« السابقةمتابعة »
riots were broken. There was a similar object for frightening horses both at the Corinthian Isthmus and at Nemea, in consequence of which the difliculty of the race was increased. Beyond the Tamxippus were the terminal pillars, called vooom, round which the chariots turned. On one of them stood a brazen statue of Hippodameia about to bind the taenia on l’clops after his victory. The other side of the Hippodrome was a natural height of no great elevation. On its extremity stood the temple of Demeter Chamyne. (Pans. vi. 20. § 15—v. 21. § 1.) The course of the Hippodrome appears to have been two diuuli, or four stadia. (Apduou 6E aim. 'roi inlou pn'ixor pin oiavAoi 660, Pans. vi. 16. § 4.) Mure, indeed (vol. ii. p. 327), understands prime; in this pnsSaZB to refer to the length of the area; but Leakc (Peloponncsiaca, p. 94) maintains, with more probability, that it siunifies the length of the circuit.
22. The Theatre is mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. vii. 4. 31), but it does not occur in the description of Pausanias. A theatre existed also at the isthmus and Delphi, and would have been equally useful at Olympia for musical contests. Xenophon could hardly have been mistaken as to the existence of a theatre at Olympia, as he resided more than 20 years at Scillus, which was only three miles from the former spot. It would therefore appear that between the time of Xenophon and Pausanius the theatre had disappeared, probably in consequence of the musical contests having been discontinued.
Besides the buildings already mentioned, there was a very large number of statues in every part of the Sacred Grove, many of which vrcro made by the greatest masters of Grecian art, and of which Pausanias has given a minute description. According to the vague computation of Pliny (xxxiv. 7. s. 17) there were more than 3000 statues at Olympia. Most of these works were of brass, which accounts for their disappearance, as they were converted into objects of common utility upon the extinction of Paganism. The temples and other monuments at Olympia were, like many others in diflerent parts of Greece, used as materials for modern buildings, more especially as quarries of stone are rare in the district of Elis. The chiefs of the powerful Albanian colony at Lalo had in particular long employed the ruins of Olympia for this purpose.
The present article is confined to the topography of Olympia. An account of the games and of everything connected with their celebration is given in the Dictionary of Antiquities.
(Stanhope, Olympia, Lond. 1824; Krnusc, Olympia, 1838; Hum, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 280, serp; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 4, seq.; Curtius, l’eloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 51, seq.)
OLYMPUS ('OAuuiror). 1. One of the loflicst mountains in Greece, of which the southern side forms the boundary of Thessaly, while its northern base encloses the plains of Macedonia. Hence it is sometimes called a mountain of Macedonia. (Strab. vii. p. 329; Ptol. iii. 13. § 19), and sometimes a. mountainof Thessaly. (Herod. vii. 128; Thu. iv. 8. s. 15.) It forms the eastern extremity of the Cambunian range, and extends to the sea as far as the mouth of the Peneius, being separated by the vale of Tempe from the heights of Ossa. Xenagoras, who measured the perpendicular height of Olympus from the town of Pythium, ascertained its elevation to be ten studio and nearly one plethrum (l’lut. Anal 15); which Holland, Dodwell, Leake, and
others regard as not far from the truth, since they estimate its height to be between six and seven thousand feet. But these writers have considerably undercalculated its elevation, which is now ascettained to be 9754 feet. Herodotus relates that Mt. Olympus was seen by Xerxes from 'l'herma (vii. 128); and we know from modern travellers that in clear weather it. is visible from Mt. Athos, which is 90 miles distant. (Joum. Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 69.) All travellers, who have visited Mt. Olympus, dwell with admiration upon its imposing grandeur. One of the most striking descriptions of its appearance is given by Dr. Holland, who beheld it. from Lilo'k/wro at its base :—“ We had not before been aware of the extreme vicinity of the town to the base of Olympus; but when leaving it, and accidentally looking back, we saw through an opening in the fog; a faint outline of vast precipiccs, seeming almost to overhang the place; and so a‘érinl in their aspect, that for a few minutes we doubted whether it might not be a delusion to the eye. The fog, howevu, dispersed yet more on this side, and partial openings were made, through which, as through arches, we saw the sunbeams resting on the snowy summits of Olympus, which rose into a dark blue sky far above the belt of clouds and mist that hung upon the sides of the mountain. The transient view we had of the mountain from this point showed us a line of precipices of vast height, forming its eastern front toward the sea; and broken at intervals by deep hollows or ravines, which were richly clothed with forest trees. The oak, chestnut, beech, planetree, &c., are seen in great abundance along the base and skirts of the mountain; and towards the summit of the first ridge, large forests of pine spread themselves along the acclivities. Behind this first ridge, others rise up and recede towards the lofticr central heights of Olympus. Almost opposite the town of Litu'khora, a vast. ravine penetrates into the interior of the mountain, through the opening of which we saw, though only for a few minutes, what I conceive to be the summit,—from this point of view, with a somewhat concave ascending line on each side.” (Holland, Travels, vol. ii. p. 27.) Though the lower sides of Olympus are well wooded, the summit presents a wide extent of a bare lightcoloured rock. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p, 434.) The broad summit of Olympus is alluded to by Homer, who gives to it the epithet of pakpds more frequently than any other. Next to that, is d'ydrvupos (11. i. 420), from its being covered with snow during the greater part of the year. Hesiod (Theog. 118) also gives it. the epithet of yupdeu‘. Below the summit its rugged outline is broken into many ridges and precipices, whence Homer describes it as woAvBupds'. (11. i. 499, v. 754.) The forests, which covered the lower sides of Olympus. are fre— quently alluded to by the ancient poets. (wohdoevdpor, Eurip. Bacch. 560; Ossaefrmulosmninvolvere Olympum, Virg. Georg. 281; 01mm: Olympus, Hor. Car-m. iii. 4. 52.) The mountain is now called E'Iymbo, i. e.'EI\up.1ros-, by the surrounding inhabitants, which name Leaks observes is probably not a modern corruption, but the ancient dialectic form, for the Aeolic tribes of Greece often substituted the epsilon for the omicron, as in the instance of ’OpxoInwis, which the Boeotinns called ’prouevds. (110dwell, Tour through Greece, vol. ii. p. 105: Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 341, 407.) Olympus was believed to be the residence of Zeus and the other gods; and as its summit rose above the clouds into the calm ether, it was believed that here was an opening into the vault of heaven, closed by a thick cloud. as a door. (II. V. 751.) Diet. ofBiogr. Vol. 111. p. 2.3; Liddcll and Scott, Greek Lease. 0.]
2. A mountain in Laconia, near Sellasia. [SELLASIA.]
3. A mountain above Olympia in Elis. [OLYMPIA, p. 475, a.]
OLYMPUS ("Oman-as). 17 A mountain range of Mysia, extending eastward as far as the river Sangarius, and dividing Phrygia from Bithynia. T o distinguish it from other mountains~ of the same name, it often is called the Mysian Olympus. [ts height rises towards the west, and that part which is of the greatest height, is the highest mountain in all Asia Minor. The country around this mountain was well peopled, but its heights were thickly clad with wood, and contained many safe retreats for robbers, bands of whom, under a regular leader, often rendered the country unsafe. (Strab. xii. p. 574, comp. a. p. 470, xii. p. 571 ; Herod. i. 36, vii. 74; Ptol. v. 1. § 10; _Steph. B. e. v.; Plin. v. 40,43; Pomp. Mela, i. 19; Amm. Marc. xxvi. 9; Schol. ad Apollo's. Rkod. i. 598.) The lower regions of this great mountain are still covered with extensive forests; but the summit is rocky, devoid of vegetation, and during the greater part of the year covered with snow. The Turks generally call it Anadoli Dagh, though the western or highest parts-also bear the name of Kesth Dagh, that is, the Monk's Mountain, and the eastern Toumamlji or Domain Dog/t. The Byzantine historians mention several fortresses to defend the passes of Olympus, such as Pitheca (Nicetl Chou. p. 35; B. Cinnam. p. 21), Acmnnm, and Calogroea (B. Cinnam. l. c.; Cedren. p. 553; Anna Comn. p. 441; comp. Brown, in Walpole’s Turkey, torn, ii. pp. 109, foll. ; Pococke, Traveh, iii.
