus and Hercules, and the wars of Sesostris and Semiramis in India, can be considered as nothing more than fables too credulously recorded by Ctesias. At the time of the invasion of Alexander the Great, there can be no doubt that there was a settled monarchy in the western part of India, and his dealings with it are very clearly to be made out. In the north of the Panja'b was the town or district Taxila (probably Mum'Jq/dla, or very near it), which was ruled by a king named Taxiles; it being a frequent Indian custom to name the king from the place he ruled over. His name in Diodorus is Mophis (xvii. 86), and in Curtius, Omphis (viii. 12), which wu probably the real one, and is itself of Indian origin. It appears that Alexander let} his country as he found it. (Strab. xv. pp. 698, 699, 716.) The name of Taxiles is not mentioned in any Indian author. The next ruler Alexander met with was Porus (probably Paurava Sanson, a change which Strabo indicatm in that of Aaptai'mr into Aape'iov), with whom Taxiles had been at war. (Arrian, v. 21.) Alexander appears to have succeeded in reconciling them, and to have increased the empire of Porus, so as to make his rule comprehend the whole country between the Hydaspes and Acesincs. (Arrian, v. 20, 21, 29.) His country is not named in any Indian writer. Shortly afterwards, Alexander received an embassy and presents from Abisaris (no doubt Abhisa'ra), whose territory, as has been shown by Prof. Wilson from the Annals of Cashmz'r, must have been in the mountains in the southern part of that province. (Axial. Ru. vol. xv. p. 116.) There had been previously a war between this ruler and the Malli, Oxydracac, and the people of the Lower Panja'b, which had ended in nothing. Alexander confirmed Abisaris in the pmsession of his own territory, made l’hilip satrap of the Mnlli and Oxydracae, and Pytho of the land between the eonfluence of the Indus and Aecsines and the sea (Arrian, vi. l5); placing, at the same time, Oxyarces over the Paropamisadae. (Arr. vi. 15.) It may be observed that, in the time of Ptolemy, the Cnshmirians appear to have held the whole of the Panjrib, so far as the Vindhya mountains, a portion of the southern country being, however, in the hands of the Malli and Cathaei.
The same state of things prevailed for some time after the death of Alexander, as appears by a decree of Perdiecas, mentioned in Diodorus (xviii. 3), and with little material change under Antipater. (Died. xviii. 39.) Indeed, the provinces remained true to the Macedonians till the commencement of the rule of the Prasii, when Sandrocottus took up arms against the Macedonian governors. (Justin. xv. 4.) The origin of this rebellion is clearly traceable. Porus was slain by Eudamus about 3.0. 317 (Diod. xix. l4); hence Sandrooottus must have been on the throne about the time that Selcucus took Babylon, 11.0.1312. The attempt, of the Indians to recover their freedom was probably aided by the fact that Porus had been slainv by a Greek. Sandrocottus, as king of the l’rasii (Sansc. Prachya) and of the nations on the Ganges, made war with Selcncus Nimtor, who penetrated far into India. Plutarch says he ruled over all India, but this is not; likely. (Plut. Ala. 62.) It appears