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habits of the people, and does not prove that the name was still in current use in his time. Scymnus Chins uses the name Oenotria in a difl‘erent sense, as distinguished from Italia, and confines it to a part only of Lucania; but this seems to be certainly opposed to the common usage, and probably arises from some misconception. (Scymn. Ch. 244, 300.)

There seems no doubt that the Oenotrians were a Pelasgic race, akin to the population of Epirus and the adjoining tract on the E. of the Adriatic. This was evidently the opinion of those Greek writers who represented Ocnotrus as one of the sons of Lycaon, the son of Pelasgus, who emigrated from Arcadia at a very early period. (Pherecydes, up. Dilmys. i. 13; Pans. viii. 3. § 5.) The statement of Pausanias, that this was the most ancient migration of which he had any knowledge, shows that the Oenotrians were considered by the Greeks as the earliest inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. But a more conclusive testimony is the incidental notice in Stephanus of Byzantium, that the Greeks in Southern Italy called the native population, whom they had reduced to a state of serfdomlike the Penestae in Thessaly and the Helots iu Laconia, by the name of l'elasgi. (Steph. Byz. a. v. Xioi.) These serfs could be no other than the Oenotrians. Other arguments for their Pelasgic origin may be deduced from the recurrence of the some names in Southern Italy and in Epirus, as the Chones and Chaones, l’andosia. and Acheron, 8w. Aristotle also notices the custom of auo'elruu, or feasting at public tables, as subsisting from a very early period among the Oenotrians as well as in Crete. (Arist. Pol. vii. 10.)

The relation of the Oenotrians to the other tribes of Italy, and their subjection by the Lucanians, a Sabellian race from the north, have been already given in the article Iraua. [15. H. B.]

OENO’TRlDES INSULAE (Olvan-plBer afloat), were two small islands ofl‘ the shore of Lucania, nearly opposite. Velia. (Strab. vi. p. 252; Piin. iii. 7. s. 13.) Their individual names. according to Pliny. were Pontia and lscia. Cluverius (Ital. p. 1260) speaks of them as still existing under their ancient names; but they are mere rocks, too small to be marked on ordinary modern maps. H. 13.]

Ol'lXUS (Oivofir; Elli. Ohwrfiv-nos), a small town in Laconia, celebrated for its wine, from which the river Oenus, a tributary of the Eurotas, appears to have derived its name. From its being de>cribed by Athenaeus as near Pitane, one of the divisions of Sparta, it was probably situated near the junction of the Oenus and the Eurotas. (Steph. B. a. v.; Athen. i. p. 31.) The river Oenus, now called Kelefina, rises in the watershed of Mt. Pamon, and, after flowing in a general south-westerly direction, falls into the Eurntas, at the distance of little more than a mile from Sparta. (Polyb. ii. 65, 66; Liv. xxxiv. 28.) The principal tributary of the Oenus was the Gorgylua (Pop'yqur, Polyh. ii. 66). probably the river of l'rukmi. (Leake, Peloponneaiaca, p. 347.)

Ohlt'USSAE (OivoiJ-vcrat, Olvoinmt). 1. A group of islands 011‘ the coast of Messenia. [V0]. 11. p. 842, b.]

2. A group of islands between Chios and the Asiatic coast. (Herod. i. 165; Thuc. viii. 24; Steph. B. I. v.) They are five in number. now called Spelmadoru or Ergoniai. l’liny (v. 31. a. 38) mentions only one island.

OEROE. [Panama]

Ol-ISCUS. 1. (01mm, Ptol. iii. 10. § 10, viii. 11. § 6). a term of the Triballi in Lower Moesia,


seated near the mouth of the river of the same name, and on the road from Viminacium to Nicomedia, 12 miles E. from Valcriana, and 14 miles W. from Utum. (ltin. Ant. p. 220.) It was the station of the Legio V. Maced. Procopiua, who calls the town 'loxdr, says that it was fortified by Justinian (do A ed. iv. 6). Usually identified Lwith Oremm'lz, though some hold it to be Glam.

2. A river of Lower Mocsia, called by Thucydides (ii. 96) "Games, and by Herodotus (iv. 49) Exios. Pliny (iii. 26. s. 29) places its source in Mount Rhodope; Thucydides (I. c.) in Mount Scornius, which adjoined Rhodope. Its true source, however, is on the W. side of Haemus, whence it pursues its course to the Danube. It is now called the laker or Ealt-er. ['1‘. H. D.]