P 2. A mountain in the north of Galatia, which it separates from Bithynia. It is, properly speaking, only a continuation of the Mysian Olympus, and is remarkable in history for the defeat sustained on it by the Tolistoboii, in a battle against the Romans under Manlius. (Liv. xxxviii. 19,8tc. ; Polyb. xxii. 20, 21.) Its modern name is A la Dngh.
8. A volcanic mountain in the cast of Lycia, a little to the north-east of Corydnllu. It also bore the name of I’hoenicus, and near it was a large towa, likewise bearing the name Olympus. (Slrab. xiv. p. 666.) In another passage (xiv. p. 671) Straho speaks ol'a mountain Olympus and a stronghold of the same name in Cilicia, from which the whole of Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia could be surveyed, and which was in his time taken possession of by the lsaurian robber Zenicetns. It is, however, generally supposed that this Cilician Olympus is no other than the Lycian, and that the geographer was led into his mistake by the fact that a town of the name of Corycus existed both in Lycia and Cilicia. On the Lycian Olympus stood a temple of Hephaestus. (Comp. Skulias'm. Mar. allay. 205; Ptol. v.8. § 3.) Scylax (39) does not mention Olympus, but his Siderus is evidently no other place. (Lenke, Asia Minor, p. 189; Fellows, Lycia, pp. 212,foll.; Spratt and Forbes, Travels in Lycia, i. p. 192.) Mount Olympus now bears the name Jannr Dag/t, and the town that of Deliktash ,- in the latter place, which was first identified by Beaufort, some ancient remains still exist ; but it does not appear ever to have been a large town, as Strabo calls it. [L. S.]
OLYMPUS COAupJos, Strab. xiv. pp. 682, 683;
' Ptol. v. 14. § 5), a mountain range in the lofiy island of Cyprus. On one 01 its eininences—breastshaped (pmroeiofir)— was a temple to Aphrodite “of the heights " (impala), into which women were not permitted to enter. (Strab. l. c.) This pmbably implies that. all but the “ hierodulae” were excluded. (Comp. Claudian, Nupt. Ilon. e! illnr. 49—85; Achill. Tat. vii. 13.) According to P0cocke ( va. vol. ii. p. 212; comp. Mariti, l'i'aggi, Vol. i. p. 206), this part of the chain is now called IIng/n'o: Stavros, or Sta. Croce, from a convent dedicated to the Cross. (Engel, Kyproa, vol. i. pp. 33—37 ). [11. B. J.] OLYNTA INS. ('0A6rrax, Scyl. p. 8; Solentii, 1!. Anton.; Pent. Tab.; Solcntn, Geog. Ram), a small island off the coast of Dalmatia, which now bears the name of Solta, and is famous for its honey. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 187.) [15. B. J.] OLYNTHIACUS. [Ours-mus] OLYNTHUS ('OAwélot, Scyl. p. 26: Strab. vii. p. 330; Steph. 8.; Pump. Mela, ii. 2. §9; l’lin. iv. 17: Elli. 'OAiivOun), a town which stood at the head of the Toronaic gulf, between the peninsulas of Pallene and Sithonia, and was surrounded by a feitile plain. Originally a Bottiacan town, at. the time of the Persian invasion it had passed into the hands of the Clialeidic Greeks (Herod. vii. 122; Strub. x. p. 447), to whom, under Critobulus of Tomne, it was handed over, by the Persian Artabazus, after taking the town, and slaying all the inhabitants (Herod. viii. 127). - Afterwards Perdiccas prevailed on many of the Ohalcidian settlers to abandon the small towns on the sea~eoast, and make Olynthus, which was several stadia from the sea, their central position (Thuc. i. 58). After this period the Bottiaei seem to have been the humble dependents of the Chalcidians, with whom they are found joined on two 0ccasions (Thuc. i. 65, ii. 79). The expedition cf Bra-sides secured the independence of the Olynthians, which was distinctly recognised by treaty (Thuc. v. 19.) The town, from its maritime situation, became a. place of great. importance, 5.0. 392. Owing to the weakness of Amyntas, the Macedonian king, they were enabled to take into their alliance the smaller towns of maritime Macedonia, and gradually advanced so far as to include the larger cities in this region, including even Pellu. The military force of the Olynthian confederacy had now become so powerful from the just and generous principles upon which it was framed, including full liberty of intermarriage, of commercial dealings, and landed proprietorship, that Acanthus and Apollunia, jealous of Olynthian supremacy, and mcnaced in their independence, applied to Sparta, then in the height of its power, 3.6. 383, to solicit intervention. The Spartan Eudamidas was at once sent against Olynthus, with such force as could be got ready, to check the new power. T elentias, the brother of Agesilaus, was afterwards sent there with a force of 10,000 men, which the Spartan assembly had previously voted, and was joined by Derdas, prince of Elimeia, with 400 Macedonian horse. But the conquest of Olyuthus was no easy enterprise; its cavalry was excellent, and enabled them to keep the Spartan infantry at bay. Teleutias, at first successful, becoming over eonfident, sustained a terrible defeat under the walls of the city. But the Spartans, not disheartened, thought only of repairing their dishonour by fresh exertions. Agesipolis, their king, was placed in command, and
ordered to prosecute the war with vigour; the young
prince died of a fever, and was succeeded by Polybiades as general, who put an end to the war, 13.0. 379. The Olyntbians were reduced to such straits, that they were obliged to sue for peace, and, breaking up their own federation, enrolled themselves as sworn members of the Lucedaeinonisn confederacy under obligations of fcalty to Sparta (Ken. llell. v. 2. § 12,3. § 18; Diodor. xv.21—23; Dem. dc Fuls. Leg. 0. 75. p. 425). The subjugation of Olynthus was disastrous to Greece, by removing the strongest bulwark against Macedonian aggrandisement. Sparta was the first to crush the bright promise of the confederacy; but it was reserved for Athens to deal it the most. deadly blow, by the seizure of Pydna, Me~ thone, and Potidaea, with the region about the T hertnaie gulf, between 11.0. 368—363, at the expense of Olynthus. The Olynthians, though hutnbled, were not subdued; alarmed at Philip's conquest of Arnphipolis, 11.0. 358, they sent to negotiate with Athens, where, through the intrigues of the Maccdonians, they were repulsed. irritated at their advances being rejected, they closed with Philip, and received at his hands the district of Anthemus, as well as the important Athenian possession of Potidaea. (Dem. Philip)». ii. p. 71. s. 22). Philip was too near and dangerous a neighbour; and, by a change of policy, Olynthus concluded a peace with Athens 13.0. 352. After some time, during which there was a feeling of reciprocal mistrust between tthlynthians and Philip, war broke out in the middle of B. 0. 350. Overtures for an alliance had been previously made by Athens, with which the Olynthians felt it prudent to close. On the first recognition of Olynthus as an ally, Demosthenes delivered the earliest of his memora'nle harangues; two other ()lynthiac speeches followed. For a period of 80 years Olynthus had been the enemy of Athens, but the eloquence and statesman-like sagacity of Demosthenes induced the people to send succours to their ancient foes: and yet he was not able to persuade them to assist Olynthus with suflicient vigour. Still the fate of the city was delayed; and the Ulynthians, had they been on their guard against treachery within, might perhaps have saved themselves. The detail of the capture is unknown, but the struggling city fell, in 13.0. 