Ol-ISTRYMNlDES. [Barraxa'rcan lasuua, Vol. I. p. 433.]

OESYME (Oicn’la-q, Thuc. iv. 107; Scyl. p. 27 (the MS. incorrectly Italian); Scymn. Ch. 655; Diod. Sic. xii. 68 (by an error of the MS. Zdan); l’tol. iii. 13. § 9; Plin. iv. l8; Armenidas, op. Allie-7t. p. 31: Eth. Oiavttoios, Stcph. B.), a Thasian colony in Pieris, which, with Galepsus, was taken by Brasidas, after the capture of Amphipolis. (Thuc. l. 0.) Its position must be sought at some point on the coast between qutér and the mouth of the Strymon. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 179; Cousinery, Voyage dans la Macedaine, vol. ii. p. 69.) [5. B. J.]

OETA (Of-m: Eth. Oiral'os), a mountain in the south of Thessaly, which branches 08' from Mt. Pindus, runs in a south-easterly direction, and forms the northern barrier of Central Greece. The only entrance into Central Greece from the north is through the narrow opening left between Mt. Oeta and the sea, celebrated as the pass of Thermopylae. [Tm-:mror-rnarc]. Mt. Oeta is now called Kunmithro, and its highest summit is 7071 feet. (Journal of Geoyr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 94.) The mountain immediately above 'l'hermopylae is called Collidromon both by Stiabo and Livy. (Strab. ix. p. 428; Liv. xxxri. 15.) The latter writer says that Callidroman is the highest summit of Mt. Data; and Stiabo agrees with him in describing the summit nearest to Thermopylae as the highest part of the range; but in this opinion they were both mistaken, Mt. Patrioliko, which lies more to the west, being considerably higher. Strnbo describes the proper Oeta as 200 studio. in length. It is celebrated in mythology as the scene of the death of Hercules, whence the Roman poets give to this hero the epithet of Octaeus. From this mountain the southern district of Thessaly was called Oetaea (OiraIa, Strab. ix. pp. 430, 432, 434 ), and its inhabitants Oetsei (OI-mien, Herod. vii. 217; Time. iii. 92; Strab. ix. p. 416). There was also a city, Oeta, said to have been founded by Amphissus, son of Apollo and Dryope (Anton. Liberal. c. 32), which Stephanus B. (a. 9.) describes as a city of the Maliana. Leake places it at the foot of Mt. Patridlilto, and conjectures that it was the same as the sacred city mentioned by Callilnachus. (Hymn. in MI. 287.) [See vol. 11. p. 255.] (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 4, seq.)

OETENSH (Oirrfvolot, Ptol. iii. 10. §9). I tribe in the eastern part of Mocsia Inferior. H. 1).]

Ol‘i'l'YLL'S (OTrqur, Horn., l‘aus., Stcph. 15.; Bcl'rvltos. B'dckh, lmcr. no. 1323; Bl-rulm, Ptol. iii. 16. §22z OIrqus—xahcirer 6' 016 'rlvuv Beirukos, Strab. viii. p. 360, corrected in accordance with the inscription), a town of Laconia on the eastern side of the Messenian gulf, represented by the modern town of F'r'tylo, which has borrowed its name from it. Pansanias says that it was 80 stadia from Thalamae and 150 from Mcssa; the latter distance is too great, but there is no doubt of the identity of Oetylus and Vifylo; and it appears that Pansanias made a mistake in the names, in the distance between Oetylus and Caeuepolis is 150 stadia. Oetylua is mentioned by Homer, and was at a later time one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns. It was still governed by its eplrors in the third century of the Christian era. Pausanias saw at Oelylus a temple of Sarapis, and a wooden statue of Apollo Carneins in the agora. Among the modern houses of Vityla there are remains of Hellenic walls, and in the church a beautiful fluted lonic column supporting a beam at one end of the aisle, and three or four Ionic capitals in the wall of the church, probably the remains of the temple of Sampis. (Hour. ll. ii. 585; Strab. viii. p.360; l’nus. iii.2l. § 7, 25. § 10, 26. § 1; Staph. B. 5.12; Ptol. l. c.; Bijckh, 1.0.; Merritt, in Walpole‘s Turkey, p. 54 ; Leakc, Mar-m, vol. i. p. 313; Boblaye, Récherches, <j'-c. p. 92; Curtius, Peloponneaal, vol. ii. p. 293.)