347, into the hands of Philip, “ callidns emptor Olynthi" (Juv. xiv. 47), through the treachery of Lnsthenes and Euthycratea: its doom was that of one taken by storm (Dem. Philipp. iii. pp. 125-128, Fats. Leg. p. 426; Diod. xvi. 53). All that survived— men, women, and children—were sold as slaves; the town itself was destroyed. The full of Olynthus completed the conquest of the Greek cities from the 'fhessttlian frontier as far as Thrace— in all 30 Chalcidic cities. Demosthenes (Pkilipp. iii. p. 117; comp. Strab. ii. p. 121; Justin. viii. 3), speaking of them about five years afterwards. says that they were so thoroughly destroyed, that it might be any posed that they had never been inhabited. The site of Olynthua at Aio Mama's is, however, known by its distance of 60 studia front l’otidaea, as well as by some vestiges of the city still existing, and by its 1agoon,in which Attabazus slew the inhabitants. The name of this marsh was Bonvca ('i; BoAux‘h Alum, Hegisandor, op. Athen. p. 334). Two rivers, the Ant-ms ('Attt-ras) and ULYNTHIACL'S (‘OAqumxds), flowed into this lagoon from Apollonia (Athen. L c.). Mscvnsnsa was its harbour; and there was a spot near it, called CANTIIARULETIIRON (Kawapa’MeOpov, Strab. vii. p. 330; l’lut. do An. Tranq. 475. 45; Arist. Mirab. Assoc. 120; l’lin. xi. 34), so VOL- 1L
called because block beetles could not live there. Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 73) speaks of only one extant. coin of Olynthus—the “ type" a. head of Heracles, with the lion's skin; but Mr. Millingen has engraved one of those beautiful Chalcidian coins on which the “legend” OATNQ surrounds the head of Apollo on the one side, and the word XAAXIAEQN, his lyre, on the reverse. (Cousinery, Voyage, vol. ii. p. 161 ; Leake, North. Greece, vol. iii. pp. 154, 457—459; Voemel, de Olyntln' Sit“. civilule, polentia, et evern'one, Francof. ad M. 1829; \Viniewski, Comm. ad Dem. dc Cor. pp. 66, seq.) [5. B. J.]
OMANA ('Otwva, Peripl. Mar. Erythr. c. 27, 36; Marcian, Pcripl. c. 28, ed. Miller, 1855), a port of some importance on the coast of Cannaniu, which is noticed also by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32). he position was near the modem bay of Tshubar, perhaps where Mannert has suggested, at Cape Tani-a (v. 2. p. 421). Vincent places it a little to the 11. of Cape Iask. In Ptolemy, the name has been corrupted into Commana (vi. 8. § 7).
OMANA (rd “Opt-two), a deep bay on the south coast of Arabia east of Syagros, 600 stadia in dia~ meter, according to the Periplus, bounded on the east by lofty and nigged mountains (ap. Hudson, Geog. Min. tom. i. p. 18), doubtless identical with the Omnnum emporium, which Ptolemy places in long. 77° 40', lat. 19° 45', which must have belonged to the Omanitae mentioned by the same geographer (vi. 15), separated only by the Cattabani from the Montes Asaborum, doubtless the mountains mentioned in the Periplus. 1f Ros Far-lac be correctly taken as the ancient Syngros, the ancient Omana must have been far to the west of the district of Arabia now called by that name, and within the territory of Iladramaut. The modern ‘Omdn is the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula, and gives its name to the sea outside the mouth of the Persian Gulf, which washes it on the east and south. (Gosselin, Réchercltes, tom. iii. pp. 32, 33; Vincent, iii. 16; Forster, Geogr. of Arabia, vol. ii. pp. 173, 180, note 1'.) [G.W.]
OMANl or ()MANNI (Aot'rytot oi ’Ouavot' or 'Opawoi), a branch of the Lygii, in the NE. of Germany, between the Oder and the Vistula, to the S. of the Burgundiones, and to the N. of the Lygii Diduni (Ptol. ii. 11. § 18). Tucitus(Ge1-m. 43) in enumerating the tribes of the Lygii does not mention the Omani, but a tribe occurs in his list bearing the name of Manimi, which from its resemblance is generally regarded as identical with the Omani. But nothing certain can be said. [L. 8.]