OEUM (OTov), a mountain fortress situated in eastern Locris, above Opus, and destroyed by an earthquake. (Strab. i. p. 60.) According to Gell its ruins are to be seen on a steep hill, 25 minutes above Livonia]. (ltin. p. 232.)

OEUM or IUM (016v, Oiov, 'Idv: Eth. Old-rm, 'ldrns), the chief town of the district Sciritis in Laconia, commanded the pass through which was the road from Tegea to Sparta. It. probably stood in the K lisrira, or narrow pass through the watershed of the mountains forming the natural boundary between Laconia and Arcadia. When the Tlreban anuy under Eparninondas first invaded Laconia in four divisions, by four difl'erent passes, the only division which encountered any resistance was the one which marched through the pass defended by Oeum. But. the Spartan Isclrolaus, who commanded a body of troops at this place, was overpowered by superior numbers; and the invading force thereupon proceeded to Sellasia, where they were joined by the other divisions of the army. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. §§ 24—26.) In Xenophon the town is called '1‘” and the inhabitants ‘Ifi-nu; but the form Oidv or 070:1 is probably more correct. Such towns or villages,

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other lands; and the only clue to its position that he gives us is that Ulysses reached it after being borne at sea for eight days and nights after he had L'st‘upctl from Clurrybdis; and that when he quilted it again he sailed for seventeen days and nights with a fair wind, having the Great Bear on his left hand (Le. in an easterly direction), until he came in sight of the land of the l’hacacians. (Ham. Odysa. i. 50, 85, v. 55, 268—280, xii. 448.) It is hardly necessary to observe that the Homeric geography in regard to all these distant lands must be considered as altogether fabulous, and that it is imprxsible to attach any value to the distances above given. We are wholly at a loss to account for the lomlities assigned by the Greeks in later days to the scenes of the Odyssey : it is certain that nothing can less accord with the data (such as they are) supplied by Homer than the identifications they adopted. Thus the island of Calypso was by many fixed on the coast of Bruttium, near the Lacinian promontory, where there is nothing but a more rock of very small size, and close to the shore. (Plin. iii. 10. s. 15; Swinburne's Travels, vol. i. p.225.) Others, again, placed the abode of the goddess in the island of Goulos (or 0020), an opinion apparently first advanced by Cullirnachus (Strab. i. p. 44, vii. p. 299), and which has at least some semblance of probability. But the identification of Plraeacia with Corcyra, though more generally adopted in antiquity, has really no more foundation than that of Ogygia with Gaulos: so that the only thing approaching to a geographical statement fails on examination. It is indeed only the natural desire to give to the creations of poetic fancy a local habitation and tangible reality, that could ever have led to the associating the scenes in the Odyssey with particular spots in Sicily and Italy; and the view of Eratosthenes, that the geography of the voyage of Ulysses was wholly the creation of the poet's fancy, is certainly the only one tenable. At the same time it cannot be denied that some of the fables there related were founded on vague rumours brought by voyages, probably Phoeniciuns, from these distant lands. Thus the account of Scylla and Charybdis, however exaggerated, was doubtless based on truth. But the very character of these marvels of the far wst, and the tales concerning them, in itself excludes the idea that there was any accurate geographical knowledge of thorn. The ancients themselves were at variance as to whether the wanderings of Ulysses took place within the limits of the Mediterranean, or were extended to the ocean beyond. (Strab. i. pp. 22—26.) Tile fact, in all probability, is that Homer had no conception of the distinction between the two. It is at least very doubtful whether he was acquainted even with the existence of Italy; and the whole expanse of the sea beyond it was undoubtedly to him a region of mystery and fable.

The various opinions put forth by ancient and modern writers concerning the Homeric geography are well reviewed byUkert(Gcoyraplrie der Grier/rm u. Rb'mer', vul. i. purl; ii. pp. 310—319); and the inferences that may really be drawn from the language of the poet himself are clearly stated by him. (lb. part i. pp. 19—31.) [R H. B]

OGYRIS ('n'yvpzr, Stmb. M'i. p. 766), :ur island. off the southern coast of Carmania about 2000 stadia, which was traditionally said to contain the tomb of king Erythras, from which the whole sea was supposed to have derived its name. It was marked by a huge mound planted with wild palms. Strabo

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and, 800 stadia beyond it, came to anchor beside .

another island callcd Ooracta; that there the tomb of Erythras was said to exist, and the fleet obtained the aid of Mazene, the chief of the island, who volunteered to accompany it, and pilot it to Susa. It seems generally admitted, that the Organa of Arrian and Ptolemy (vi. 7. §46, who, placing it along the Arabian coast, has evidently adopted the distances of Strabo) is the modern Hormuz, which bears also the name of Gerun. or Jer-un. Vincent, however, thinks that it is the modern Arek, or L'Arek. (Voy. Nearchua, i. p. 348.) The distance in Strabo is, perhaps, confounded with the distance the fleet had sailed along the coast of Carmania. Again Nearchus places the tomb of Erythras, not in Organs, but in Ooracta; and Agatharchides mentions that the land this king reigned over was very fertile, which applies to the latter, and not to the former. (Agatharch. p. 2, ed Hudson.) The same is true of what Pliny states of its size (I. 0.). Curtius. without mentioning its name, evidently alludes to Ogyris (Ormuz), which he places close to the continent (x. 2), while the Geographer of Ravenna has preserved a remembrance of all the places under the head of “ Colfo Persico," in which he places “ Ogiris, Oraclia, Durcadena, Rachoa, Orgina." Ooracta is called in Strabo (Lea) Aa’rpax'ra; in Pliny, Oracla (vi. 28. s. 98); in Ptolemy, Ooopdxfla (vi. 8. § 15). The ancient name is said to be preserved in the modern Vroct, or Broct. It also derives the name of Kl'ahmi from the quantity of grapes now found on it. Edrisi calls Jezireb-tuilelt, the long island (i. p. 364 ; cf. also “'cllsted's Travels, vol. i. p. 62). The whole of this complicated piece of geography has been fully examined by Vincent, Voy. ofNem-chus, vol. i. p. 348, &c.; Ritter, vol. xii. p. 435. [V. Ol'Sl’ORlS (Oitn'opls, Ptol. iv. 3. § 14; Opirns, I’eut. Tab.; 'Ernpos. Stadium. § 86), a town of the Greater Syrtis, which Barth ( Wanderungen. pp. 368, 378) identifies with Lima» Naim, where there is a sandy bay into which ships might send their boats, with almost all winds, for water, at three wells, situated near the beech. (Beechey, Ezpcd. to N. Coast of Africa, p. 173.) The tower, of which the Crawt-dcscriber speaks, must be the ruins at Rd; Eski, to the E. of Naim. [15. B. J.] OLBASA ("OACana). 1. A town in Cilit‘ia. Aspera. at the foot of Mount Taurus, on a tributary of the Cnlycadnus. (l’tol. v. 8. § 6.) Col. Lcake (Asia Minor, p. 320) identifies the town of Olhnsa with the Olbc mentioned by Strabo (xiv. p. 672); while in another passage (p. 117) he conjectures that Olbasa may at a later period have changed its name into Claudinpolis, with which accordineg ho is inclined to identify it. The former suppooition is


possible, but not the latter, for Strabo places Olbc in the interior of Cilicia, between the rivers Lamns and Cydnus, that is, in the mountainous districts of the Taurus. According to tradition, Olbe had been built by Ajax, the son of Tenccr; it contained a. temple of Zeus, whose priest once ruled over all Cilicia Aapera. (Strab. l. c.) In later times it was regarded as belonging to Isauria,and was the scat of a bishop. (llierocl. p. 709 ; Basil. Vii. Thcclae, ii. B.) We still possess coins of two of those priestly princes, l’olemon and Ajax. (Eckhel, Doctr. Nam. vol. iii. p. 26, &c.) It should be observed that Stephanus Byz. (s. v. 'OAGla) calls Olbasa or Olbe Olbia.

2. A town in the Lycaonian district Antiochiann, in the south-west of Cybistra. (Ptol. v. 6. § 17; Hierocl. p. 709.)

3. A town in the northern part of Pisidia, between Pednelissua and Selge. (Ptol. v. 5. § 8; Hierncl. p. 680.) [L. 5.]

OLBE. [Or.a,\s.\, No. 1.]