OblBl ('Oagat, Ptol. iv. 5. § 73; Steph. B. a. 11.; It. Anton. p. 165; Ombos, Juv. xv. 35; Ambo, Not. Imp. scct. 20; Elk. 'Oué'l-ms; comp. Aelian, Hist. An. x. 21), was a town in the Thebaid, the capital of the Nomos Ombites, about 30 miles N. of Syenc, and situated upon the E. batik of the Nile; lat. 24° 6' N. Ombi was a gar_ rison town under every dynasty of Aegypt, Pharaonic, Macedonian, and Roman; and was celebrated for the magnificence of its temples and its hereditary feud with the people of Tentyra.
Ombi was the first city below Syene at which any remarkable remains of antiquity occur. The Nile, indeed, at this portion of its course, is ill-suited to a dense population. It runs between steep and narrow banks of sandstone, and deposits but. little of its fertilising slime upon the dreary and barren shores. There are two temples at Ombi, constructed
! of the stone obtained from the neighbouring quarries
of Halb'nr-aelaeleh. The more magnificent of the two stands upon the top of a sandy hill, and appears to have been a species of Pantheon, since, according to extant inscriptions, it was dedicated to Aroeres (Apollo) and the other deities of the Ombite nome by the soldiers quartered there. The smaller temple to the NW. was sacred to Isis. Both, indeed, are of an imposing architecture, and still retain the brilliant colours with which their builders adorned them. They are, however, of the Ptolemnic age, with the exception of a doorway of sandstone, built intoawall of brick. This was part of a temple built by Thothmes III. in honour of the crocodileheaded god Sevak. The monarch is represented on the door-jumbo, holding the measuring reed and chisel, the emblems of construction, and in the act of dedicating the temple. The Ptolemaic portions of the larger temple present an exception to an almost universal rule in Aegyptinn architecture. It has no propylon or drommi in front of it, and the portico has an uneven number of columns, in all fifteen, arranged in a triple row. Of these columns thirteen are still erect. As there are two principal entrances, the temple would seem to be two united in one, strengthening the supposition that it was the Pantheon of the Ombite nome. On a cornice above the doorway of one of the adyta is a Greek inscrip— tion, recording the erection, or perhaps the restoration of the sekos by Ptolemy Philometor and his sister-wife Cleopatra, n. 0. 180—145. The hill on which the Ombite temples stand has been considerably excavated at its base by the river, which here strongly inclines to the Arabian bank.
The crocodile was held in especial honour by the people of Ombi; and in the adjacent catacombs are occasionally found mummies of the sacred animal. Juvenal, in his 15th satire, has given a lively description of a fight, of which he was an eye-witness, between the Ombitae and the inhabitants of Tentyra, who were hunters of the crocodile. On this occasion the men of Ombi had the worst of it ; and one of their number, baring stumbled in his flight, was caught and eaten by the Tentyritcs. The satirist, however. has represented Ombi as nearer to Tcntyn. than it actually is, these towns, in fact, being nearly 100 miles from each other. The Roman coins of the Ombite nome exhibit the crocodile and the effigy of the crocodile-headed god chak.
The modern hamlet of Koum-Ombos, or the hill of Omboe, covers part of the site of the ancient Ombi. The ruins have excited the attention of many distinguished modern travellers. Descriptions of them will be found in the following works:— I’ococke, Trarels, vol. iv. p. 186; Hamilton, Aegyptiaca, p. 34 ; Champollion, [lam/pie, vol. i. p. 167; Denon. Description 110 l’IL'gyple, vol. i. ch.4. p. I, full.: Burckhardt, Nubia, 4to. p. 106; Belzoni, T ravela, vol. ii. p. 814. On the opposite side of the Nile was a suburb of Ombi, called Contra-Ombos. [\V.B.D.]
OMBBIOS INS. [Fon'ruxnan 13s.]