O'LBIA (‘aniun Strab. iv. p. 200, vii. p. 206; Scymn. 806; Ptol. iii. 5. § 28; Arrian, Per. p. 20; Anon. Per. p. 8; Mela, ii. 1. § 6; Jomand. B. Get. 5; with the aflix Sabin, Zaé'i'a, Anon. l. 0.; on coins in the Ionic form always 'OAé'r'n). Pliny (iv. 26) says that it was nncicntly called Omsror’oms, and Mru-z'roiroua: the former of these names does not occur elsewhere, and is derived probably from the ethnic name Ouuroromnr: (‘OltéroroAT-rar, Herod. iv. 18; Suid. r. v. floo'uoévrur), which appears on coins as late as the date of Caracalla and Alexander Severus. (Kohlcr. Mém. de l'Acurl. de St. Pom-ab. vol. xiv. p. 106; Blaramberg, Choir (12; Méd. Antiques d‘OIbiopalr's ou d'Olbr'a, Paris, 1822; Mionnet, Descr. (Les illéd. vol. i. p. 349.) Although the inhabitants always called their city Olbia, strangers were in the habit of calling it by the name of the chief river of Scythia, Born'srrrnsus (BopuaGév-qr, Boporrflr'vrx), and the people Boms'rnuxr'rarz (Bopuudevetnu, Herod. l. 0.; Dion Chrys. Orat. xxxvi. vol. ii. p. 74; Lucian, Tom-01'. 61 ; Mcnnnd. op. Schol. ad Dionys. Per-fey. 311; Staph. B. 3.0.; Arum. Marc. xxii. 8. § 40; Macrob. Sat. i. 10). A Grecian colony in Scythia, on the right bank of the Hypanis, 240 stadia (Anon. l. 0.; 200 stadia, Strab. p. 200; 15 M. P., Plin. l. c.) from its mouth. the ruins of which are now found at a place on the \V. bank of the Bug, called Slomogil, not far from the village Ilginsl':je. about 12 Eng. miles below Nicholuev. This important settlement, which was situated among the Scythian tribes of the Callipidaa and Alnzunes, owed its origin to the Ionic Miletua in n. o. 655. (Anon. Peripl. l. c.; Enseb. Chm.) At an early period it became a point of the highest importance for the inland trade, which, issuing from thence, was carried on in an easterly and northern direction as far as Central Asia. It was visited by Herodotus (iv. 17, 18, 53, 78), who obtained his valuable information about Scythia from the Greek traders of Olbia. From the important series of inscriptions in Biiclrh'a collection (Imor. 2058— 2096), it appears that this city, although at times dependent uprm the Scythian or Sarmatian princes, enjoyed the privileges of a free government, with institutions framed upon the Ionic model. Among its eminent names occur those ofPoseidonius (Suidas, a. 0.), a sophist and historian, and Sphanrna the atoic,a disciple of Zeno of Citium. (Plut. Cleom. 2.) There has been much controversy as to the date of the famous inscription (Bockh, No. 2058) which records the exploits of Protogenes, who, in the extreme distress of his native city, aided it both with his purse and person. This inscription, ap~ parcntly belonging to the period 3.0. 218—201, mentions the Galatians and Sciri (perhaps the same as those who are afterwards found united with the Hcruli and Rugii) as the worst enemies of Olbia, a clear proof that in the third century 3. 6. Celtic tribes had penetrated as far to the E. as the Borysthenes. Dion Chrysostom (Oral. xxxvi. p. 76), who came to ()lbia when he escaped from Domitian's edict, relates how it had been destroyed by the Getae about 150 years before the date of his arrival, or about a. c. 50, but had been restored by the old inhabitants. From the inscriptions it appears that Augustus and Tiberius conferred favours on a certain Ababus of Olbia (No. 2060), who, in gratitude, erected a portico in their honour (No. 2087), while Antoninus Pius assisted them against the Tauro-Scythians. (Jul. Capit. Anton. 9.) Tile citizens erected statues to Caracalla and Geta (No. 2091). The city was in all probability destroyed in the invasion of the Goths A. D. 250, as the name does not occur henceforth in history. For coins of Olbia, besides the works already quoted, see Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 3. (l’allas,Re1'.~xe, vol. ii. p. 507; Clarke, Tran. vol. i|. p. 351; Murawien Apostol's Reise, p. 27; Biickh, Inscr. vol. ii. pp. 86—89 ; Niebuhr, K leino Schrlfl. p. 352: Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 397; Creuzer, Heidelberg. Jfihrbuch, 1822. p. 1235; Bilhr, Excurma ad Herod. iv. 18.) B. J.]

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O'LBlA ('OAGIa: Eth. 'OAgtavds_ Olbiensis: Terrarium), one of the most considerable cities of Sardinia, situated on the E. coast of the island not far from its NE. extremity, in the innermost recess or bight of a deep bay now called the Golfo di Terramn'a. According to Pausanias it was one of the most ancient cities in the island, having been founded by the colony of Thespiadae under lolaus, the companion of Hercules, with whom were associated a body of Athenians, who founded a separate city, which they named Ogryle. (Pans. x. 17. 5; Diod. iv. 29; Solin. 1. § 61.) The name of Olbia certainly seems to indicate that the city Was of Greek origin: but, with the exception of this mythical legend. we have no accounts of its foundation. After the Roman conquest of the island it became one of the most important towns in Sardinia; and from its proximity to Italy and its opportune port, became the ordinary point of communication with the island, and the place where the Roman governors and others who visited Sardinia usually landed. (Cic. ad Q. Fr. ii. 3.§ 7, 6.§ 7.) In the First Panic War it was the scene of a naval engagement between the consul Cornelius and a Carthaginian fleet, which had taken refuge in its spacious port; but was attacked and defeated there by Cornelius, who followed up his advantage by taking the city, 13.0. 259. (Zonar. viii. 11; Flor. ii. 2. 16; Val. Max. v. 1. § 2.) In the Second Panic War (3.0. 210) its territory was ravaged by a Carthaginian

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fleet. (Liv. xxvii. 6.) Under the reign of Ho~ norius, Olbia is still mentioned by Claudian as one of the principal sea-ports of Sardinia; and the Itineraries give more than one line of road proceeding from thence towards different parts of the island. (Claudian, B. Gilli. 519; Itin. Ant. pp. 79, 80, S2.) The name is there written Ulbia: in the middle ages it came to be known as Civita, and obtained its modern appellation of Terranom from the Spaniards. .

Ptolemy distinguishes the port of Olbin (’OACurbs Andiv, iii. 3. § 4) from the city itself: he probably applies this name to the whole of the spacious bay or inlet now known as the Gulf of Termqu and the P02111011 given is that of the entrance. [15. H. 8.]

O'LBIA ('OAGt'a: Eth. ’0A€|o1ro)\i-rm. and 'OAgrowls). Stcphanus (a. v. 'OAgia) speaks of one city of this name as a Ligurian city, by which he means the Olbia on the Ligurian coast of Gallia; for the name 01bia appears to be Greek. Mela (ii. 5), who proceeds from east to west in enumerating the cities on the Mediterranean coast of Gallia. places Olbia between Forum Julii (Frq'fus) and Messilia (Marseille). The order of place is this: Forum Julii, Athenopolis, Olbis, Taurois, Citharistes, Mmiliza Strabo (iv. p. 184), who proceeds from west to east in his enumeration of the cities of this coast, mentions Massilia, Tauroent-ium, Olbia, and Antipolis, and Nicaea. He adds that the port of Augustus. which they call Forum Julii, is between Olbia and Antipolis (Antibes). The Massaliots built Olbia, with the other places on this coast, as a defence against the Salycs and the Ligures of the Alps. (Strsb. p. 180.) Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 8) places Olbia between the .promontory Citharistes (Cap Cider) and the mouth of the river Argenteus (Argents), west of F rzfjua. There is nothing that fixes the site of Olbia with precision; and we must accept D'Anville’s conjecture that Olbia was at a place now called Eoube, between Cap Combs and Bréganson. Forbiger accepts the conjecture that Olbia was at St. Tropez, which he supports by saying that Strabo places Olbia 600 Studio from Massilia; but Strabo places Forum J ulii 600 stadia from Massilia. [G.L.]

OILBIA ('OAgia). 1. A town in Bithynia, on the bay called, after it, the Sinus Olbianus (commonly Sinus Astaccnus), was in all probability only another name for Astacus [ASTACL'S]. Pliny (v. 43) is probably mistaken in saying that Olbia was the ancient name for Nicaea in Bithynia; he seems to confound Nicaen with Astacus.

2. The westernmost town on the coast of Pamphylia. (Slrab. xiv. pp. 666, foll.; Plin. v. 26.) Ptolemy (v. 5. §2), consistently with this description, places it between Phaselis and Attaleia. Stephanus B. (s. v.) blames Philo for ascribing this town to Pamphylia, since, as he asserts, it was situated in the territory of the Solymi, and its real name was Olba; but the critic is here himself at fault, confounding Olbia with the Pisidian Olhasa. St-rabo describes our Ulhia as a strong fortress. and its inhabitants colonised the Lycian town of Cydrema.