OMBRO'NES ('Oyewwes, Ptol. iii. 5. § 21), a people of European Sanitatia, whose seat appears to have been on the flanks of the Carpathians, about the sources of the Vistula. Schafurik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. pp. 389—391, 407) considers them to be a Celtic people, grounding his arguments mainly upon the identity of their name with that of the Celtic -— as he considers them to be—Umbrians, or the most ancient inhabitants of the Italian peninsula. Recent inquiry has thrown considerable doubt upon the derivation of the Umbriaus from a Gaulish
ii. 506), and subsequent poets. (Pind. Isthm. i. 44, iv. 32 ; Lycophr. 645.) Here an Amphictyonie council of the Boeotians used to assemble. (Strab. ix. p. 412.) Pausanias (l. 0.) says that Onchestus was 15 stadia from the mountain of the Sphinx, the modern Fogri; and its position is still more accurately defined by Stmbo (I. 0.). The latter writer, who censures Alcaeus for placing Onchestus at the foot of Mt. Helicon, says that it was in the Haliartia, on a naked hill near the T eneric plain and the Copaic lake. He further maintains that the grove of Poseidon existed only in the imagination of the poets; but. Pausanins, who visited the place, mentions the grove as still existing. The site of ()nchestus is probably marked by the Hellenic remains situated upon the low ridge which separates the two great Boeotian basins, those of lake Copais and of Thebes, and which connects Mount Fagd with the roots of Helicon. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 213, seq.; Gell, ltiner. p. 125.)
2. A river of Thessaly, flowing near Seotussa, through the battle-field of Cynoscephalae into the lake Boebeis. it was probably the river at the sources of which Dederiani stands, but which bears no modern name. (Liv. xxxiii. 6; Polyb. xviii. 3; Steph. B. a. v.; Leako, Nortth Greece, vol. iv. p. 473.) It is perhaps the same river as the 0N0ciiosus (‘Ovoxwuosy Herod. vii. 129; Plin. iv. 8. s. 15), whme waters were exhausted by the army of Xerxes. It is true that Herodotus dcsl‘ribes this river as flowing into the l’eneius; but in this he was probably mistaken, as its course must have been into the lake Boebeis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 514.)
ONEIA. [CORDZTHL‘S, Vol. I. p. 674.]
OXEUM ('Ova'iev, Ptol. ii. 16. § 4; Peat. Tab; Geog. Ram). a town of Dalmatia, which has been identified with Almissnmt the mouth of the Cetlino. (Neigebaur, Die Sud-Slave", p. 25.) B. J.]
ONl’SlA, an island near Crete, on the E. side of the promontory Itanns. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 20.)
O’NOBA AESTUA’RIA ('OvoGa Aio'roudpiu, Ptol. ii. 4. § 5), called also simply ONOBA (Strab. iii. p. 143; Mela, iii. 1. § 5). 1. A maritime town of the Turdetani in lii~panin Baetica, between the rivers Anas and Baetis. It was seated on the estuary of the river Luxia, and on the road from the mouth of the Anna to Augusta Emerita. (Ilia. Ant. p. 431.) It is commonly identified with lluelra, where there are still some Roman remains, especially of an aqueduct; the vestiges of which, however, are fast disappearing, owing to its being used as a quarry by the boorish agn'culturists of the neighbourhood. (Murray’s Handbook of Spain, p. 170.) Near it lay Herculis Insula, mentioned by Strobe (iii. p. 170), called 'Hpa'JtAcia by Steph. B. (.1. v.), now Suites. Onoba had a mint; and many coins have been found there hearing the name of the town, with a slight alteration in the spelling,— Onuba. (Flores. Med. ii. pp. 510, 649; Mionnet, i. p. 23, Suppl. p. 39; Sestini, Med. 131). p. 75, up. Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 840.)
2. Another town of Baetica, near Cordoba. (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.) In an inscription in Grutcr (p. 1040. 5) it is called Conobo. Ukert (vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 366) places it near Villa del Cnrpi'o. [T. H. D.]
()NOliALAS. [ACE-113118, No. 1.]