3. A town of Cilicia, mentioned only by Stephanus Byz. (1. 11.), who may possibly have been thinking of the Cilician Olbasa. or Olbe. [L. 5.]

OLBIA. [Ouna.]

OLBIA’NL'S SINUS ('Ohgwbs xdklror), only another name for the Sinus Astacenns, the town of Olbia being also called Astacns. (Scylax, p. 85; [L. 5.]

O'LCADES ('OMdfies), a people of Hispania Baetica, dwelling N. of Carthago Nova.on the upper course of the Anas, and in the E. part of the territory occupied at a later date by the Oretani. They are mentioned only in the wars of the Carthaginians with the lberians, and after that period vanish entirely from history. Hannibal during his wars in Italy transplanted a colony of them into Africa. Their chief town was Althaea. (i’olyb. iii. 14. 23, and 13. 5; Liv. xxi. 5; Steph. B. l. 0.: Suidas, a. v.) [T. H. D.]

()LCI'NIUM (OOAKlvmv, Ptol ii. 17. § 5; 01chinium, Plin. iii. 26: Elk. Olciniatae), a town of some importance in lllyricum, which surrendered to the Romans at the commencement of hostilities with Gentius, and which, in consequence, received the privilege of freedom and immunity from taxation. (Liv. xlv. 26.) Dulcig'no or Ulh'n, as it'. is still called. is identified with this town. (Hahn, Albamwfsche Stu/lien, p. 262.) [1'1 B. J.]

OLEARUS. [Ouants]

OLEASTRUM (‘0M'currpov, Ptol. ii. 4. § 14). 1. A town in Hispania Bactica, in the jurisdiction of Gadcs, with a grove of the same name near it. (Mela. iii. 1. § 4; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.)

2. A town of the Cosetani in Hispania Tarraconensis. on the road from Dertosa to Tarruco (Itin. Ant. 399). Probably the same town mentioned by Slrabo (iii. p. 159), but erroneously placed by him near Saguntum. it seems also to have given name to the lead mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. l7. s. 49). Varioust identified with Bolaguer, Miramar, and S. Lucar de Barmmeda (Marco, llisp. ii. 11. p. 142.) ['l‘. H. 1).] OLEASTRUM PROM. (’OAe'am-pov, l’tol. iv. 1. § 6), a promontory of Mauretania, between Russadir and Ahyla, called in the Antonino Itinerary, Baunam Pnoar" now Puma di Mazari, in the bight of Tildwa'n. or Telmt'n. [E. B. J.]

OLE’NACUM, a fortress in the N. of Britannia Roman, and the station of the Ala Prima Hercules (Not. Prov.) It lay close to the Picts' wall, and Camden thinks (p. 1022) that it occupied the site of Linstoc Castle in the barony of Crosby, not far from Carlislr. llorsley, however (p. 112) takes it. to be Old Carla'sle, near "fill/'0", where there are some conspicuous Roman remains. ['1‘. H. D.]

OLENUS ('flAevav), a town in Galatia, in the west of Ancyra, and belonging to the territory of the Tectosages, is mentioned only by Ptolemy (v. 4. 8). [L. 5.]

O'LENUS ('QAsvos‘: Elh. 'OM'tnos). 1. An ancient town in the S. of Aetolia, between the Achelous and the Evenus, was named after a son of Zeus or Hephaestus, and is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue. It was situated near New l'leuron. at. the foot of Mount Aracynthus; but its exact site is uncertain. It. is said to have been destroyed by the Aeolians; and there were only a few traces of it in the time of Strabo. (Strab. x. pp. 451, 460; Hom. ll. ii. 638; Apollod. i. 8. § 4; Hyg. Poe'l. Ash-on. 2. § 13; Stat. Theb. iv. 104; Steph. B. a. v.) The Roman poets use Olenius as equivalent to Aetolian: thus Tydeus of Colydon in Aetolia is called Olem'ua Tyzleus. (Stat. Theb. i. 402.)

2. A town of Achaia, and originally one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated on the coast, and on the left bank of the river Peirus, 40 stadia from Dyme, and 80 stadia from Patrae. On the revival


of the Achaean League in 13.0. 280, it appears that Olenus Wu still in existence, as Strabo says that it '

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