()XOBltlSA'l'ES, a people of Aquitania, as the name stands in the common texts of l'liny (iv. 19); who has “Onuhrisltes, Belendi, Saltus l'yrenacus."
D‘Anville (Notice, 41'.) ingeniously supposes that Onobtisates ought to be Onobusates, which is the least possible correction; and he thinks that he dis— covers the old name in the modern Nébmisnn, the name of :1 mnth on the left side of the Nesta towards the lower part of its course. The Neale is one of the branches of the Garonne, and rises in the Pyrenees. [G. L.]
ONOCHO'NUS. [ONCHESTUS, No. 2.]
ONUGNATHUS ('Ovou was“), “ the jaw of an ass,” the name of a peninsula and promontory in the south of Laconia, distant 200 stadia south of Aso. pus. It is now entirely surrounded with water, and is called Ehifom'n'; but it is in reality a peninsula. for the isthmus, by which it is connected with the mainland, is only barely covered with water. It contains a harbour, which Strabo mentions; and Pausanias saw a temple of Athena in ruins, and tho scpulchre of Cinadus, the steersmnn of hienelaus. (Plus. iii. 22. § 10, iii. 23. § 1; Strah. viii. pp. 363, 364; Curtius, Pelolxmnesos, vnl. ii. p. 295.)
OXU'PHIS ('Ovowpis, Herod. ii. 166: Steph. B. 0.0.; Ptol. iv. 5. 51 ; Plin. v. 9. s. 9: Eth. ‘Ovuuoat-rm), WM the chief town of the Names Onuphites, in the Aeqyptian Delta. The exact position of this place is disputed by geographers. D'Anville believes it to have been on the site of the modern Barmub, on the western bank of the Sebennytic arm of the Nile. Mannert (vol. x. pt. i, p. 573) places it south of the modern .ilonsour. Belicy (Mém. do I'Acod. den Inau-ipt. tom. xxviii. p. 543) identifies it with the present village of Nouph, in the centre of the Delta, a little to the E. of linto, about lat. 31° N. Champollion, however, regards the site of this nome as altogether uncertain (1‘ Egypte sous la: Pharaohs, vol. ii. p. 227). The Ouuphite nome was one of those assigned to the Calasirian division of the native Aegyptian army. Coins of Onuphis of the age of Hadrian—obverse a laureated head of that emperor, reverse a female figure, probably Isis, with extended right hand—are described in Rasche (Lee. R. Nam. III. par: posterior, 1.12). This town is mentioned by ecclesiastical writers, e. g. by Athanasins. (Athanas. Opera, tom. i. pt. ii. p. 776, ed. Paris, 1698; Le Quien, Oriens Chm}tion. tom. ii. p. 526, Paris, 1740; comp. Pococke, Travel: in the East, fol. vol. i. p. 423.) [W.B.1).]
OPHARUS, a small river of Sarmntia Asiatica, mentioned by Pliny (vi. 7. s. 7) as a tributary of the Lagous, which flowed into the Pains Maeotis. Herodotus mentions two streams, which he calls the Lycus and Oarus, which had the same course and direction (iv. 123, 124). It is likely that the rivers in Pliny and Herodotus are the same. it. is not possible now to identify them with arouraey. OPHEL. [Jr-:nrsAia-tsi, p. 20, b.] OPHlO'DES ('Ooio’ibns, Strab. xvi. p. 770; Diod. iii. 39; Agutharch, op. Hudson, Geog Grnec. Min. p. 54), or Serpent-isle, was an island in the Red Sea, in Foul Hay, nearly opposite the month of the harbour of Berenice; lat 24° N. The topazes produced in this island were greatly prim-d both in the Arabian and Aegyptian markets; and it seems from Pliny (v. 29. s. 34) to have been by some denominated Topaz-isle (Topazos). The cause of its more usual name is doubtful; but there has always been a tradition in the East that serpents and precious stones are found near one another. The island of Agathon, i. e. the good genius (’A'ydflwvoi